This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Ixyldone 15 mg prolonged-release tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each prolonged-release tablet contains to 15 mg oxycodone hydrochloride corresponding to 13.5 mg oxycodone.

Excipients with known effect:

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 51 mg lactose (as monohydrate).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Prolonged-release tablet

Grey, round, biconvex, prolonged-release tablets with a diameter of 6.9 – 7.3 mm and a height of 3.2 – 3.9 mm.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics.

Ixyldone is indicated in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Prior to starting treatment with opioids, a discussion should be held with patients to put in place a strategy for ending treatment with oxycodone hydrochloride in order to minimise the risk of addiction and drug withdrawal syndrome (see section 4.4).

The dosage depends on the intensity of pain and the patient's individual susceptibility to the treatment. The following general dosage recommendations apply:

Adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older

Dose titration and adjustment

In general, the initial dose for opioid naïve patients is 10 mg oxycodone hydrochloride given at intervals of 12 hours. Some patients may benefit from a starting dose of 5 mg oxycodone hydrochloride to minimize the incidence of adverse reactions.

Patients already receiving opioids may start treatment with higher dosages taking into account their experience with former opioid therapies.

For doses not realisable/practicable with this strength other strengths of this medicinal product are available.

According to well-controlled clinical studies 10-13 mg oxycodone ¬hydrochloride correspond to approximately 20 mg morphine sulphate, both in the prolonged-release formulation.

Because of individual differences in sensitivity for different opioids, it is recommended that patients should start conservatively with Ixyldone after conversion from other opioids, with 50-75% of the calculated oxycodone dose.

Some patients who take Ixyldone following a fixed schedule need rapid release analgesics as rescue medication in order to control breakthrough pain. Ixyldone is not indicated for the treatment of acute pain and/or breakthrough pain. The single dose of the rescue medication should amount to 1/6 of the equianalgesic daily dose of Ixyldone. Use of the rescue medication more than twice daily indicates that the dose of Ixyldone needs to be increased. The dose should not be adjusted more often than once every 1-2 days until a stable twice daily administration has been achieved.

Following a dose increase from 10 mg to 20 mg taken every 12 hours dose adjustments should be made in steps of approximately one third of the daily dose. The aim is a patient-specific dosage which, with twice daily administration, allows for adequate analgesia with tolerable undesirable effects and as little rescue medication as possible as long as pain therapy is needed.

Even distribution (the same dose mornings and evenings) following a fixed schedule (every 12 hours) is appropriate for the majority of the patients. For some patients it may be advantageous to distribute the doses unevenly. In general, the lowest effective analgesic dose should be chosen. For the treatment of non-malignant pain a daily dose of 40 mg is generally sufficient; but higher dosages may be necessary. Patients with cancer-related pain may require dosages of 80 to 120 mg, which in individual cases can be increased to up to 400 mg. If even higher doses are required, the dose should be decided individually balancing efficacy with the tolerance and risk of undesirable effects.

Duration of treatment

Ixyldone should not be taken longer than necessary. If long-term treatment is necessary due to the type and severity of the illness careful and regular monitoring is required to determine whether and to what extent treatment should be continued. If opioid therapy is no longer indicated it may be advisable to reduce the daily dose gradually in order to prevent symptoms of a withdrawal syndrome.

Discontinuation of treatment

When a patient no longer requires therapy with oxycodone, it may be advisable to taper the dose gradually to prevent symptoms of withdrawal.

Elderly patients

Elderly patients without clinical manifestation of impaired liver and/or kidney function usually do not require dose adjustments.

Risk patients

Risk patients, for example patients with low body weight or slow metabolism of medicinal products, should initially half the recommended adult dose if they are opioid naïve.

Therefore, the lowest recommended dosage, i.e. 10 mg, may not be suitable as a starting dose.

Dose titration should be performed in accordance with the individual clinical situation.

Patients with renal or hepatic impairment

The dose initiation should follow a conservative approach in these patients. The recommended adult starting dose should be reduced by 50% (for example a total daily dose of 10 mg orally in opioid naïve patients), and each patient should be titrated to adequate pain control according to their clinical situation.

Children under 12 years of age

Oxycodone has not been studied in children younger than 12 years of age. The safety and efficacy of Ixyldone have not been demonstrated and the use in children younger than 12 years of age is therefore not recommended.

Method of administration

For oral use.

Ixyldone should be taken twice daily based on a fixed schedule at the dosage determined.

The prolonged-release tablets may be taken with or independent of meals with a sufficient amount of liquid. Ixyldone must be swallowed whole, not chewed, divided or crushed. Taking chewed, divided or crushed Ixyldone tablets may lead to a rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone.

Ixyldone should not be taken with alcoholic beverages.

4.3 Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

• Severe respiratory depression with hypoxia and/or elevated carbon dioxide levels in the blood (hypercapnia).

• Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

• Cor pulmonale.

• Severe bronchial asthma.

• Paralytic ileus.

• acute abdomen, delayed gastric emptying

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Respiratory and cardiac depression

Respiratory depression is the most significant risk induced by opioids and is most likely to occur in elderly or debilitated patients. The respiratory depressant effect of oxycodone can lead to increased carbon dioxide concentrations in blood and hence in cerebrospinal fluid. In predisposed patients, opioids can cause severe decrease in blood pressure.

Drug dependence, tolerance and potential for abuse

For all patients, prolonged use of this product may lead to drug dependence (addiction), even at therapeutic doses. The risks are increased in individuals with current or past history of substance misuse disorder (including alcohol misuse) or mental health disorder (e.g., major depression).

Additional support and monitoring may be necessary when prescribing for patients at risk of opioid misuse.

A comprehensive patient history should be taken to document concomitant medications, including over the-counter medicines and medicines obtained on-line, and past and present medical and psychiatric conditions.

Patients may find that treatment is less effective with chronic use and express a need to increase the dose to obtain the same level of pain control as initially experienced. Patients may also supplement their treatment with additional pain relievers. These could be signs that the patient is developing tolerance. The risks of developing tolerance should be explained to the patient.

Overuse or misuse may result in overdose and/or death. It is important that patients only use medicines that are prescribed for them at the dose they have been prescribed and do not give this medicine to anyone else.

Patients should be closely monitored for signs of misuse, abuse, or addiction.

The clinical need for analgesic treatment should be reviewed regularly.

Drug withdrawal syndrome

Prior to starting treatment with any opioids, a discussion should be held with patients to put in place a withdrawal strategy for ending treatment with oxycodone.

Drug withdrawal syndrome may occur upon abrupt cessation of therapy or dose reduction. When a patient no longer requires therapy, it is advisable to taper the dose gradually to minimise symptoms of withdrawal. Tapering from a high dose may take weeks to months.

The opioid drug withdrawal syndrome is characterised by some or all of the following: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, mydriasis and palpitations. Other symptoms may also develop including irritability, agitation, anxiety, hyperkinesia, tremor, weakness, insomnia, anorexia, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, increased blood pressure, increased respiratory rate or heart rate.

If women take this drug during pregnancy, there is a risk that their newborn infants will experience neonatal withdrawal syndrome.

Hyperalgesia

Hyperalgesia may be diagnosed if the patient on long-term opioid therapy presents with increased pain. This might be qualitatively and anatomically distinct from pain related to disease progression or to breakthrough pain resulting from development of opioid tolerance. Pain associated with hyperalgesia tends to be more diffuse than the pre-existing pain and less defined in quality. Symptoms of hyperalgesia may resolve with a reduction of opioid dose.

Special patient groups

Caution is required in elderly or debilitated patients, in patients with severe impairment of lung, hepatic or renal function, myxoedema, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), intoxication psychosis (e.g. alcohol), prostatic hypertrophy, adrenocortical insufficiency, alcoholism, known opioid dependence, delirium tremens, pancreatitis, disease of the biliary tract, biliary or ureteric colic, inflammatory bowel disorders, conditions with increased brain pressure, disturbances of circulatory regulation, epilepsy or seizure tendency and in patients taking MAO inhibitors within the last two weeks. Patients with severe hepatic impairment should be closely monitored.

Surgical procedures

Special care should be taken when oxycodone is applied to patients undergoing bowel-surgery. Opioids should only be administered post-operatively when the bowel function has been restored.

The safety of Ixyldone used pre-operatively has not been established.

Ixyldone is not recommended for pre-operative use or within the first 12 – 24 hours post operatively.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Ixyldone in children younger than 12 years of age have not been established. Ixyldone should not be used in children younger than 12 years of age because of safety and efficacy concerns.

Anti-doping warning

Athletes must be aware that this medicine may cause a positive reaction to 'anti-doping' tests.

Use of Ixyldone as a doping agent may become a health hazard.

Excipient

This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Risk from concomitant use of sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs:

Concomitant use of Ixyldone and sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs may result in sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death. Because of these risks, concomitant prescribing with these sedative medicines should be reserved for patients for whom alternative treatment options are not possible. If a decision is made to prescribe Ixyldone concomitantly with sedative medicines, the lowest effective dose should be used, and the duration of treatment should be as short as possible.

The patients should be followed closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In this respect, it is strongly recommended to inform patients and their caregivers to be aware of these symptoms (see section 4.5).

Endocrine system

Opioids, such as oxycodone hydrochloride, may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal or gonadal axes. Some changes that can be seen include an increase in serum prolactin, and decrease in plasma cortisol and testosterone.

Clinical symptoms may manifest from these hormonal changes.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Central nervous system depressants (e.g. sedatives, hypnotics, phenothiazines, neuroleptics, anaesthetics, antidepressants, muscle relaxants) and other opioids or alcohol can enhance the adverse reactions of oxycodone, in particular respiratory depression.

MAO inhibitors are known to interact with narcotic analgesics, producing CNS excitation or depression with hyper- or hypotensive crisis (see section 4.4). Ixyldone should be used with caution in patients administered MAO-inhibitors or who have received MAO-inhibitors during the last two weeks (see section 4.4).

Oxycodone is metabolised mainly by cytochrome P450 3A4, with a contribution from CYP2D6. The activities of these metabolic pathways may be inhibited or induced by various co-administered drugs or dietary elements. Drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 activity, such as paroxetine and quinidine, may cause decreased clearance of oxycodone which could lead to an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations.

CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g. clarithromycin, erythromycin and telithromycin), azolantifungals (e.g. ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g. boceprevir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir and saquinavir), cimetidine and grapefruit juice may cause a reduced clearance of oxycodone that could cause an increase of the plasma concentrations of oxycodone. Therefore the oxycodone dose may need to be adjusted accordingly. Some specific examples are provided below:

• Itraconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, administered 200 mg orally for five days, increased the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 2.4 times higher (range 1.5 - 3.4).

• Voriconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, administered 200 mg twice-daily for four days (400 mg given as first two doses), increased the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 3.6 times higher (range 2.7 - 5.6).

• Telithromycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, administered 800 mg orally for four days, increased the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 1.8 times higher (range 1.3 - 2.3).

• Grapefruit Juice, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, administered as 200 ml three times a day for five days, increased the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 1.7 times higher (range 1.1 - 2.1).

CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin and St John´s Wort may induce the metabolism of oxycodone and cause an increased clearance of oxycodone that could cause a reduction of the plasma concentrations of oxycodone. The oxycodone dose may need to be adjusted accordingly. Some specific examples are provided below:

• St Johns Wort, a CYP3A4 inducer, administered as 300 mg three times a day for fifteen days, reduced the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 50% lower (range 37-57%).

• Rifampicin, a CYP3A4 inducer, administered as 600 mg once-daily for seven days, reduced the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 86% lower

Concomitant administration of oxycodone with serotonin agents, such as a Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitor (SSRI) or Serotonin Norepinephrine Re-uptake Inhibitor (SNRI) may cause Serotonin toxicity. The symptoms of serotonin toxicity may include mental-status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, come), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular abnormalities (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination, rigidity) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Oxycodone should be used with caution and the dosage may need to be reduced in patients using these medications.

The effect of other relevant isoenzyme inhibitors on the metabolism of oxycodone is not known. Potential interactions should be taken into account.

Clinically relevant changes in International Normalised Ratio (INR) in both directions have been observed in individuals if coumarin anticoagulants are co-applied with oxycodone.

There are no studies investigating the effect of oxycodone on CYP catalysed metabolism of other drugs.

Alcohol may enhance the pharmacodynamic effects of Ixyldone; concomitant use should be avoided.

Sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs:

The concomitant use of opioids with sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs increases the risk of sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death because of additive CNS depressant effect. The dose and duration of concomitant use should be limited (see section 4.4).

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

Regular use during pregnancy may cause drug dependence in the foetus, leading to withdrawal symptoms in the neonate.

If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available.

Administration during labour may depress respiration in the neonate and an antidote for the child should be readily available.

Breast-feeding

Administration to nursing women is not recommended as oxycodone may be secreted in breast milk and may cause respiratory depression in the infant.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient's ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:

• The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive

• Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you

• It is an offence to drive while under the influence of this medicine

• However, you would not be committing an offence (called 'statutory defence') if:

o The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical or dental problem and

o You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine and

o It was not affecting your ability to drive safely

At the beginning of therapy and after dose adjustment, oxycodone hydrochloride can have major influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Alertness and reactivity can be impaired to such an extent that the ability to drive and operate machinery is affected or ceases altogether.

With stable therapy, a general ban on driving a vehicle is not necessary. In these circumstances oxycodone hydrochloride has minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

The treating physician must assess the individual situation.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

Oxycodone can cause respiratory depression, miosis, bronchial spasms and spasms of the smooth muscles and can suppress the cough reflex.

The adverse reactions considered at least possibly related to treatment are listed below by system organ class and absolute frequency. Frequencies are defined as:

Very common (≥1/10)

Common (≥1/100 to <1/10)

Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100)

Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000)

Very rare (<1/10,000),

Frequency not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)

Very common

(≥1/10)

Common

(≥1/100 to <1/10)

Uncommon

(≥1/1,000 to <1/100)

Rare

(≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000)

Very rare

(< 1/10,000)

Frequency not known (cannot be estimated from available data)

Immune system disorders:

Hypersen-sitivity.

Anaphylactic reactions.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders:

Lymphadeno-pathy.

Endocrine disorders:

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders:

Anorexia; decreased appetite.

Dehydration.

Psychiatric disorders:

Various psychological adverse reactions including changes in mood (e.g. anxiety, depression); changes in activity (mostly suppression sometimes associated with lethargy, occasionally increase with nervousness and insomnia) and changes in cognitive performance (abnormal thinking, confusion, isolated cases of speech disorders).

Change in perception such as depersonali-sation; hallucinations; affected lability; hyperacousis; euphoric mood; agitation; decreased libido; drug dependence (see section 4.4).

Aggression, Drug dependence (see section 4.4).

Nervous system disorders:

Somnolence; dizziness; headache.

Asthenia; tremor.

Both increased and decreased muscle tone; amnesia; convulsion; hypertonia; involuntary muscle contractions; hypoaesthesia; speech disorder; syncope; paraesthesia; dysgeusia; coordination disturbances.

Seizures, in particular in epileptic patients or patients with tendency to convulsions; muscle spasm.

Hyperalgesia.

Eye disorders:

Lacrimation disorder; visual impairment; miosis

Ear and labyrinth disorders:

Vertigo, tinnitus

Cardiac disorders:

Supraventri-cular tachycardia, palpitations (in context of withdrawal syndrome).

Vascular disorders:

Vasodilatation

Hypotension; orthostatic hypotension.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:

Dyspnoea, bronchospasm

Respiratory depression; increased coughing; pharyngitis; rhinitis; voice changes.

Gastrointestinal disorders:

Constipation; nausea; vomiting.

Dry mouth, rarely accompanied by thirst and difficulty swallowing; gastrointesti-nal disorders such as abdominal pain; diarrhoea; dyspepsia.

Oral ulcers; gingivitis; stomatitis; flatulence; eructation; dysphagia; ileus.

Gum bleeding; increased appetite; tarry stool; tooth staining and damage.

Dental caries.

Hepatobiliary disorders:

Increased hepatic enzymes.

Cholestasis; biliary colic.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:

Pruritus

Skin eruptions including rash; hyperhidrosis; in rare cases increased photosensi-tivety; in isolated cases urticaria or exfoliative dermatitis.

Dry skin.

Herpes simplex, urticaria.

Renal and urinary disorders:

Micturition disturbances (increased urge to urinate).

Urinary retention.

Reproductive system and breast disorders:

Erectile dysfunction, impotence.

Amenorrhoea.

General disorders and administration site conditions:

Asthenic conditions.

Accidental injuries; pain (e.g. chest pain); malaise; oedema; peripheral oedema; migraine; drug withdrawal syndrome; drug tolerance; allergic reactions; chills; thirst.

Weight changes (increase or decrease); cellulitis.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme, website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

Patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of overdose and to ensure that family and friends are also aware of these signs and to seek immediate medical help if they occur.

Symptoms and intoxication:

Miosis, respiratory depression, somnolence, reduced skeletal muscle tone and drop in blood pressure. In severe cases circulatory collapse, stupor, coma, bradycardia and non-cardiogenic lung oedema may occur; abuse of high doses of strong opioids such as oxycodone can be fatal.

Therapy of intoxications:

Primary attention should be given to the establishment of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation.

In the event of overdosing intravenous administration of an opiate antagonist (e.g. 0.4-2 mg intravenous naloxone) may be indicated. Administration of single doses must be repeated depending on the clinical situation at intervals of 2 to 3 minutes. Intravenous infusion of 2 mg of naloxone in 500 ml isotonic saline or 5% dextrose solution (corresponding to 0.004 mg naloxone/ml) is possible. The rate of infusion should be adjusted to the previous bolus injections and the response of the patient.

Naloxone should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to oxycodone overdose. Naloxone should be administered cautiously to patients who are known, or suspected, to be physically dependent on oxycodone. In such cases, an abrupt or complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate pain and an acute withdrawal syndrome.

Gastric lavage can be taken into consideration. Consider activated charcoal (50 g for adults, 10 - 15 g for children), if a substantial amount has been ingested within 1 hour, provided the airway can be protected. It may be reasonable to assume that late administration of activated charcoal may be beneficial for prolonged release preparations; however there is no evidence to support this.

For speeding up the passage a suitable laxative (e.g. a PEG based solution) may be useful.

Supportive measures (artificial respiration, oxygen supply, administration of vasopressors and infusion therapy) should, if necessary, be applied in the treatment of accompanying circulatory shock. Upon cardiac arrest or cardiac arrhythmias cardiac massage or defibrillation may be indicated. If necessary, assisted ventilation as well as maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Analgesics; Opioids; Natural opium alkaloids

ATC-Code: N02A A05

Oxycodone shows an affinity to kappa, mu and delta opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. It acts at these receptors as an opioid agonist without an antagonistic effect. The therapeutic effect is mainly analgesic and sedative. Compared to rapid-release oxycodone, given alone or in combination with other substances, the prolonged-release tablets provide pain relief for a markedly longer period without increased occurrence of undesirable effects.

Other pharmacological effects

In vitro and animal studies indicate various effects of natural opioids, such as morphine, on components of the immune system; the clinical significance of these findings is unknown.

Whether oxycodone, a semi-synthetic opioid, has immunological effects similar to morphine is unknown.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption:

The relative bioavailability of Ixyldone is comparable to that of rapid release oxycodone with maximum plasma concentrations being achieved after approximately 3 hours after intake of the prolonged-release tablets compared to 1 to 1.5 hours. Peak plasma concentrations and oscillations of the concentrations of oxycodone from the prolonged-release and rapid-release formulations are comparable when given at the same daily dose at intervals of 12 and 6 hours, respectively.

The tablets must not be crushed, divided, or chewed as this leads to rapid oxycodone release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone due to the damage of the prolonged release properties.

Distribution:

The absolute bioavailability of oxycodone is approximately two thirds relative to parenteral administration. In steady state, the volume of distribution of oxycodone amounts to 2.6 l/kg; plasma protein binding to 38-45%; the elimination half-life to 4 to 6 hours and plasma clearance to 0.8 l/min. The elimination half-life of oxycodone from prolonged-release tablets is 4-5 hours with steady state values being achieved after a mean of 1 day.

Metabolism:

Oxycodone is metabolized in the intestine and liver via the P450 cytochrome system to noroxycodone and oxymorphone as well as to several glucuronide conjugates. In vitro studies suggest that therapeutic doses of cimetidine probably have no relevant effect on the formation of noroxycodone. In man, quinidine reduces the production of oxymorphone while the pharmacodynamic properties of oxycodone remain largely unaffected. The contribution of the metabolites to the overall pharmacodynamic effect is irrelevant.

Elimination:

Oxycodone and its metabolites are excreted via urine and faeces. Oxycodone crosses the placenta and is found in breast milk.

Linearity/non-linearity:

Across the 5-80 mg dose range of prolonged release oxycodone tablets linearity of plasma concentrations was demonstrated in terms of rate and extent of absorption.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Oxycodone had no effect on fertility and early embryonic development in male and female rats in doses of up to 8 mg/kg body weight and induced no malformations in rats in doses of up to 8 mg/kg and in rabbits in doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight. However, in rabbits, when individual foetuses were used in statistical evaluation, a dose related increase in developmental variations was observed (increased incidences of 27 presacral vertebrae, extra pairs of ribs). When these parameters were statistically evaluated using litters, only the incidence of 27 presacral vertebrae was increased and only in the 125 mg/kg group, a dose level that produced severe pharmacotoxic effects in the pregnant animals. In a study on pre- and postnatal development in rats F1 body weights were lower at 6 mg/kg/d when compared to body weights of the control group at doses which reduced maternal weight and food intake (NOAEL 2 mg/kg body weight). There were neither effects on physical, reflexological, and sensory developmental parameters nor on behavioural and reproductive indices.

Long-term carcinogenicity studies were not performed.

Oxycodone shows a clastogenic potential in in vitro assays. No similar effects were observed, however, under in vivo conditions, even at toxic doses. The results indicate that the mutagenic risk of oxycodone to humans at therapeutic concentrations may be ruled out with adequate certainty.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Tablet core:

Lactose monohydrate

Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer, Type B dispersion 30%

Povidone (K29/32)

Talc

Triacetin

Stearyl alcohol

Magnesium stearate

Tablet coating:

Hypromellose

Talc

Macrogol 400

Titanium dioxide (E171)

Iron oxide black (E172)

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Child resistant PVC/PVdC-Aluminium blisters with 10, 14, 20, 25, 28, 30, 40, 50, 56, 60, 98 and 100 prolonged-release tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Morningside Healthcare Ltd

Unit C, Harcourt Way

Leicester, LE19 1WP

UK

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 20117/0307

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

26/11/2013

10. Date of revision of the text

03/05/2020