This information is intended for use by health professionals

 This medicinal product is subject to additional monitoring. This will allow quick identification of new safety information. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions. See section 4.8 for how to report adverse reactions.

1. Name of the medicinal product

Trazimera 150 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Trazimera 420 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Trazimera 150 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

One vial contains 150 mg of trastuzumab, a humanised IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced by mammalian (Chinese hamster ovary) cell suspension culture and purified by chromatography including specific viral inactivation and removal procedures.

Trazimera 420 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

One vial contains 420 mg of trastuzumab, a humanised IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced by mammalian (Chinese hamster ovary) cell suspension culture and purified by chromatography including specific viral inactivation and removal procedures.

The reconstituted Trazimera solution contains 21 mg/mL of trastuzumab.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion (powder for concentrate).

White lyophilised powder or cake.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Breast cancer

Metastatic breast cancer

Trazimera is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer: (MBC):

- as monotherapy for the treatment of those patients who have received at least two chemotherapy regimens for their metastatic disease. Prior chemotherapy must have included at least an anthracycline and a taxane unless patients are unsuitable for these treatments. Hormone receptor positive patients must also have failed hormonal therapy, unless patients are unsuitable for these treatments.

- in combination with paclitaxel for the treatment of those patients who have not received chemotherapy for their metastatic disease and for whom an anthracycline is not suitable.

- in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of those patients who have not received chemotherapy for their metastatic disease.

- in combination with an aromatase inhibitor for the treatment of postmenopausal patients with hormone-receptor positive MBC, not previously treated with trastuzumab.

Early breast cancer

Trazimera is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with HER2 positive early breast cancer. (EBC).

- following surgery, chemotherapy (neoadjuvant or adjuvant) and radiotherapy (if applicable) (see section 5.1).

- following adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, in combination with paclitaxel or docetaxel.

- in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin.

- in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by adjuvant Trazimera therapy, for locally advanced (including inflammatory) disease or tumours > 2 cm in diameter (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

Trazimera should only be used in patients with metastatic or early breast cancer whose tumours have either HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification as determined by an accurate and validated assay (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

Metastatic gastric cancer

Trazimera in combination with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with HER2 positive metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastro-oesophageal junction who have not received prior anti-cancer treatment for their metastatic disease.

Trazimera should only be used in patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) whose tumours have HER2 overexpression as defined by IHC2+ and a confirmatory SISH or FISH result, or by an IHC 3+ result. Accurate and validated assay methods should be used (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

4.2 Posology and method of administration

HER2 testing is mandatory prior to initiation of therapy (see sections 4.4 and 5.1). Trazimera treatment should only be initiated by a physician experienced in the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy (see section 4.4), and should be administered by a healthcare professional only.

Trazimera intravenous formulation is not intended for subcutaneous administration and should be administered via an intravenous infusion only.

In order to prevent medication errors, it is important to check the vial labels to ensure that the drug being prepared and administered is Trazimera (trastuzumab) and not Kadcyla (trastuzumab emtansine).

Posology

Metastatic breast cancer

Three-weekly schedule

The recommended initial loading dose is 8 mg/kg body weight. The recommended maintenance dose at three-weekly intervals is 6 mg/kg body weight, beginning three weeks after the loading dose.

Weekly schedule

The recommended initial loading dose is 4 mg/kg body weight. The recommended weekly maintenance dose is 2 mg/kg body weight, beginning one week after the loading dose.

Administration in combination with paclitaxel or docetaxel

In the pivotal trials (H0648g, M77001), paclitaxel or docetaxel was administered the day following the first dose of trastuzumab (for dose, see the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) for paclitaxel or docetaxel) and immediately after the subsequent doses of trastuzumab if the preceding dose of trastuzumab was well tolerated.

Administration in combination with an aromatase inhibitor

In the pivotal trial (BO16216) trastuzumab and anastrozole were administered from day 1. There were no restrictions on the relative timing of trastuzumab and anastrozole at administration (for dose, see the SmPC for anastrozole or other aromatase inhibitors).

Early breast cancer

Three-weekly and weekly schedule

As a three-weekly regimen the recommended initial loading dose of Trazimera is 8 mg/kg body weight. The recommended maintenance dose of Trazimera at three-weekly intervals is 6 mg/kg body weight, beginning three weeks after the loading dose.

As a weekly regimen (initial loading dose of 4 mg/kg followed by 2 mg/kg every week) concomitantly with paclitaxel following chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide.

See section 5.1 for chemotherapy combination dosing.

Metastatic gastric cancer

Three-weekly schedule

The recommended initial loading dose is 8 mg/kg body weight. The recommended maintenance dose at three-weekly intervals is 6 mg/kg body weight, beginning three weeks after the loading dose.

Breast cancer and gastric cancer

Duration of treatment

Patients with MBC or MGC should be treated with Trazimera until progression of disease. Patients with EBC should be treated with Trazimera for 1 year or until disease recurrence, whichever occurs first; extending treatment in EBC beyond one year is not recommended (see section 5.1).

Dose reduction

No reductions in the dose of trastuzumab were made during clinical trials. Patients may continue therapy during periods of reversible, chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but they should be monitored carefully for complications of neutropenia during this time. Refer to the SmPC for paclitaxel, docetaxel or aromatase inhibitor for information on dose reduction or delays.

If left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) percentage drops ≥10 points from baseline AND to below 50%, treatment should be suspended and a repeat LVEF assessment performed within approximately 3 weeks. If LVEF has not improved, or has declined further, or if symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF) has developed, discontinuation of Trazimera should be strongly considered, unless the benefits for the individual patient are deemed to outweigh the risks. All such patients should be referred for assessment by a cardiologist and followed up.

Missed doses

If the patient has missed a dose of Trazimera by one week or less, then the usual maintenance dose (weekly regimen: 2 mg/kg; three-weekly regimen: 6 mg/kg) should be administered as soon as possible. Do not wait until the next planned cycle. Subsequent maintenance doses should be administered 7 days or 21 days later according to the weekly or three-weekly schedules, respectively.

If the patient has missed a dose of Trazimera by more than one week, a re-loading dose of Trazimera should be administered over approximately 90 minutes (weekly regimen: 4 mg/kg; three-weekly regimen: 8 mg/kg) as soon as possible. Subsequent Trazimera maintenance doses (weekly regimen:2 mg/kg; three-weekly regimen 6 mg/kg respectively) should be administered 7 days or 21 days later according to the weekly or three-weekly schedules respectively.

Special populations

Dedicated pharmacokinetic studies in the elderly and those with renal or hepatic impairment have not been carried out. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis, age and renal impairment were not shown to affect trastuzumab disposition.

Paediatric population

There is no relevant use of Trazimera in the paediatric population.

Method of administration

Trazimera is for intravenous use. The loading dose should be administered as a 90-minute intravenous infusion. Do not administer as an intravenous push or bolus. Trazimera intravenous infusion should be administered by a health-care provider prepared to manage anaphylaxis and an emergency kit should be available. Patients should be observed for at least six hours after the start of the first infusion and for two hours after the start of the subsequent infusions for symptoms like fever and chills or other infusion-related symptoms (see sections 4.4 and 4.8). Interruption or slowing the rate of the infusion may help control such symptoms. The infusion may be resumed when symptoms abate.

If the initial loading dose was well tolerated, the subsequent doses can be administered as a 30-minute infusion.

For instructions on reconstitution of Trazimera intravenous formulation before administration, see section 6.6.

4.3 Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to trastuzumab, murine proteins, or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1

• Severe dyspnoea at rest due to complications of advanced malignancy or requiring supplementary oxygen therapy.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Traceability

In order to improve the traceability of biological medicinal products, the trade name and the batch number of the administered product should be clearly recorded.

HER2 testing must be performed in a specialised laboratory which can ensure adequate validation of the testing procedures (see section 5.1).

Currently no data from clinical trials are available on re-treatment of patients with previous exposure to trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting.

Cardiac dysfunction

General considerations

Patients treated with Trazimera are at increased risk for developing CHF (New York Heart Association [NYHA] Class II-IV) or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction. These events have been observed in patients receiving trastuzumab therapy alone or in combination with paclitaxel or docetaxel, particularly following anthracycline (doxorubicin or epirubicin) containing chemotherapy. These may be moderate to severe and have been associated with death (see section 4.8). In addition, caution should be exercised in treating patients with increased cardiac risk, e.g. hypertension, documented coronary artery disease, CHF, LVEF of <55%, older age.

All candidates for treatment with Trazimera, but especially those with prior anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC) exposure, should undergo baseline cardiac assessment including history and physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and/or multigated acquisition (MUGA) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Monitoring may help to identify patients who develop cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac assessments, as performed at baseline, should be repeated every 3 months during treatment and every 6 months following discontinuation of treatment until 24 months from the last administration of Trazimera. A careful risk-benefit assessment should be made before deciding to treat with Trazimera.

Trastuzumab may persist in the circulation for up to 7 months after stopping treatment based on population pharmacokinetic analysis of all available data (see section 5.2). Patients who receive anthracyclines after stopping trastuzumab may possibly be at increased risk of cardiac dysfunction. If possible, physicians should avoid anthracycline-based therapy for up to 7 months after stopping trastuzumab. If anthracyclines are used, the patient's cardiac function should be monitored carefully.

Formal cardiological assessment should be considered in patients in whom there are cardiovascular concerns following baseline screening. In all patients cardiac function should be monitored during treatment (e.g. every 12 weeks). Monitoring may help to identify patients who develop cardiac dysfunction. Patients who develop asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction may benefit from more frequent monitoring (e.g., every 6 - 8 weeks). If patients have a continued decrease in left ventricular function, but remain asymptomatic, the physician should consider discontinuing therapy if no clinical benefit of trastuzumab therapy has been seen.

The safety of continuation or resumption of trastuzumab in patients who experience cardiac dysfunction has not been prospectively studied. If LVEF percentage drops ≥10 points from baseline AND to below 50%, treatment should be suspended and a repeat LVEF assessment performed within approximately 3 weeks. If LVEF has not improved, or declined further, or symptomatic CHF has developed, discontinuation of trastuzumab should be strongly considered, unless the benefits for the individual patient are deemed to outweigh the risks. All such patients should be referred for assessment by a cardiologist and followed up.

If symptomatic cardiac failure develops during Trazimera therapy, it should be treated with standard medicinal products for CHF. Most patients who developed CHF or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction in pivotal trials improved with standard CHF treatment consisting of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and a beta-blocker. The majority of patients with cardiac symptoms and evidence of a clinical benefit of trastuzumab treatment continued on therapy without additional clinical cardiac events.

Metastatic breast cancer

Trazimera and anthracyclines should not be given concurrently in combination in the MBC setting.

Patients with MBC who have previously received anthracyclines are also at risk of cardiac dysfunction with Trazimera treatment, although the risk is lower than with concurrent use of Trazimera and anthracyclines.

Early breast cancer

For patients with EBC, cardiac assessments, as performed at baseline, should be repeated every 3 months during treatment and every 6 months following discontinuation of treatment until 24 months from the last administration of Trazimera. In patients who receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy further monitoring is recommended, and should occur yearly up to 5 years from the last administration of Trazimera, or longer if a continuous decrease of LVEF is observed.

Patients with history of myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris requiring medical treatment, history of or existing CHF (NYHA Class II–IV), LVEF of < 55%, other cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmia requiring medical treatment, clinically significant cardiac valvular disease, poorly controlled hypertension (hypertension controlled by standard medical treatment eligible), and hemodynamic effective pericardial effusion were excluded from adjuvant and neoadjuvant EBC pivotal trials with trastuzumab and therefore treatment cannot be recommended in such patients.

Adjuvant treatment

Trazimera and anthracyclines should not be given concurrently in combination in the adjuvant treatment setting.

In patients with EBC an increase in the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic cardiac events was observed when trastuzumab was administered after anthracycline-containing chemotherapy compared to administration with a non-anthracycline regimen of docetaxel and carboplatin and was more marked when trastuzumab was administered concurrently with taxanes than when administered sequentially to taxanes. Regardless of the regimen used, most symptomatic cardiac events occurred within the first 18 months. In one of the 3 pivotal studies conducted in which a median follow-up of 5.5 years was available (BCIRG006) a continuous increase in the cumulative rate of symptomatic cardiac or LVEF events was observed in patients who were administered trastuzumab concurrently with a taxane following anthracycline therapy up to 2.37% compared to approximately 1% in the two comparator arms (anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide followed by taxane and taxane, carboplatin and trastuzumab).

Risk factors for a cardiac event identified in four large adjuvant studies included advanced age (>50 years), low LVEF (<55%) at baseline, prior to or following the initiation of paclitaxel treatment, decline in LVEF by 10-15 points, and prior or concurrent use of anti-hypertensive medicinal products. In patients receiving trastuzumab after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, the risk of cardiac dysfunction was associated with a higher cumulative dose of anthracycline given prior to initiation of trastuzumab and a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2.

Neoadjuvant-adjuvant treatment

In patients with EBC eligible for neoadjuvant-adjuvant treatment, Trazimera should be used concurrently with anthracyclines only in chemotherapy-naive patients and only with low-dose anthracycline regimens i.e. maximum cumulative doses of doxorubicin 180 mg/m2 or epirubicin 360 mg/m2.

If patients have been treated concurrently with a full course of low-dose anthracyclines and Trazimera in the neoadjuvant setting, no additional cytotoxic chemotherapy should be given after surgery. In other situations, the decision on the need for additional cytotoxic chemotherapy is determined based on individual factors.

Experience of concurrent administration of trastuzumab with low dose anthracycline regimens is currently limited to two trials (MO16432 and BO22227).

In the pivotal trial MO16432, trastuzumab was administered concurrently with neoadjuvant chemotherapy containing three cycles of doxorubicin (cumulative dose 180 mg/m2).

The incidence of symptomatic cardiac dysfunction was 1.7% in the trastuzumab arm.

In the pivotal trial BO22227, trastuzumab was administered concurrently with neoadjuvant chemotherapy that contained four cycles of epirubicin (cumulative dose 300 mg/m2); at a median follow-up exceeding 70 months, the incidence of cardiac failure/congestive cardiac failure was 0.3% in the trastuzumab intravenous arm.

Clinical experience is limited in patients above 65 years of age.

Infusion-related reactions (IRRs) and hypersensitivity

Serious IRRs to trastuzumab infusion including dyspnoea, hypotension, wheezing, hypertension, bronchospasm, supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, reduced oxygen saturation, anaphylaxis, respiratory distress, urticaria and angioedema have been reported (see section 4.8). Pre-medication may be used to reduce risk of occurrence of these events. The majority of these events occur during or within 2.5 hours of the start of the first infusion. Should an infusion reaction occur the infusion should be discontinued or the rate of infusion slowed and the patient should be monitored until resolution of all observed symptoms (see section 4.2). These symptoms can be treated with an analgesic/antipyretic such as meperidine or paracetamol, or an antihistamine such as diphenhydramine. The majority of patients experienced resolution of symptoms and subsequently received further infusions of trastuzumab. Serious reactions have been treated successfully with supportive therapy such as oxygen, beta- agonists, and corticosteroids. In rare cases, these reactions are associated with a clinical course culminating in a fatal outcome. Patients experiencing dyspnoea at rest due to complications of advanced malignancy and comorbidities may be at increased risk of a fatal infusion reaction. Therefore, these patients should not be treated with trastuzumab (see section 4.3).

Initial improvement followed by clinical deterioration and delayed reactions with rapid clinical deterioration have also been reported. Fatalities have occurred within hours and up to one week following infusion. On very rare occasions, patients have experienced the onset of infusion symptoms and pulmonary symptoms more than six hours after the start of the trastuzumab infusion. Patients should be warned of the possibility of such a late onset and should be instructed to contact their physician if these symptoms occur.

Pulmonary events

Severe pulmonary events have been reported with the use of trastuzumab in the post-marketing setting (see section 4.8). These events have occasionally been fatal. In addition, cases of interstitial lung disease including lung infiltrates, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, respiratory distress, acute pulmonary oedema and respiratory insufficiency have been reported. Risk factors associated with interstitial lung disease include prior or concomitant therapy with other anti-neoplastic therapies known to be associated with it such as taxanes, gemcitabine, vinorelbine and radiation therapy. These events may occur as part of an infusion-related reaction or with a delayed onset. Patients experiencing dyspnoea at rest due to complications of advanced malignancy and comorbidities may be at increased risk of pulmonary events. Therefore, these patients should not be treated with trastuzumab (see section 4.3). Caution should be exercised for pneumonitis, especially in patients being treated concomitantly with taxanes.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No formal drug interaction studies have been performed. Clinically significant interactions between trastuzumab and the concomitant medicinal products used in clinical trials have not been observed.

Effect of trastuzumab on the pharmacokinetics of other antineoplastic agents

Pharmacokinetic data from studies BO15935 and M77004 in women with HER2-positive MBC suggested that exposure to paclitaxel and doxorubicin (and their major metabolites 6-α hydroxyl- paclitaxel, POH, and doxorubicinol, DOL) was not altered in the presence of trastuzumab (8 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg intravenous loading dose followed by 6 mg/kg q3w or 2 mg/kg q1w intravenous dose, respectively). However, trastuzumab may elevate the overall exposure of one doxorubicin metabolite, (7-deoxy-13 dihydro-doxorubicinone, D7D). The bioactivity of D7D and the clinical impact of the elevation of this metabolite was unclear.

Data from study JP16003, a single-arm study of trastuzumab (4 mg/kg intravenous loading dose and 2 mg/kg intravenous dose weekly) and docetaxel (60 mg/m2 intravenous dose) in Japanese women with HER2- positive MBC, suggested that concomitant administration of trastuzumab had no effect on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Study JP19959 was a substudy of BO18255 (ToGA) performed in male and female Japanese patients with advanced gastric cancer to study the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine and cisplatin when used with or without trastuzumab. The results of this substudy suggested that the exposure to the bioactive metabolites (e.g., 5-FU) of capecitabine was not affected by concurrent use of cisplatin or by concurrent use of cisplatin plus trastuzumab. However, capecitabine itself showed higher concentrations and a longer half-life when combined with trastuzumab. The data also suggested that the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin were not affected by concurrent use of capecitabine or by concurrent use of capecitabine plus trastuzumab.

Pharmacokinetic data from Study H4613g/GO01305 in patients with metastatic or locally advanced inoperable HER2-positive cancer suggested that trastuzumab had no impact on the PK of carboplatin.

Effect of antineoplastic agents on trastuzumab pharmacokinetics

By comparison of simulated serum trastuzumab concentrations after trastuzumab monotherapy (4 mg/kg loading/2 mg/kg q1w intravenous) and observed serum concentrations in Japanese women with HER2- positive MBC (study JP16003) no evidence of a PK effect of concurrent administration of docetaxel on the pharmacokinetics of trastuzumab was found.

Comparison of PK results from two Phase II studies (BO15935 and M77004) and one Phase III study (H0648g) in which patients were treated concomitantly with trastuzumab and paclitaxel and two Phase II studies in which trastuzumab was administered as monotherapy (W016229 and MO16982), in women with HER2-positive MBC indicates that individual and mean trastuzumab trough serum concentrations varied within and across studies but there was no clear effect of the concomitant administration of paclitaxel on the pharmacokinetics of trastuzumab. Comparison of trastuzumab PK data from Study M77004 in which women with HER2-positive MBC were treated concomitantly with trastuzumab, paclitaxel and doxorubicin to trastuzumab PK data in studies where trastuzumab was administered as monotherapy (H0649g) or in combination with anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel (Study H0648g), suggested no effect of doxorubicin and paclitaxel on the pharmacokinetics of trastuzumab.

Pharmacokinetic data from Study H4613g/GO01305 suggested that carboplatin had no impact on the PK of trastuzumab.

The administration of concomitant anastrozole did not appear to influence the pharmacokinetics of trastuzumab.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Women of childbearing potential

Women of childbearing potential should be advised to use effective contraception during treatment with Trazimera and for 7 months after treatment has concluded (see section 5.2).

Pregnancy

Reproduction studies have been conducted in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses up to 25 times that of the weekly human maintenance dose of 2 mg/kg trastuzumab intravenous formulation and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the foetus. Placental transfer of trastuzumab during the early (days 20–50 of gestation) and late (days 120–150 of gestation) foetal development period was observed. It is not known whether trastuzumab can affect reproductive capacity. As animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, trastuzumab should be avoided during pregnancy unless the potential benefit for the mother outweighs the potential risk to the foetus.

In the post-marketing setting, cases of foetal renal growth and/or function impairment in association with oligohydramnios, some associated with fatal pulmonary hypoplasia of the foetus, have been reported in pregnant women receiving trastuzumab. Women who become pregnant should be advised of the possibility of harm to the foetus. If a pregnant woman is treated with trastuzumab, or if a patient becomes pregnant while receiving trastuzumab or within 7 months following the last dose of trastuzumab, close monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is desirable.

Breast-feeding

A study conducted in lactating Cynomolgus monkeys at doses 25 times that of the weekly human maintenance dose of 2 mg/kg trastuzumab intravenous formulation demonstrated that trastuzumab is secreted in the milk. The presence of trastuzumab in the serum of infant monkeys was not associated with any adverse effects on their growth or development from birth to 1 month of age. It is not known whether trastuzumab is secreted in human milk. As human IgG1 is secreted into human milk, and the potential for harm to the infant is unknown, women should not breast-feed during Trazimera therapy and for 7 months after the last dose.

Fertility

There is no fertility data available.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Trazimera may have a minor influence on the ability to drive or use machines (see section 4.8). Patients experiencing infusion-related symptoms (see section 4.4) should be advised not to drive and use machines until symptoms abate.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

Amongst the most serious and/or common adverse reactions reported in trastuzumab usage (intravenous and subcutaneous formulations) to date are cardiac dysfunction, infusion-related reactions, haematotoxicity (in particular neutropenia), infections and pulmonary adverse reactions.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

In this section, the following categories of frequency have been used: very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Presented in Table 1 are adverse reactions that have been reported in association with the use of intravenous trastuzumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy in pivotal clinical trials and in the post-marketing setting.

All the terms included are based on the highest percentage seen in pivotal clinical trials.

Table 1 Undesirable Effects Reported with Intravenous trastuzumab Monotherapy or in Combination with Chemotherapy in Pivotal Clinical Trials (N=8386) and in Post-Marketing

System organ class

Adverse reaction

Frequency

Infections and infestations

Infection

Very common

Nasopharyngitis

Very common

Neutropenic sepsis

Common

Cystitis

Common

Herpes zoster

Common

Influenza

Common

Sinusitis

Common

Skin infection

Common

Rhinitis

Common

Upper respiratory tract infection

Common

Urinary tract infection

Common

Erysipelas

Common

Cellulitis

Common

Pharyngitis

Common

Sepsis

Uncommon

Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl. Cysts and polyps)

Malignant neoplasm progression

Not known

Neoplasm progression

Not known

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Febrile neutropenia

Very common

Anaemia

Very common

Neutropenia

Very common

White blood cell count decreased/leukopenia

Very common

Thrombocytopenia

Very common

Hypoprothrombinaemia

Not known

Immune thrombocytopenia

Not known

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity

Common

+Anaphylactic reaction

Not known

+Anaphylactic shock

Not known

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Weight decreased/Weight loss

Very common

Anorexia

Very common

Hyperkalaemia

Not known

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia

Very common

Anxiety

Common

Depression

Common

Thinking abnormal

Common

Nervous system disorders

1Tremor

Very common

Dizziness

Very common

Headache

Very common

Paraesthesia

Very common

Dysgeusia

Very common

Peripheral neuropathy

Common

Hypertonia

Common

Somnolence

Common

Ataxia

Common

Paresis

Rare

Brain oedema

Not known

Eye disorders

Conjunctivitis

Very common

Lacrimation increased

Very common

Dry eye

Common

Papilloedema

Not known

Retinal haemorrhage

Not known

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Deafness

Uncommon

Cardiac disorders

1Blood pressure decreased

Very common

1Blood pressure increased

Very common

1Heart beat irregular

Very common

1Palpitation

Very common

1Cardiac flutter

Very common

Ejection fraction decreased*

Very common

+Cardiac failure (congestive)

Common

+1Supraventricular tachyarrhythmia

Common

Cardiomyopathy

Common

Pericardial effusion

Uncommon

Cardiogenic shock

Not known

Pericarditis

Not known

Bradycardia

Not known

Gallop rhythm present

Not known

Vascular disorders

Hot flush

Very common

+1Hypotension

Common

Vasodilatation

Common

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

+1Wheezing

Very common

+Dyspnoea

Very common

Cough

Very common

Epistaxis

Very common

Rhinorrhoea

Very common

+Pneumonia

Common

Asthma

Common

Lung disorder

Common

+Pleural effusion

Common

Pneumonitis

Rare

+Pulmonary fibrosis

Not known

+Respiratory distress

Not known

+Respiratory failure

Not known

+Lung infiltration

Not known

+Acute pulmonary oedema

Not known

+Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Not known

+Bronchospasm

Not known

+Hypoxia

Not known

+Oxygen saturation decreased

Not known

Laryngeal oedema

Not known

Orthopnoea

Not known

Pulmonary oedema

Not known

Interstitial lung disease

Not known

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea

Very common

Vomiting

Very common

Nausea

Very common

1Lip swelling

Very common

Abdominal pain

Very common

Dyspepsia

Very common

Constipation

Very common

Stomatitis

Very common

Haemorrhoids

Common

Dry mouth

Common

Hepatobiliary disorders

Hepatocellular injury

Common

Hepatitis

Common

Liver tenderness

Common

Jaundice

Rare

Hepatic failure

Not known

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Erythema

Very common

Rash

Very common

1Swelling face

Very common

Alopecia

Very common

Nail disorder

Very common

Palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia syndrome

Very common

Acne

Common

Dry skin

Common

Ecchymosis

Common

Hyperhydrosis

Common

Maculopapular rash

Common

Pruritus

Common

Onychoclasis

Common

Dermatitis

Common

Urticaria

Uncommon

Angioedema

Not known

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Arthralgia

Very common

1Muscle tightness

Very common

Myalgia

Very common

Arthritis

Common

Back pain

Common

Bone pain

Common

Muscle spasms

Common

Neck Pain

Common

Pain in extremity

Common

Renal and urinary disorders

Renal disorder

Common

Glomerulonephritis membranous

Not known

Glomerulonephropathy

Not known

Renal failure

Not known

Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions

Oligohydramnios

Not known

Renal hypoplasia

Not known

Pulmonary hypoplasia

Not known

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Breast inflammation/mastitis

Common

General disorders and administration site conditions

Asthenia

Very common

Chest pain

Very common

Chills

Very common

Fatigue

Very common

Influenza-like symptoms

Very common

Infusion related reaction

Very common

Pain

Very common

Pyrexia

Very common

Mucosal inflammation

Very common

Peripheral oedema

Very common

Malaise

Common

Oedema

Common

Injury, poisoning and procedural complications

Contusion

Common

+ Denotes adverse reactions that have been reported in association with a fatal outcome.

1 Denotes adverse reactions that are reported largely in association with Infusion-related reactions. Specific percentages for these are not available.

* Observed with combination therapy following anthracyclines and combined with taxanes

Description of selected adverse reactions

Cardiac dysfunction

Congestive heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) is a common adverse reaction associated with the use of trastuzumab and has been associated with a fatal outcome (see section 4.4). Signs and symptoms of cardiac dysfunction such as dyspnoea, orthopnoea, increased cough, pulmonary oedema, S3 gallop, or reduced ventricular ejection fraction, have been observed in patients treated with trastuzumab (see section 4.4).

In 3 pivotal clinical trials of adjuvant trastuzumab given in combination with chemotherapy, the incidence of grade 3/4 cardiac dysfunction (specifically symptomatic Congestive Heart Failure) was similar in patients who were administered chemotherapy alone (i.e., did not receive trastuzumab) and in patients who were administered trastuzumab sequentially after a taxane (0.3-0.4%). The rate was highest in patients who were administered trastuzumab concurrently with a taxane (2.0%). In the neoadjuvant setting, the experience of concurrent administration of trastuzumab and low dose anthracycline regimen is limited (see section 4.4).

When trastuzumab was administered after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy NYHA Class III-IV heart failure was observed in 0.6% of patients in the one-year arm after a median follow-up of 12 months. In study BO16348, after a median follow-up of 8 years the incidence of severe CHF (NYHA Class III & IV) in the trastuzumab 1 year treatment arm was 0.8%, and the rate of mild symptomatic and asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction was 4.6%.

Reversibility of severe CHF (defined as a sequence of at least two consecutive LVEF values ≥50% after the event) was evident for 71.4% of trastuzumab-treated patients. Reversibility of mild symptomatic and asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction was demonstrated for 79.5% of patients. Approximately 17% of cardiac dysfunction related events occurred after completion of trastuzumab.

In the pivotal metastatic trials of intravenous trastuzumab, the incidence of cardiac dysfunction varied between 9% and 12% when it was combined with paclitaxel compared with 1% – 4% for paclitaxel alone. For monotherapy, the rate was 6% – 9%. The highest rate of cardiac dysfunction was seen in patients receiving trastuzumab concurrently with anthracycline/cyclophosphamide (27%), and was significantly higher than for anthracycline/cyclophosphamide alone (7% – 10%). In a subsequent trial with prospective monitoring of cardiac function, the incidence of symptomatic CHF was 2.2% in patients receiving trastuzumab and docetaxel, compared with 0% in patients receiving docetaxel alone. Most of the patients (79%) who developed cardiac dysfunction in these trials experienced an improvement after receiving standard treatment for CHF.

Infusion reactions, allergic-like reactions and hypersensitivity

It is estimated that approximately 40% of patients who are treated with trastuzumab will experience some form of infusion-related reaction. However, the majority of infusion-related reactions are mild to moderate in intensity (NCI-CTC grading system) and tend to occur earlier in treatment, i.e. during infusions one, two and three and lessen in frequency in subsequent infusions. Reactions include chills, fever, dyspnoea, hypotension, wheezing, bronchospasm, tachycardia, reduced oxygen saturation, respiratory distress, rash, nausea, vomiting and headache (see section 4.4). The rate of infusion-related reactions of all grades varied between studies depending on the indication, the data collection methodology, and whether trastuzumab was given concurrently with chemotherapy or as monotherapy.

Severe anaphylactic reactions requiring immediate additional intervention can occur usually during either the first or second infusion of trastuzumab(see section 4.4) and have been associated with a fatal outcome.

Anaphylactoid reactions have been observed in isolated cases.

Haematotoxicity

Febrile neutropenia, leukopenia, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia occurred very commonly. The frequency of occurrence of hypoprothrombinaemia is not known. The risk of neutropenia may be slightly increased when trastuzumab is administered with docetaxel following anthracycline therapy.

Pulmonary events

Severe pulmonary adverse reactions occur in association with the use of trastuzumab and have been associated with a fatal outcome. These include, but are not limited to, pulmonary infiltrates, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, respiratory distress, acute pulmonary oedema and respiratory insufficiency (see section 4.4).

Details of risk minimisation measures that are consistent with the EU Risk Management Plan are presented in (section 4.4) Warnings and Precautions.

Immunogenicity

In the neoadjuvant-adjuvant EBC study (BO22227), at a median follow-up exceeding 70 months, 10.1% (30/296) of patients treated with trastuzumab intravenous developed antibodies against trastuzumab. Neutralizing anti-trastuzumab antibodies were detected in post-baseline samples in 2 of 30 patients in the trastuzumab intravenous arm.

The clinical relevance of these antibodies is not known. The presence of anti-trastuzumab antibodies had no impact on the pharmacokinetics, efficacy (determined by pathological Complete Response [pCR] and event free survival [EFS]) and safety determined by occurrence of administration related reactions (ARRs) of trastuzumab intravenous.

There are no immunogenicity data available for trastuzumab in gastric cancer.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important.

It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.

United Kingdom

Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store

Ireland

Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2, Tel: +353 1 6764971, Fax: +353 1 6762517, Website: www.hpra.ie; E-mail: [email protected]

4.9 Overdose

There is no experience with overdose in human clinical trials. Single doses of trastuzumab alone greater than 10 mg/kg have not been administered in the clinical trials; a maintenance dose of 10 mg/kg q3w following a loading dose of 8 mg/kg has been studied in a clinical trial with metastatic gastric cancer patients. Doses up to this level were well tolerated.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antineoplastic agents, monoclonal antibodies, ATC code: L01XC03

Trazimera is a biosimilar medicinal product. Detailed information is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanised IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Overexpression of HER2 is observed in 20%-30% of primary breast cancers. Studies of HER2-positivity rates in gastric cancer (GC) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) have shown that there is a broad variation of HER2-positivity ranging from 6.8% to 34.0% for IHC and 7.1% to 42.6% for FISH. Studies indicate that breast cancer patients whose tumours overexpress HER2 have a shortened disease-free survival compared to patients whose tumours do not overexpress HER2. The extracellular domain of the receptor (ECD, p105) can be shed into the blood stream and measured in serum samples.

Mechanism of action

Trastuzumab binds with high affinity and specificity to sub-domain IV, a juxta-membrane region of HER2's extracellular domain. Binding of trastuzumab to HER2 inhibits ligand-independent HER2 signalling and prevents the proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular domain, an activation mechanism of HER2. As a result, trastuzumab has been shown, in both in vitro assays and in animals, to inhibit the proliferation of human tumour cells that overexpress HER2. Additionally, trastuzumab is a potent mediator of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). In vitro, trastuzumab-mediated ADCC has been shown to be preferentially exerted on HER2 overexpressing cancer cells compared with cancer cells that do not overexpress HER2.

Detection of HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification

Detection of HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification in breast cancer

Trastuzumab should only be used in patients whose tumours have HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification as determined by an accurate and validated assay. HER2 overexpression should be detected using an immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based assessment of fixed tumour blocks (see section 4.4). HER2 gene amplification should be detected using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) or chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) of fixed tumour blocks. Patients are eligible for Trazimera treatment if they show strong HER2 overexpression as described by a 3+ score by IHC or a positive FISH or CISH result.

To ensure accurate and reproducible results, the testing must be performed in a specialised laboratory, which can ensure validation of the testing procedures.

The recommended scoring system to evaluate the IHC staining patterns is as stated in Table 2:

Table 2 Recommended Scoring System to Evaluate the IHC Staining Patterns in Breast Cancer

Score

Staining pattern

HER2 overexpression assessment

0

No staining is observed or membrane staining is observed in <10% of the tumour cells

Negative

1+

A faint/barely perceptible membrane staining is detected in >10% of the tumour cells. The cells are only stained in part of their membrane.

Negative

2+

A weak to moderate complete membrane staining is detected in >10% of the tumour cells.

Equivocal

3+

Strong complete membrane staining is detected in >10% of the tumour cells.

Positive

In general, FISH is considered positive if the ratio of the HER2 gene copy number per tumour cell to the chromosome 17 copy number is greater than or equal to 2, or if there are more than 4 copies of the HER2 gene per tumour cell if no chromosome 17 control is used.

In general, CISH is considered positive if there are more than 5 copies of the HER2 gene per nucleus in greater than 50% of tumour cells.

For full instructions on assay performance and interpretation please refer to the package inserts of validated FISH and CISH assays. Official recommendations on HER2 testing may also apply.

For any other method that may be used for the assessment of HER2 protein or gene expression, the analyses should only be performed by laboratories that provide adequate state-of-the-art performance of validated methods. Such methods must clearly be precise and accurate enough to demonstrate overexpression of HER2 and must be able to distinguish between moderate (congruent with 2+) and strong (congruent with 3+) overexpression of HER2.

Detection of HER2 over expression or HER2 gene amplification in gastric cancer

Only an accurate and validated assay should be used to detect HER2 over expression or HER2 gene amplification. IHC is recommended as the first testing modality and in cases where HER2 gene amplification status is also required, either a silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) or a FISH technique must be applied. SISH technology is however, recommended to allow for the parallel evaluation of tumour histology and morphology. To ensure validation of testing procedures and the generation of accurate and reproducible results, HER2 testing must be performed in a laboratory staffed by trained personnel. Full instructions on assay performance and results interpretation should be taken from the product information leaflet provided with the HER2 testing assays used.

In the ToGA (BO18255) trial, patients whose tumours were either IHC3+ or FISH positive were defined as HER2 positive and thus included in the trial. Based on the clinical trial results, the beneficial effects were limited to patients with the highest level of HER2 protein overexpression, defined by a 3+ score by IHC, or a 2+ score by IHC and a positive FISH result.

In a method comparison study (study D008548) a high degree of concordance (>95%) was observed for SISH and FISH techniques for the detection of HER2 gene amplification in gastric cancer patients.

HER2 over expression should be detected using an immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based assessment of fixed tumour blocks; HER2 gene amplification should be detected using in situ hybridisation using either SISH or FISH on fixed tumour blocks.

The recommended scoring system to evaluate the IHC staining patterns is as stated in Table 3:

Table 3 Recommended Scoring System to Evaluate the IHC Staining Patterns in Gastric Cancer

Score

Surgical specimen - staining pattern

Biopsy specimen – staining pattern

HER2 overexpression assessment

0

No reactivity or membranous reactivity in <10% of tumour cells

No reactivity or membranous reactivity in any tumour cell

Negative

1+

Faint ⁄ barely perceptible membranous reactivity in ≥10% of tumour cells; cells are reactive only in part of their membrane

Tumour cell cluster with a faint ⁄ barely perceptible membranous reactivity irrespective of percentage of tumour cells stained

Negative

2+

Weak to moderate complete, basolateral or lateral membranous reactivity in ≥10% of tumour cells

Tumour cell cluster with a weak to moderate complete, basolateral or lateral membranous reactivity irrespective of percentage of tumour cells stained

Equivocal

3+

Strong complete, basolateral or lateral membranous reactivity in ≥10% of tumour cells

Tumour cell cluster with a strong complete, basolateral or lateral membranous reactivity irrespective of percentage of tumour cells stained

Positive

In general, SISH or FISH is considered positive if the ratio of the HER2 gene copy number per tumour cell to the chromosome 17 copy number is greater than or equal to 2.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Metastatic breast cancer

Trastuzumab has been used in clinical trials as monotherapy for patients with MBC who have tumours that overexpress HER2 and who have failed one or more chemotherapy regimens for their metastatic disease (trastuzumab alone).

Trastuzumab has also been used in combination with paclitaxel or docetaxel for the treatment of patients who have not received chemotherapy for their metastatic disease. Patients who had previously received anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy were treated with paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 infused over 3 hours) with or without trastuzumab. In the pivotal trial of docetaxel (100 mg/m2 infused over 1 hour) with or without trastuzumab, 60% of the patients had received prior anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were treated with trastuzumab until progression of disease.

The efficacy of trastuzumab in combination with paclitaxel in patients who did not receive prior adjuvant anthracyclines has not been studied. However, trastuzumab plus docetaxel was efficacious in patients whether or not they had received prior adjuvant anthracyclines.

The test method for HER2 overexpression used to determine eligibility of patients in the pivotal trastuzumab monotherapy and trastuzumab plus paclitaxel clinical trials employed immunohistochemical staining for HER2 of fixed material from breast tumours using the murine monoclonal antibodies CB11 and 4D5. These tissues were fixed in formalin or Bouin's fixative. This investigative clinical trial assay performed in a central laboratory utilised a 0 to 3+ scale. Patients classified as staining 2+ or 3+ were included, while those staining 0 or 1+ were excluded. Greater than 70% of patients enrolled exhibited 3+ overexpression. The data suggest that beneficial effects were greater among those patients with higher levels of overexpression of HER2 (3+).

The main test method used to determine HER2 positivity in the pivotal trial of docetaxel, with or without trastuzumab, was immunohistochemistry. A minority of patients was tested using fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). In this trial, 87% of patients entered had disease that was IHC3+, and 95% of patients entered had disease that was IHC3+ and/or FISH-positive.

Weekly dosing in metastatic breast cancer

The efficacy results from the monotherapy and combination therapy studies are summarised in Table 4:

Table 4 Efficacy Results from the Monotherapy and Combination Therapy Studies

Parameter

Monotherapy

Combination Therapy

Trastuzumab 1

 

N=172

Trastuzumab plus paclitaxel2

N=68

Paclitaxel2

 

N=77

Trastuzumab plus docetaxel3

N=92

Docetaxel3

 

N=94

Response rate

(95% CI)

18%

(13-25)

49%

(36-61)

17%

(9-27)

61%

(50-71)

34%

(25-45)

Median duration of response (months) (95% CI)

9.1

(5.6-10.3)

8.3

(7.3-8.8)

4.6

(3.7-7.4)

11.7

(9.3–15.0)

5.7

(4.6-7.6)

Median TTP (months) (95% CI)

3.2

(2.6-3.5)

7.1

(6.2-12.0)

3.0

(2.0-4.4)

11.7

(9.2-13.5)

6.1

(5.4-7.2)

Median Survival (months) (95% CI)

16.4

(12.3-ne)

24.8

(18.6-33.7)

17.9

(11.2-23.8)

31.2

(27.3-40.8)

22.74

(19.1-30.8)

TTP = time to progression; "ne" indicates that it could not be estimated or it was not yet reached.

1. Study H0649g: IHC3+ patient subset

2. Study H0648g: IHC3+ patient subset

3. Study M77001: Full analysis set (intent-to-treat), 24 months results

Combination treatment with trastuzumab and anastrozole

Trastuzumab has been studied in combination with anastrozole for first line treatment of MBC in HER2 overexpressing, hormone-receptor (i.e. oestrogen-receptor (ER) and/or progesterone-receptor (PR)) positive postmenopausal patients. Progression free survival was doubled in the trastuzumab plus anastrozole arm compared to anastrozole (4.8 months versus 2.4 months). For the other parameters the improvements seen for the combination were for overall response (16.5% versus 6.7%); clinical benefit rate (42.7% versus 27.9%); time to progression (4.8 months versus 2.4 months). For time to response and duration of response no difference could be recorded between the arms. The median overall survival was extended by 4.6 months for patients in the combination arm. The difference was not statistically significant, however more than half of the patients in the anastrozole alone arm crossed over to a trastuzumab containing regimen after progression of disease.

Three -weekly dosing in metastatic breast cancer

The efficacy results from the non-comparative monotherapy and combination therapy studies are summarised in Table 5:

Table 5 Efficacy Results from the Non-Comparative Monotherapy and Combination Therapy Studies

Parameter

Monotherapy

Combination Therapy

Trastuzumab1

N=105

Trastuzumab2

N=72

Trastuzumab plus paclitaxel3

N=32

Trastuzumab plus docetaxel4

N=110

Response rate

(95% CI)

24%

(15-35)

27%

(14-43)

59%

(41-76)

73%

(63-81)

Median duration of response (months) (range)

10.1

(2.8-35.6)

7.9

(2.1-18.8)

10.5

(1.8-21)

13.4

(2.1-55.1)

Median TTP (months) (95% CI)

3.4

(2.8-4.1)

7.7

(4.2-8.3)

12.2

(6.2-ne)

13.6

(11-16)

Median Survival (months) (95% CI)

ne

ne

ne

47.3

(32-ne)

TTP = time to progression; "ne" indicates that it could not be estimated or it was not yet reached.

1. Study WO16229: loading dose 8 mg/kg, followed by 6 mg/kg 3 weekly schedule

2. Study MO16982: loading dose 6 mg/kg weekly x 3; followed by 6 mg/kg 3-weekly schedule

3. Study BO15935

4. Study MO16419

Sites of progression

The frequency of progression in the liver was significantly reduced in patients treated with the combination of trastuzumab and paclitaxel, compared to paclitaxel alone (21.8% versus 45.7%; p=0.004). More patients treated with trastuzumab and paclitaxel progressed in the central nervous system than those treated with paclitaxel alone (12.6% versus 6.5%; p=0.377).

Early breast cancer (adjuvant setting)

Early breast cancer is defined as non-metastatic primary invasive carcinoma of the breast.

In the adjuvant treatment setting, trastuzumab was investigated in 4 large multicentre, randomised, trials.

- Study BO16348 was designed to compare one and two years of three-weekly trastuzumab treatment versus observation in patients with HER2 positive EBC following surgery, established chemotherapy and radiotherapy (if applicable). In addition, comparison of two years of trastuzumab treatment versus one year of trastuzumab treatment was performed. Patients assigned to receive trastuzumab were given an initial loading dose of 8 mg/kg, followed by 6 mg/kg every three weeks for either one or two years.

- The NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831 studies that comprise the joint analysis were designed to investigate the clinical utility of combining trastuzumab treatment with paclitaxel following AC chemotherapy, additionally the NCCTG N9831 study also investigated adding trastuzumab sequentially to AC→P chemotherapy in patients with HER2 positive EBC following surgery.

- The BCIRG 006 study was designed to investigate combining trastuzumab treatment with docetaxel either following AC chemotherapy or in combination with docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with HER2 positive EBC following surgery.

Early breast cancer in the HERA trial was limited to operable, primary, invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast, with axillary nodes positive or axillary nodes negative if tumours at least 1 cm in diameter.

In the joint analysis of the NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831 studies, EBC was limited to women with operable breast cancer at high risk, defined as HER2-positive and axillary lymph node positive or HER2 positive and lymph node negative with high risk features (tumour size > 1 cm and ER negative or tumour size >2 cm, regardless of hormonal status).

In the BCIRG 006 study HER2 positive, EBC was defined as either lymph node positive or high risk node negative patients with no (pN0) lymph node involvement, and at least 1 of the following factors: tumour size greater than 2 cm, oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative, histological and/or nuclear grade 2-3, or age <35 years).

The efficacy results from the BO16348 trial following 12 months* and 8 years** median follow-up are summarized in Table 6:

Table 6 Efficacy Results from Study BO16348

Median follow-up 12 months*

Median follow-up 8 years**

Parameter

Observation

N=1693

Trastuzumab1 Year

N=1693

Observation

N=1697***

Trastuzumab1 Year

N=1702***

Disease-free survival

219 (12.9%)

127 (7.5%)

570 (33.6%)

471 (27.7%)

- No. patients with event

- No. patients without event

1474 (87.1%)

1566 (92.5%)

1127 (66.4%)

1231 (72.3%)

P-value versus Observation

< 0.0001

< 0.0001

Hazard Ratio versus Observation

0.54

0.76

Recurrence-free survival

208 (12.3%)

113 (6.7%)

506 (29.8%)

399 (23.4%)

- No. patients with event

- No. patients without event

1485 (87.7%)

1580 (93.3%)

1191 (70.2%)

1303 (76.6%)

P-value versus Observation

< 0.0001

< 0.0001

Hazard Ratio versus Observation

0.51

0.73

Distant disease-free survival

184 (10.9%)

99 (5.8%)

488 (28.8%)

399 (23.4%)

- No. patients with event

- No. patients without event

1508 (89.1%)

1594 (94.6%)

1209 (71.2%)

1303 (76.6%)

P-value versus Observation

< 0.0001

< 0.0001

Hazard Ratio versus Observation

0.50

0.76

Overall survival (death)

40 (2.4%)

31 (1.8%)

350 (20.6%)

278 (16.3%)

- No. patients with event

- No. patients without event

1653 (97.6%)

1662 (98.2%)

1347 (79.4%)

1424 (83.7%)

P-value versus Observation

0.24

0.0005

Hazard Ratio versus Observation

0.75

0.76

*Co-primary endpoint of DFS of 1 year versus observation met the pre-defined statistical boundary

**Final analysis (including crossover of 52% of patients from the observation arm to trastuzumab)

***There is a discrepancy in the overall sample size due to a small number of patients who were randomized after the cut-off date for the 12-month median follow-up analysis

The efficacy results from the interim efficacy analysis crossed the protocol pre-specified statistical boundary for the comparison of 1-year of trastuzumab versus observation. After