- isosorbide dinitrate
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Isoket Retard 40 Tablets
Each tablet contains isosorbide dinitrate 40 mg in a prolonged release formulation.
For excipients see 6.1
Prolonged release tablets.
White with break score, marked IR 40 on the upper side and with SCHWARZ PHARMA on the reverse side.
For the prophylaxis and treatment of angina pectoris.
For oral administration.
Adults: One tablet to be taken once daily without chewing and with a sufficient amount of fluid. For patients with higher nitrate requirements the dose may be increased to one tablet twice daily; the second dose should be given 6 to 8 hours after the first.
Elderly: Clinical experience has not necessitated alternative advice for use in elderly patients.
Children: The safety and efficacy of Isoket Retard has yet to be established.
This product should not be given to patients with a known sensitivity to nitrates (or any other ingredient in this product), very low blood pressure, acute myocardial infarction with low filling pressure, marked anaemia, head trauma, cerebral haemorrhage, acute circulatory failure, severe hypotension or hypovolaemia.
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (e.g. Sildenafil) have been shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of nitrates, and their co-administration with nitrates or nitric oxide donors is therefore contraindicated.
These tablets should be used with caution in patients who are suffering from hypothyroidism, hypothermia, malnutrition, severe liver disease or renal disease.
Symptoms of circulatory collapse may arise after the first dose, particularly in patients with labile circulation.
This product may give rise to symptoms of postural hypotension and sycope in some patients.
These tablets should be used with particular caution and under medical supervison in the following:
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), constrictive pericarditis, cardiac tamponade, low cardiac filling pressures, aortic/mitral valve stenosis, and diseases associated with raised intracranial pressure.
Treatment with these tablets must not be interrupted or stopped to take phosphodiestearase inhibitors due to the increased risk of inducing an attack of angina pectoris.
If these tablets are not taken as indicated with the appropriate dosing interval (see section 4.2) tolerance to the medication could develop.
Concurrent intake of drugs with blood pressure lowering properties e.g. beta blockers, calcium antagonists, vasodilators etc. and/or alcohol may potentiate the hypotensive effect of the tablets. Symptoms of circulatory collapse can arise in patients already taking ACE inhibitors.
The hypotensive effect of nitrates is potentiated by concurrent administration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (e.g. sildenafil). This might also occur with neuroleptics and tricyclic antidepressants.
Reports suggest that when administered concomitantly, nitrates may increase the blood level of dihydroergotamine and its hypertensive effect.
Saproterin (Tetrahydrobioterine, BH4) is a cofactor for nitric oxide sythetase. Caution is recommended during concomitant use of saproterin-containing medicine with all agents that cause vasodilation by affecting nitric oxide (NO) metabolism or action, including classical NO donors (e.g. glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) and others).
This product should not be used during pregnancy or lactation unless considered essential by the physician.
Headaches, tiredness and dizziness may occur. These may affect the ability to drive and operate machinery. Patients should not drive or operate machinery if their ability is impaired.
A very common ( > 10% of patients) adverse reaction to these tablets is headache. The incidence of headache diminishes gradually with time and continued use.
At start of therapy or when the dosage is increased, hypotension and/or light-headedness on standing are observed commonly (i.e. in 1-10% of patients.) These symptoms may be associated with dizziness, drowsiness, reflex tachycardia, and a feeling of weakness.
Infrequently (i.e. in less than 1% of patients), nausea, vomiting, flush and allergic skin reaction (e.g. rash), which may be sometimes severe may infrequently occur. In isolated cases exfoliative dermatitis may occur. Very rarely, Stevens-Johnson-Syndrome or angiodema may occur.
Severe hypotensive responses have been reported for organic nitrates and include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, pallor and excessive perspiration. Uncommonly collapse may occur (sometimes accompanied by bradyarrhythmia and syncope). Uncommonly severe hypotension may lead to enhanced angina symptoms.
A few reports on heartburn most likely due to a nitrate-induced sphincter relaxation have been recorded.
During treatment with these tablets, a temporary hypoxaemia may occur due to a relative redistribution of the blood flow in hypoventilated alveolar areas. Particularly in patients with coronary artery disease this may lead to a myocardial hypoxia.
• Fall of blood pressure ≤ 90mm Hg, paleness, sweating, weak pulse, tachycardia, light-headedness on standing, headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea and vomiting
• During isosorbide monintrate biotransformation nitrite ions are released, which may include methaemoglobinaemia and cyanosis with subsequent tachypnoea, anxiety, loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest. It can not be excluded that an overdose of isosorbide dinitrate may cause this adverse reaction.
• In very high doses the intracranial pressure may be increased. This might lead to cerebral symptoms.
• Stop intake of the drug
• General procedures in the event of nitrate-related hypotension:
- Patient should be kept horizontal with the head lowered and legs raised
- Supply oxygen
- Expand plasma volume
- For specific shock treatment admit patient to intensive care unit
• Raising the blood pressure if the blood pressure is very low
• Treatment of methaeglobinaemia
- Reduction therapy of choice with vitamin C, methylene-blue, or toluidine-blue
- Administer oxygen (if necessary)
- Initiate artificial ventilation
- Hemodialysis (of necessary)
• Resuscitation measures:
In case of signs of respiratory and circulatory arrest, initiate resuscitation measures immediately.
ATC Code: C01D A08 (Organic nitrates)
Isosorbide dinitrate causes a relaxation of vascular smooth muscle thereby inducing a vasodilation.
Both peripheral arteries and veins are relaxed by isosorbide dinitrate. The latter effect promotes venous pooling of blood and decreases venous return to the heart, thereby reducing ventricular end-diastolic pressure and volume (preload).
The action on arterial, and at higher dosages arteriolar vessels, reduce the systemic vascular resistance (afterload). This in turn reduces the cardiac work.
The effects on both preload and afterload lead subsequently to a reduced oxygen consumption of the heart.
Furthermore, isosorbide dinitrate causes redistribution of blood flow to the subendocardial regions of the heart when the coronary circulation is partially occluded by arteriosclerotic lesions. This last effect is likely to be due to a selective dilation of large coronary vessels. Nitrate-induced dilation of collateral arteries can improve the perfusion of poststenotic myocardium. Nitrates also dilate eccentric stenoses as they can counteract possible constricting factors acting on the residual arch of compliant smooth muscle at the site of the coronary narrowing. Furthermore, coronary spasms can be relaxed by nitrates.
Nitrates were shown to improve resting and exercise haemodynamics in patients suffering from congestive heart failure. In this beneficial effect several mechansims including an improvement of valvular regurgitation (due to the lessening of ventricular dilation) and the reduction of myocardial oxygen demand are involved.
By decreasing the oxygen demand and increasing the oxygen supply, the area of myocardial damage is reduced. Therefore, isosorbide dinitrate may be useful in selected patients who suffered a myocardial infarction.
Effects on other organ systems include a relaxation of the bronchial muscle, the muscles of the gastrointestinal, the biliary and the urinary tract. Relaxation of the uterine smooth muscles is reported as well.
Mechanism of action:
Like all organic nitrates, isosorbide dinitrate acts as a donor of nitric oxide (NO). NO causes a relaxation of vascular smooth muscle via the stimulation of guanylyl cyclase and the subsequent increase of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentration. A cGMP-dependent protein kinase is thus stimulated, with resultant alteration of the phosphorylation of various proteins in the smooth muscle cell. This eventually leads to the dephosphorylation of the light chain of myosin and the lowering of contractility
After administration of one tablet of Isoket Retard 40 mean peak plasma concentrations of ISDN (8.0 ± 12 ng/ml) at 7.7 ± 2.9 hours and IS-5N (190 ± 33 ng/ml) at 8.7 ± 2.1 hours. The terminal half life of IS-5N which was least affected by the absorption process was 5.4 hours ± 0.5 sd.
Gastrointestinal absorption is slower than absorption through the oral mucosa. The first pass effect is higher when given orally. Isosorbide dinitrate is metabolized to isosorbide 2-mononitrate with a half-life of 2.01 h (±0.4 h) to 2.5 h and isosorbide 5-mononitrate with a half-life of 4.6 h (± 8 h). Both metabolites are pharmacologically active.
The relative bioavailability of Isoket Retard in comparison to the non-sustained-release tablet amounts to more than 80% after oral use.
Cartons of blister strips of polypropylene (PP) and aluminium or of PP/PP
Pack sizes 50, 56, 60, 84 and 90 tablets.
Only the pack sizes marked in bold are currently marketed.
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30 June 2008