This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Rocuronium bromide 10 mg/ml solution for injection/ infusion

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each ml of solution of Rocuronium bromide contains 10 mg rocuronium bromide.

Each ampoule/vial with 5 ml contains 50 mg rocuronium bromide.

Each ampoule/vial with 10 ml contains 100 mg rocuronium bromide

Excipients: sodium 1.6 - 3.7 mg per ml

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Solution for injection/infusion

Clear, colourless up to pale brown-yellowish solution

pH: 3.8-4.2

Osmolality: 270 - 330 mOsmol/kg

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Rocuronium bromide is indicated in adult and paediatric patients (from term neonates to adolescents [0 to <18 years]) as an adjunct to general anaesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation during routine induction and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery.

In adults, Rocuronium bromide is also indicated to facilitate tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction and as an adjunct in the intensive care unit (ICU) (e.g. to facilitate intubation) for short term use.

See also section 4.2 and 5.1.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Rocuronium bromide should only be administered by, or under supervision of, experienced clinicians who are familiar with the action and use of these medicinal products.

The dosage of Rocuronium bromide should be individualized in each patient. The method of anaesthesia and the expected duration of surgery, the method of sedation and the expected duration of mechanical ventilation, the possible interaction with other medicinal products that are administered concomitantly, and the condition of the patient should be taken into account when determining the dose.

The use of an appropriate neuromuscular monitoring technique is recommended for the evaluation of neuromuscular block and recovery.

Inhalational anaesthetics do potentiate the neuromuscular blocking effects of Rocuronium bromide.

This potentiation however, becomes clinically relevant in the course of anaesthesia, when the volatile agents have reached the tissue concentrations required for this interaction. Consequently, adjustments with Rocuronium bromide should be made by administering smaller maintenance doses at less frequent intervals or by using lower infusion rates of Rocuronium bromide during long lasting procedures (longer than 1 hour) under inhalational anaesthesia (see section 4.5).

In adult patients the following dosage recommendations may serve as a general guideline for tracheal intubation and muscle relaxation for short to long lasting surgical procedures and for use in the intensive care unit.

Surgical Procedures

Tracheal intubation

The standard intubating dose during routine anaesthesia is 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide, after which adequate intubation conditions are established within 60 seconds in nearly all patients.

A dose of 1.0 mg/kg rocuronium bromide is recommended for facilitating tracheal intubation conditions during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, after which adequate intubation conditions are established within 60 seconds in nearly all patients. If a dose of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide is used for rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, it is recommended to intubate the patient 90 seconds after administration of rocuronium bromide.

For use of rocuronium bromide during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in patients undergoing Caesarean section reference is made to section 4.6.

Higher doses

Should there be reason for selection of larger doses in individual patients, there is no indication from clinical studies that the use of initial doses up to 2 mg/kg rocuronium bromide is associated with an increased frequency or severity of cardiovascular effects. The use of these high dosages of rocuronium bromide decreases the onset time and increases the duration of action (see section 5.1).

Maintenance dosing

The recommended maintenance dose is 0.15 mg/kg rocuronium bromide; in the case of long-term inhalational anaesthesia this should be reduced to 0.075-0.1 mg/kg rocuronium bromide.

The maintenance doses should best be given when twitch height has recovered to 25% of control twitch height, or when 2 to 3 responses to control twitch height (train-of-four stimulation) are present.

Continuous infusion

If rocuronium bromide is administered by continuous infusion, it is recommended to give a loading dose of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide and, when neuromuscular block starts to recover, to start administration by infusion. The infusion rate should be adjusted to maintain twitch response at 10% of control twitch height or to maintain 1 to 2 responses to control twitch height (train-of-four stimulation).

In adults under intravenous anaesthesia, the infusion rate required to maintain neuromuscular block at this level ranges from 0.3-0.6 mg/kg/h (300-600 micrograms/kg/h) and under inhalational anaesthesia the infusion rate ranges from 0.3-0.4 mg/kg/h. Continuous monitoring of neuromuscular block is essential since infusion rate requirements vary from patient to patient and with the anaesthetic method used.

Dosage in pregnant patients:

In patients undergoing Caesarean section, it is recommended to only use a dose of 0.6 mg rocuronium bromide per kg body weight, since a 1.0 mg/kg dose has not been investigated in this patient group.

Reversal of neuromuscular block induced by neuromuscular blocking agents may be inhibited or unsatisfactory in patients receiving magnesium salts for toxaemia of pregnancy because magnesium salts enhance neuromuscular blockade. Therefore, in these patients the dosage of rocuronium should be reduced and be titrated to twitch response.

Paediatric patients

For infants (28 days–23 months), children (2-11 years) and adolescents (12–18 years) the recommended intubation dose during routine anaesthesia and maintenance dose are similar to those in adults.

For continuous infusion in paediatrics, the infusion rates, with the exception of children, are the same as for adults. For children higher infusion rates might be necessary. For children the same initial infusion rates as for adults are recommended and this should be adjusted to maintain twitch response at 10% of control twitch height or to maintain 1 or 2 responses to control twitch height (train-of-four stimulation) during the procedure.

There are insufficient data to support dose recommendations for the use of rocuronium bromide in new-born infants (0-1 month).

The experience with rocuronium bromide in rapid sequence induction in paediatric patients is limited. Rocuronium bromide is therefore not recommended for facilitating tracheal intubation conditions during rapid sequence induction in paediatric patients.

Geriatric patients and patients with hepatic and/or biliary tract disease and/or renal failure

The standard intubation dose for geriatric patients and patients with hepatic and/or biliary tract disease and/or renal failure during routine anaesthesia is 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide. A dose of 0.6 mg/kg should be considered for rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in patients in which a prolonged duration of action is expected however adequate conditions for intubation may not be established for 90 seconds after administration of rocuronium bromide. Regardless of the anaesthetic technique used, the recommended maintenance dose for these patients is 0.075-0.1 mg/kg rocuronium bromide, and the recommended infusion rate is 0.3-0.4 mg/kg/h (see also Continuous infusion).

Overweight and obese patients

When used in overweight or obese patients (defined as patients with a body weight of 30% or more above ideal body weight) doses should be reduced taking into account ideal body weight.

Intensive Care Procedures

Tracheal intubation

For tracheal intubation, the same doses should be used as described above under surgical procedures.

Rocuronium bromide is not recommended for the facilitation of mechanical ventilation in the intensive care due to a lack of data on safety and efficacy.

Administration

This medicinal product is for single use only. Any unused solution should be discarded.

Rocuronium bromide is administered intravenously either as a bolus injection or as a continuous infusion (see section 6.6).

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to rocuronium or to the bromide ion or to any of the excipients.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Rocuronium bromide should be administered only by an experienced staff familiar with the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Adequate facilities and staff for endotracheal intubation and artificial ventilation have to be available for immediate use.

Since rocuronium bromide causes paralysis of the respiratory muscles, ventilatory support is mandatory for patients treated with this medicinal product until adequate spontaneous respiration is restored.

As with all neuromuscular blocking agents, It is important to anticipate intubation difficulties, particularly when used as part of a rapid sequence induction technique.

As with other neuromuscular blocking agents, residual neuromuscular blockade has been reported for rocuronium bromide. In order to prevent complications resulting from residual neuromuscular blockade, it is recommended to extubate only after the patient has recovered sufficiently from neuromuscular block. Other factors which could cause residual neuromuscular blockade after extubation in the post-operative phase (such as drug interactions or patient condition) should also be considered. If not used as part of standard clinical practice, the use of reversal agent (such as sugammadex or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors) should be considered, especially in those cases where residual neuromuscular blockade is more likely to occur.

Anaphylactic reactions can occur following the administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. Precautions for treating such reactions should always be taken. Particularly in the case of previous anaphylactic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents, special precautions should be taken since allergic cross-reactivity to neuromuscular blocking agents has been reported.

Rocuronium may increase the heart rate.

In general, following long term use of neuromuscular blocking agents in the ICU, prolonged paralysis and/or skeletal muscle weakness has been noted. In order to help preclude possible prolongation of neuromuscular block and/or overdosage it is strongly recommended that neuromuscular transmission is monitored throughout the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. In addition, patients should receive adequate analgesia and sedation. Furthermore, neuromuscular blocking agents should be titrated to effect in the individual patients by or under supervision of experienced clinicians who are familiar with their actions and with appropriate neuromuscular monitoring techniques.

Myopathy after long term administration of other non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents in the ICU in combination with corticosteroid therapy has been reported regularly. Therefore, for patients receiving both neuromuscular blocking agents and corticosteroids, the period of use of the neuromuscular blocking agent should be limited as much as possible.

If suxamethonium is used for intubation, the administration of rocuronium bromide should be delayed until the patient has clinically recovered from the neuromuscular block induced by suxamethonium.

The following conditions may influence the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of rocuronium bromide:

Hepatic and/or biliary tract disease and renal failure

Because rocuronium is excreted in urine and bile, it should be used with caution in patients with clinically significant hepatic and/or biliary diseases and/or renal failure. In these patient groups prolongation of action has been observed with doses of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide.

Prolonged circulation time

Conditions associated with prolonged circulation time such as cardiovascular disease, old age and oedematous state resulting in an increased volume of distribution, may contribute to a slower onset of action. The duration of action may also be prolonged due to a reduced plasma clearance.

Neuromuscular disease

Like other neuromuscular blocking agents, rocuronium bromide should be used with extreme caution in patients with a neuromuscular disease or after poliomyelitis since the response to neuromuscular blocking agents may be considerably altered in these cases. The magnitude and direction of this alteration may vary widely. In patients with myasthenia gravis or with the myasthenic (Eaton-Lambert) syndrome, small doses of rocuronium bromide may have profound effects and rocuronium bromide should be titrated to the response.

Hypothermia

In surgery under hypothermic conditions, the neuromuscular blocking effect of rocuronium bromide is increased and the duration prolonged.

Obesity

Like other neuromuscular blocking agents, rocuronium bromide may exhibit a prolonged duration and a prolonged spontaneous recovery in obese patients when the administered doses are calculated on actual body weight.

Burns

Patients with burns are known to develop resistance to non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents. It is recommended that the dose is titrated to response.

Conditions which may increase the effects of rocuronium bromide

Hypokalaemia (e.g. after severe vomiting, diarrhoea and diuretic therapy), hypermagnesaemia, hypocalcaemia (after massive transfusions), hypoproteinaemia, dehydration, acidosis, hypercapnia, cachexia.

Severe electrolyte disturbances, altered blood pH or dehydration should therefore be corrected when possible.

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol (23 mg) sodium per dose, i.e. essentially “sodium-free”.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

The following medicinal products have been shown to influence the magnitude and/or duration of action of non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents:

Effect of other drugs on rocuronium bromide

Increased effect

- Halogenated volatile anaesthetics potentiate the neuromuscular block of rocuronium bromide. The effect only becomes apparent with maintenance dosing (see section 4.2). Reversal of the block with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors could also be inhibited.

- High doses of: thiopental, methohexital, ketamine, fentanyl, gammahydroxybutyrate, etomidate and propofol

- Other non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.

- After intubation with suxamethonium (see section 4.4).

- Long-term concomitant use of corticosteroids and rocuronium bromide in the ICU may result in prolonged duration of neuromuscular block or myopathy (see section 4.4 and 4.8).

Other drugs

- antibiotics: aminoglycoside, lincosamide s (e.g. lincomycin and clindamycin) and polypeptide antibiotics, acylamino-penicillin antibiotics, tetracyclines, high doses of metronidazole.

- diuretics, thiamine, MAO-inhibiting agents, quinidine and its isomer quinine, protamin, adrenergic blocking agents, magnesium salts, calcium channel blocking agents, lithium salts, local anaesthetics (lidocaine i.v, bupivacaine epidural) and acute administration of phenytoin or β-blocking agents.

Recurarization has been reported after post-operative administration of: aminoglycoside, lincosamide, polypeptide and acylamino-penicillin antibiotics, quinidine, quinine and magnesium salts (see section 4.4)

Decreased effect

- Neostigmine, edrophonium, pyridostigmine, aminopyridine derivatives

- Prior chronic administration of corticosteroids, phenytoin or carbamazepine

- Noradrenaline (norepinephrine), azathioprine (only transitory and limited effect), theophylline, calcium chloride and potassium chloride

- Protease inhibitors (gabexate, ulinastatin)

Variable effect

- Administration of other non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents in combination with rocuronium bromide may produce attenuation or potentiation of the neuromuscular block, depending on the order of administration and the neuromuscular blocking agent used.

- Suxamethonium given after the administration of rocuronium bromide may produce potentiation or attenuation of the neuromuscular blocking effect of rocuronium bromide.

Effect of rocuronium bromide on other drugs

Rocuronium bromide combined with lidocaine may result in a quicker onset of action of lidocaine.

Paediatric patients

No formal interaction studies have been performed. The above mentioned interactions for adults and their special warnings and precautions for use (see section 4.4) should also be taken into account for paediatric patients.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

For rocuronium bromide, no clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development. Caution should be exercised when prescribing rocuronium bromide to pregnant women.

Caesarean section

In patients undergoing Caesarean section, rocuronium bromide can be used as part of a rapid sequence induction technique, provided no intubation difficulties are anticipated and a sufficient dose of anaesthetic agent is administered or following suxamethonium facilitated intubation. Rocuronium bromide, administered in doses of 0.6 mg/kg, has been shown to be safe in parturients undergoing Caesarean section. Rocuronium bromide does not affect Apgar score, foetal muscle tone nor cardiorespiratory adaptation. From umbilical cord blood sampling it is apparent that only limited placental transfer of rocuronium bromide occurs which does not lead to the observation of clinical adverse effects in the newborn.

Note 1: doses of 1.0 mg/kg have been investigated during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, but not in Caesarean section patients. Therefore, only a dose of 0.56 mg/kg is recommended in this patient group.

Note 2: reversal of neuromuscular block induced by neuromuscular blocking agents may be inhibited or unsatisfactory in patients receiving magnesium salts for toxaemia of pregnancy because magnesium salts enhance neuromuscular blockade. Therefore, in these patients the dosage of rocuronium bromide should be reduced and be titrated to twitch response.

Breast-feeding

It is unknown whether rocuronium bromide is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown insignificant levels of rocuronium bromide in breast milk.

Insignificant levels of rocuronium bromide were found in the milk of lactating rats. There are no human data on the use of Rocuronium bromide during lactation. Other medicinal products of this class show little excretion into breast milk and low resorption by the suckling child. Rocuronium bromide should be given to lactating women only when the attending physician decided that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Fertility

There is no data available regarding the effect in the fertility for this product.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Rocuronium bromide has a major influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Since rocuronium bromide is used as an adjunct to general anaesthesia, the usual precautionary measures after a general anaesthesia should be taken for ambulatory patients. In the first 24 hours after complete resolution of neuromuscular block, the patient should not operate any machinery, or should participate in road traffic only with an escort.

4.8 Undesirable effects

The most commonly occurring adverse drug reactions include injection site pain/reaction, changes in vital signs and prolonged neuromuscular block. The most frequently reported serious adverse drug reactions during post-marketing surveillance is 'anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions' and associated symptoms. See also the explanations below the table.

MedDRA SOC

Preferred term1

Uncommon/rare2 (<1/100, >1/10 000)

Very rare (<1/10 000)

Frequency unknown

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity

Anaphylactic reaction

Anaphylactoid reaction

Anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactoid shock

Nervous system disorders

Flaccid paralysis

Cardiac disorders

Tachycardia

Vascular disorders

Hypotension

Circulatory collapse and shock

Flushing

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Bronchospasm

Apnoea

Respiratory insufficiency

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Angioneurotic edema

Urticaria

Rash

Erythematous rash

Itching

Exanthema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Muscular weakness3

Steroid myopathy3

General disorders and administration site conditions

Drug ineffective

Drug effect/ therapeutic response decreased

Drug effect/ therapeutic response increased

Injection site pain

Injection site reaction

Face oedema

Injury, poisoning and procedural complications

Prolonged neuromuscular block

Delayed recovery from anesthesia

MedDRA version 8.1

Anaphylaxis

Although very rare, severe anaphylactic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents, including rocuronium bromide, have been reported. Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions are: bronchospasm, cardiovascular changes (e.g. hypotension, tachycardia, circulatory collapse - shock), and cutaneous changes (e.g. angioedema, urticaria). These reactions have, in some cases, been fatal. Due to the possible severity of these reactions, one should always assume they may occur and take the necessary precautions.

Since neuromuscular blocking agents are known to be capable of inducing histamine release both locally at the site of injection and systemically, the possible occurrence of itching and erythematous reaction at the site of injection and/or generalized histaminoid (anaphylactoid) reactions (see also under anaphylactic reactions above) should always be taken into consideration when administering these drugs.

In clinical studies only a slight increase in mean plasma histamine levels has been observed following rapid bolus administration of 0.3-0.9 mg/kg rocuronium bromide.

Prolonged neuromuscular block

The most frequent adverse reaction to nondepolarising blocking agents as a class consists of an extension of the drug's pharmacological action beyond the time period needed. This may vary from skeletal muscle weakness to profound and prolonged skeletal muscle paralysis resulting in respiratory insufficiency or apnoea.

Myopathy

Myopathy has been reported after the use of various neuromuscular blocking agents in the ICU in combination with corticosteroids (see section 4.4).

Local injection site reactions

During rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, pain on injection has been reported, especially when the patient has not yet completely lost consciousness and particularly when propofol is used as the induction agent. In clinical studies, pain on injection has been noted in 16% of the patients who underwent rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia with propofol and in less than 0.5% of the patients who underwent rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia with fentanyl and thiopental.

Paediatric patients

A meta-analysis of 11 clinical studies in paediatric patients (n=704) with rocuronium bromide (up to 1 mg/kg) showed that tachycardia was identified as adverse drug reaction with a frequency of 1.4%.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

1 Frequencies are estimates derived from post-marketing surveillance reports and data from the general literature.

2 Post-marketing surveillance data cannot give precise incidence figures. For that reason, the reporting frequency was divided over two rather than five categories.

3 after long-term use in the ICU

4.9 Overdose

In the event of overdosage and prolonged neuromuscular block, the patient should continue to receive ventilatory support and sedation. There are two options for the reversal of neuromuscular block: (1) In adults, sugammadex can be used for reversal of intense (profound) and deep block. The dose of sugammadex to be administered depends on the level of neuromuscular block. (2) An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (e.g. neostigmine, edrophonium, pyridostigmine) or sugammadex can be used once spontaneous recovery starts and should be administered in adequate doses. When administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibiting agent fails to reverse the neuromuscular effects of rocuronium bromide, ventilation must be continued until spontaneous breathing is restored. Repeated dosage of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be dangerous.

In animal studies, severe depression of cardiovascular function, ultimately leading to cardiac collapse did not occur until a cumulative dose of 750 x ED90 (135 mg/kg rocuronium bromide) was administered.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Muscle relaxants, peripherally acting agents, other quaternary ammonium compounds ATC code: M03AC09

Mechanism of Action

Rocuronium bromide is a fast onset, intermediate acting non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agent, possessing all of the characteristic pharmacological actions of this class of medicinal products (curariform agents). It acts by competing for nicotinic cholinoceptors at the motor end-plate. This action is antagonised by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine, edrophonium and pyridostigmine.

Pharmacodynamic effects

The ED90 (dose required to produce 90% depression of the twitch response of the thumb to stimulation of the ulnar nerve) during intravenous anaesthesia is approximately 0.3 mg/kg rocuronium bromide. The ED95 in infants is lower than in adults and children (0.25, 0.35 and 0.40 mg/kg respectively).

The clinical duration (the duration until spontaneous recovery to 25% of control twitch height) with 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide is 30–40 minutes. The total duration (time until spontaneous recovery to 90% of control twitch height) is 50 minutes. The mean time of spontaneous recovery of twitch response from 25 to 75% (recovery index) after a bolus dose of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide is 14 minutes. With lower dosages of 0.3-0.45 mg/kg rocuronium bromide (1 -1½ x ED90), onset of action is slower and duration of action is shorter (13 – 26 min). With high doses of 2 mg/kg, clinical duration is 110 minutes.

Intubation during routine anaesthesia

Within 60 seconds following intravenous administration of a dose of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide (2 x ED90 under intravenous anaesthesia), adequate intubation conditions can be achieved in nearly all patients of which in 80% intubation conditions are rated excellent. General muscle paralysis adequate for any type of procedure is established within 2 minutes. After administration of 0.45 mg/kg rocuronium bromide, acceptable intubation conditions are present after 90 seconds.

Rapid Sequence Induction

During rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia under propofol or fentanyl/thiopental anaesthesia, adequate intubation conditions are achieved within 60 seconds in 93% and 96% of the patients respectively, following a dose of 1.0 mg/kg rocuronium bromide. Of these, 70% are rated excellent. The clinical duration with this dose approaches 1 hour, at which time the neuromuscular block can be safely reversed. Following a dose of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide, adequate intubation conditions are achieved within 60 seconds in 81% and 75% of the patients during a rapid sequence induction technique with propofol or fentanyl/thiopental, respectively.

Doses higher than 0.1 mg/kg rocuronium bromide do not improve intubation conditions in a perceptible way, however the duration of action is prolonged. Doses higher than 4 x ED90 were not studied.

Special populations

Mean onset time in infants and children at an intubation dose of 0.6 mg/kg is slightly shorter than in adults. The duration of relaxation and the time to recovery tend to be shorter in children compared to infants and adults.

The duration of action of maintenance doses of 0.15 mg/kg rocuronium bromide might be somewhat longer under enflurane and isoflurane anaesthesia in geriatric patients and in patients with hepatic and/or renal disease (approximately 20 minutes) than in patients without impairment of excretory organ functions under intravenous anaesthesia (approximately 13 minutes). No accumulation of effect (progressive increase in duration of action) with repetitive maintenance dosing at the recommended level has been observed.

Intensive Care Unit

The use of rocuronium in the Intensive Care Unit was studied in two open-label trials. A total of 95 adult patients were treated with an initial dose of 0.6 mg rocuronium bromide per kg body weight, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 - 0.5 mg/kg/h during the first hour of administration as soon as twitch height recovers to 10 % or upon reappearance of 1 to 2 twitches to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation. The dosages were individually titrated. In the following hours, doses were decreased under regular monitoring of the TOF stimulation. Administration for a time period of up to 7 days has been investigated.

Adequate neuromuscular blockade was achieved, but a high variability in hourly infusion rates between patients and a prolonged recovery from neuromuscular blockade was observed.

The time to recover of the train of four ratio to 0.7 is not significantly correlated to the total duration of rocuronium infusion. After a continuous infusion for 20 hours or more the median (range) time between return of T2 to train of four stimulation and recovery of the train of four ratio to 0.7 varied between 0.8 and 12.5 hours in patients without multiple organ failure and 1.2 – 25.5 hours in patients with multiple organ failure.

Cardiovascular surgery

In patients scheduled for cardiovascular surgery the most common cardiovascular changes during the onset of maximum block following 0.6-0.9 mg/kg rocuronium bromide are a slight and clinically insignificant increase in heart rate up to 9% and an increase in mean arterial blood pressure up to 16% from the control values.

Reversal of muscle relaxation

Administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, (neostigmine, pyridostigmine or edrophonium) at reappearance of T2 or at the first signs of clinical recovery, antagonises the action of Rocuronium bromide.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

After intravenous administration of a single bolus dose of rocuronium bromide the plasma concentration time course runs in three exponential phases. In normal adults, the mean (95%CI) elimination half-life is 73 (66-80) minutes, the (apparent) volume of distribution at steady state conditions is 203 (193-214) ml/kg and plasma clearance is 3.7 (3.5-3.9) ml/kg/min.

In controlled studies the plasma clearance in geriatric patients and in patients with renal dysfunction was reduced, in most studies however without reaching the level of statistical significance. In patients with hepatic disease, the mean elimination half-life is prolonged by 30 minutes and the mean plasma clearance is reduced by 1 ml/kg/min. (See also section 4.2).

In infants (28 days to 23 months), the apparent volume of distribution at steady state conditions is increased compared to adults and children (2-11 years). In older children (3-8 years), a trend is seen towards higher clearance and shorter elimination half-life (approximately 20 minutes) compared to adults, younger children and infants.

When administered as a continuous infusion to facilitate mechanical ventilation for 20 hours or more, the mean elimination half-life and the mean (apparent) volume of distribution at steady state are increased.

A large between patient variability is found in controlled clinical studies, related to nature and extent of (multiple) organ failure and individual patient characteristics. In patients with multiple organ failure a mean (± SD) elimination half-life of 21.5 (± 3.3) hours, a (apparent) volume of distribution at steady state of 1.5 (± 0.8) l/kg and a plasma clearance of 2.1 (± 0.8) ml/kg/min were found. (See also section 4.2).

Rocuronium bromide is excreted in urine and bile. Excretion in urine approaches 40% within 12-24 hours.

After injection of a radiolabeled dose of rocuronium bromide, excretion of the radiolabel is on average 47% in urine and 43% in faeces after 9 days. Approximately 50% is recovered as the parent compound. No metabolites are detected in plasma.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

No chronic toxicity studies of rocuronium bromide have been conducted.

In vivo and in vitro mutagenicity studies have revealed no mutagenic potential of rocuronium bromide.

No carcinogenicity studies of rocuronium bromide have been conducted.

Studies using sub-pharmacological intravenous doses of rocuronium bromide in rats during organogenesis have produced no evidence of embryolethal effects, teratological alterations or foetal growth inhibition. Rocuronium bromide crosses the placental barrier in rats to a limited extent, and is recovered in milk in small amounts.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Sodium acetate trihydrate

Sodium chloride

Acetic acid 99% (for pH adjustment)

Acetic acid 30% (for pH adjustment)

Water for injections

Sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment)

6.2 Incompatibilities

Physical incompatibility has been documented for Rocuronium bromide when added to solutions containing the following active substances: amphotericin, amoxicillin, azathioprine, cefazolin, cloxacillin, dexamethasone, diazepam, enoximone, erythromycin, famotidine, furosemide, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, insulin, intralipid, methohexital, methylprednisolone, prednisolone sodium succinate, thiopental, trimethoprim and vancomycin.

Rocuronium bromide must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in section 6.6.

If Rocuronium bromide is administered via the same infusion line that is also used for other medicinal products, it is important that this infusion line is adequately flushed (e.g. with sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9% w/v) solution) between administration of Rocuronium bromide and medicinal products for which incompatibility with Rocuronium bromide has been demonstrated or for which compatibility with Rocuronium bromide has not been established.

6.3 Shelf life

36 months

Shelf-life after first opening

The solution should be used immediately after opening the ampoule/vial. Discard any unused contents.

In-use shelf-life diluted medicinal product

After dilution with infusion fluids (see section 6.6), chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated for 24 hours at 25°C. From a microbiological point of view, the diluted product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user/administrator and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2 to 8°C, unless dilution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in a refrigerator (2°C - 8°C).

Do not freeze.

Keep the ampoule/vial in the outer carton in order to protect from light.

Rocuronium bromide may also be stored outside the refrigerator at a temperature of up to 25°C for a maximum of 12 weeks, after which it should be discarded. The product should not be placed back into the refrigerator, once it has been kept outside.

For storage conditions after first opening and of the diluted medicinal product, see section 6.3.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

For vials: Clear, colourless glass (type I), closed with bromobutyl rubber stopper and polypropylene flip-off cap.

For ampoules: Clear, colourless glass (type I).

Ampoules/Vials of 5 and 10 ml

Pack sizes:

10x 5 ml

12x 5 ml

(6x 10) x 5 ml

10x 10 ml

(2x 10) x 10 ml

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Compatibility studies with the following infusion fluids have been performed: in nominal concentration of 5 mg/ml Rocuronium bromide has been shown to be compatible with: sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution, glucose 50 mg/ml (5%) solution, glucose 33 mg/ml (3.3 %) in sodium chloride 3 mg/ml (0.3%) solution, water for injections and Lactated Ringers. Administration should begin immediately after mixing, and should be completed within 24 hours.

Single use only. Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

Do not use Rocuronium bromide if you notice that the solution is not clear and not free from particles

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Ibigen Srl,

via Fossignano 2,

04011 Aprilia (LT)

Italy

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 31745/0029

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

15/05/2013

10. Date of revision of the text

29/11/2018