This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Esomeprazole 40mg powder for solution for injection or infusion

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each vial contains esomeprazole 40 mg (as sodium salt).

Each vial contains <1 mmol sodium.

For a full list of excipients see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Powder for solution for injection or infusion.

White to off-white porous and uniform lyophilized powder.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Esomeprazole for injection or infusion is indicated for:

Adults

• gastric antisecretory treatment when the oral route is not possible, such as:

▪ gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in patients with oesophagitis and/or severe symptoms of reflux

▪ healing of gastric ulcers associated with NSAID therapy

▪ prevention of gastric and duodenal ulcers associated with NSAID therapy, in patients at risk.

• prevention of rebleeding following therapeutic endoscopy for acute bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers

Children and adolescents aged 1-18 years

• gastric antisecretory treatment when the oral route is not possible, such as:

▪ gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in patients with erosive reflux oesophagitis and/or severe symptoms of reflux.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults

Gastric antisecretory treatment when the oral route is not possible

Patients who cannot take oral medication may be treated parenterally with 20–40 mg once daily. Patients with reflux oesophagitis should be treated with 40 mg once daily. Patients treated symptomatically for reflux disease should be treated with 20 mg once daily.

For healing of gastric ulcers associated with NSAID therapy the usual dose is 20 mg once daily. For prevention of gastric and duodenal ulcers associated with NSAID therapy, patients at risk should be treated with 20 mg once daily.

Usually the intravenous treatment duration is short and transfer to oral treatment should be made as soon as possible.

Prevention of rebleeding of gastric and duodenal ulcers

Following therapeutic endoscopy for acute bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers, 80 mg should be administered as a bolus infusion over 30 minutes, followed by a continuous intravenous infusion of 8 mg/h given over 3 days (72 hours.).

The parenteral treatment period should be followed by oral acid-suppression therapy.

Method of administration

For preparation of reconstituted solution, see section 6.6.

Injection

40 mg dose

5 ml of the reconstituted solution (8 mg/ml) should be given as an intravenous injection over a period of at least 3 minutes.

20 mg dose

2.5 ml or half of the reconstituted solution (8 mg/ml) should be given as an intravenous injection over a period of at least 3 minutes. Any unused solution should be discarded.

Infusion

40 mg dose

The reconstituted solution should be given as an intravenous infusion over a period of 10 to 30 minutes.

20 mg dose

Half of the reconstituted solution should be given as an intravenous infusion over a period of 10 to 30 minutes. Any unused solution should be discarded.

80 mg bolus dose

The reconstituted solution should be given as a continuous intravenous infusion over 30 minutes.

8 mg/h dose

The reconstituted solution should be given as a continuous intravenous infusion over a period of 71.5 hours (calculated rate of infusion of 8 mg/h. See section 6.3 for shelf-life of the reconstituted solution.).

Impaired renal function

Dose adjustment is not required in patients with impaired renal function. Due to limited experience in patients with severe renal insufficiency, such patients should be treated with caution. (See section 5.2.)

Impaired hepatic function

GORD: Dose adjustment is not required in patients with mild to moderate liver impairment. For patients with severe liver impairment, a maximum daily dose of 20 mg Esomeprazole should not be exceeded. (See section 5.2.)

Bleeding ulcers: Dose adjustment is not required in patients with mild to moderate liver impairment. For patients with severe liver impairment, following an initial bolus dose of 80 mg Esomeprazole for infusion, a continuous intravenous infusion dose of 4 mg/h for 71.5 hours may be sufficient (see section 5.2).

Elderly

Dose adjustment is not required in the elderly.

Paediatric population

Posology

Children and adolescents aged 1-18 years

Gastric antisecretory treatment when the oral route is not possible

Patients who cannot take oral medication may be treated parenterally once daily, as a part of a full treatment period for GORD (see doses in table below).

Usually the intravenous treatment duration should be short and transfer to oral treatment should be made as soon as possible.

Recommended intravenous doses of esomeprazole

Age group

Treatment of erosive reflux oesophagitis

Symptomatic treatment of GORD

1-11 years

Weight <20 kg: 10 mg once daily

Weight ≥20 kg: 10 mg or 20 mg once daily

10 mg once daily

12-18 years

40 mg once daily

20 mg once daily

Method of administration

For preparation of reconstituted solution, see section 6.6.

Injection

40 mg dose

5 ml of the reconstituted solution (8 mg/ml) should be given as an intravenous injection over a period of at least 3 minutes.

20 mg dose

2.5 ml or half of the reconstituted solution (8 mg/ml) should be given as an intravenous injection over a period of at least 3 minutes. Any unused solution should be discarded.

10 mg dose

1.25 ml of the reconstituted solution (8 mg/ml) should be given as an intravenous injection over a period of at least 3 minutes. Any unused solution should be discarded.

Infusion

40 mg dose

The reconstituted solution should be given as an intravenous infusion over a period of 10 to 30 minutes.

20 mg dose

Half of the reconstituted solution should be given as an intravenous infusion over a period of 10 to 30 minutes. Any unused solution should be discarded.

10 mg dose

A quarter of the reconstituted solution should be given as an intravenous infusion over a period of 10 to 30 minutes. Any unused solution should be discarded.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance esomeprazole or to other substituted benzimidazoles or to any of the excipients of this medicinal product.

Esomeprazole should not be used concomitantly with nelfinavir (See section 4.5).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

In the presence of any alarm symptom (e.g. significant unintentional weight loss, recurrent vomiting, dysphagia, haematemesis or melaena) and when gastric ulcer is suspected or present, malignancy should be excluded, as treatment with Esomeprazole may alleviate symptoms and delay diagnosis.

Treatment with proton pump inhibitors may lead to slightly increased risk of gastrointestinal infections such as Salmonella and Campylobacter (See section 5.1).

Co-administration of esomeprazole with atazanavir is not recommended (see section 4.5). If the combination of atazanavir with a proton pump inhibitor is judged unavoidable, close clinical monitoring is recommended in combination with an increase in the dose of atazanavir to 400 mg with 100 mg of ritonavir; esomeprazole 20 mg should not be exceeded.

Esomeprazole, as all acid-blocking medicines, may reduce the absorption of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) due to hypo- or achlorhydria. This should be considered in patients with reduced body stores or risk factors for reduced vitamin B12 absorption on long-term therapy.

Esomeprazole is a CYP2C19 inhibitor. When starting or ending treatment with esomeprazole, the potential for interactions with drugs metabolised through CYP2C19 should be considered. An interaction is observed between clopidogrel and omeprazole (see section 4.5). The clinical relevance of this interaction is uncertain. As a precaution, concomitant use of esomeprazole and clopidogrel should be discouraged.

Severe hypomagnesaemia has been reported in patients treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) like esomeprazole for at least three months, and in most cases for a year. Serious manifestations of hypomagnesaemia such as fatigue, tetany, delirium, convulsions, dizziness and ventricular arrhythmia can occur but they may begin insidiously and be overlooked. In most affected patients, hypomagnesaemia improved after magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.

For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesaemia (e.g. diuretics), healthcare professionals should consider measuring magnesium levels before starting PPI treatment and periodically during treatment.

Proton pump inhibitors, especially if used in high doses and over long durations (>1 year), may modestly increase the risk of hip, wrist and spine fracture, predominantly in the elderly or in presence of other recognised risk factors. Observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors may increase the overall risk of fracture by 10-40%. Some of this increase may be due to other risk factors. Patients at risk of osteoporosis should receive care according to current clinical guidelines and they should have an adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium.

Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE)

Proton pump inhibitors are associated with very infrequent cases of SCLE. If lesions occur, especially in sun-exposed areas of the skin, and if accompanied by arthralgia, the patient should seek medical help promptly and the health care professional should consider stopping Esomeprazole SCLE after previous treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may increase the risk of SCLE with other proton pump inhibitors.

Interference with laboratory tests

Increased Chromogranin A (CgA) level may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumours. To avoid this interference, Esomeprazole treatment should be stopped for at least 5 days before CgA measurements (see section 5.1). If CgA and gastrin levels have not returned to reference range after initial measurement, measurements should be repeated 14 days after cessation of proton pump inhibitor treatment.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

Effects of esomeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of other drugs

Medicinal products with pH dependent absorption

Gastric acid suppression during treatment with esomeprazole and other PPIs might decrease or increase the absorption of medicinal products with a gastric pH dependent absorption. As with other medicinal products that decrease intragastric acidity, the absorption of medicinal products such as ketoconazole, itraconazole and erlotinib can decrease and the absorption of digoxin can increase during treatment with esomeprazole. Concomitant treatment with omeprazole (20 mg daily) and digoxin in healthy subjects increased the bioavailability of digoxin by 10% (up to 30% in two out of ten subjects). Digoxin toxicity has been rarely reported. However, caution should be exercised when esomeprazole is given at high doses in elderly patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin should then be reinforced.

Omeprazole has been reported to interact with some protease inhibitors. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these reported interactions are not always known. Increased gastric pH during omeprazole treatment may change the absorption of the protease inhibitors. Other possible interaction mechanisms are via inhibition of CYP2C19.

For atazanavir and nelfinavir, decreased serum levels have been reported when given together with omeprazole and concomitant administration is not recommended.

Co-administration of omeprazole (40 mg once daily) with atazanavir 300 mg/ritonavir 100 mg to healthy volunteers resulted in a substantial reduction in atazanavir exposure (approximately 75% decrease in AUC, Cmax and Cmin).

Increasing the atazanavir dose to 400 mg did not compensate for the impact of omeprazole on atazanavir exposure. The co-administration of omeprazole (20 mg qd) with atazanavir 400 mg/ritonavir 100 mg to healthy volunteers resulted in a decrease of approximately 30% in the atazanavir exposure as compared with the exposure observed with atazanavir 300 mg/ritonavir 100 mg qd without omeprazole 20 mg qd. Co-administration of omeprazole (40 mg qd) reduced mean nelfinavir AUC, Cmax and Cmin by 36–39 % and mean AUC, Cmax and Cmin for the pharmacologically active metabolite M8 was reduced by 75-92%. For saquinavir (with concomitant ritonavir), increased serum levels (80-100%) have been reported during concomitant omeprazole treatment (40 mg qd). Treatment with omeprazole 20 mg qd had no effect on the exposure of darunavir (with concomitant ritonavir) and amprenavir (with concomitant ritonavir). Treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg qd had no effect on the exposure of amprenavir (with and without concomitant ritonavir). Treatment with omeprazole 40 mg qd had no effect on the exposure of lopinavir (with concomitant ritonavir). Due to the similar pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of omeprazole and esomeprazole, concomitant administration with esomeprazole and atazanavir is not recommended and concomitant administration with esomeprazole and nelfinavir is contraindicated.

Drugs metabolised by CYP2C19

Esomeprazole inhibits CYP2C19, the major esomeprazole-metabolising enzyme. Thus, when esomeprazole is combined with drugs metabolised by CYP2C19, such as diazepam, citalopram, imipramine, clomipramine, phenytoin etc., the plasma concentrations of these drugs may be increased and a dose reduction could be needed. Concomitant oral administration of 30 mg esomeprazole resulted in a 45% decrease in clearance of the CYP2C19 substrate diazepam. Concomitant oral administration of 40 mg esomeprazole and phenytoin resulted in a 13% increase in trough plasma levels of phenytoin in epileptic patients. It is recommended to monitor the plasma concentrations of phenytoin when treatment with esomeprazole is introduced or withdrawn. Omeprazole (40 mg once daily) increased voriconazole (a CYP2C19 substrate) Cmax and AUC_ by 15% and 41%, respectively.

Concomitant oral administration of 40 mg esomeprazole to warfarin-treated patients in a clinical trial showed that coagulation times were within the accepted range. However, post-marketing of oral esomeprazole, a few isolated cases of elevated INR of clinical significance have been reported during concomitant treatment. Monitoring is recommended when initiating and ending concomitant esomeprazole treatment during treatment with warfarin or other coumarine derivatives.

Omeprazole as well as esomeprazole act as inhibitors of CYP2C19. Omeprazole, given in doses of 40 mg to healthy subjects in a cross-over study, increased Cmax and AUC for cilostazol by 18% and 26% respectively, and one of its active metabolites by 29% and 69% respectively.

In healthy volunteers, concomitant oral administration of 40 mg esomeprazole and cisapride resulted in a 32% increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and a 31% prolongation of elimination half-life(t1/2) but no significant increase in peak plasma levels of cisapride. The slightly prolonged QTc interval observed after administration of cisapride alone, was not further prolonged when cisapride was given in combination with esomeprazole.

Esomeprazole has been shown to have no clinically relevant effects on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin or quinidine.

No in vivo interaction studies have been performed with the high dose intravenous regimen (80mg+8mg/h). The effect of esomeprazole on drugs metabolised by CYP2C19 may be more pronounced during this regimen, and patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects, during the 3-day intravenous treatment period.

In a crossover clinical study, clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg/day) alone and with omeprazole (80 mg at the same time as clopidogrel) were administered for 5 days. The exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel was decreased by 46% (Day 1) and 42% (Day 5) when clopidogrel and omeprazole were administered together. Mean inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was diminished by 47% (24 hours) and 30% (Day 5) when clopidogrel and omeprazole were administered together.

In another study it was shown that administering clopidogrel and omeprazole at different times did not prevent their interaction that is likely to be driven by the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on CYP2C19. Inconsistent data on the clinical implications of this PK/PD interaction in terms of major cardiovascular events have been reported from observational and clinical studies.

Unknown mechanism

When given together with PPIs, methotrexate levels have been reported to increase in some patients. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of esomeprazole may need to be considered.

Effects of other drugs on the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole

Esomeprazole is metabolised by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Concomitant oral administration of esomeprazole and a CYP3A4 inhibitor, clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.), resulted in a doubling of the exposure (AUC) to esomeprazole. Concomitant administration of esomeprazole and a combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP 3A4 may result in more than doubling of the esomeprazole exposure. The CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibitor voriconazole increased omeprazole AUC by 280%. A dose adjustment of esomeprazole is not regularly required in either of these situations. However, dose adjustment should be considered in patients with severe hepatic impairment and if long-term treatment is indicated.

Drugs known to induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 or both (such as rifampicin and St. John's wort) may lead to decreased esomeprazole serum levels by increasing the esomeprazole metabolism.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

For esomeprazole, limited data on exposed pregnancies are available. Animal studies with esomeprazole do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to embryonal/foetal development. Animal studies with the racemic mixture do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, parturition or postnatal development. Caution should be exercised when prescribing Esomeprazole to pregnant women.

It is not known whether esomeprazole is excreted in human breast milk. No studies in lactating women have been performed. Therefore Esomeprazole should not be used during breast-feeding.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Esomeprazole is not likely to affect the ability to drive or use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

The following adverse drug reactions have been identified or suspected in the clinical trials programme for esomeprazole administered orally or intravenously and post-marketing when administered orally. The reactions are classified according to frequency: very common >1/10; common >1/100 to <1/10; uncommon >1/1,000 to <1/100; rare >1/10,000 to <1/1,000; very rare <1/10,000; not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Rare: Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Very rare: Agranulocytosis, pancytopenia

Immune system disorders

Rare: Hypersensitivity reactions e.g. fever, angioedema and anaphylactic reaction/shock

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Uncommon: Peripheral oedema

Rare: Hyponatraemia

Not known: Hypomagnesaemia (see section 4.4); severe hypomagnesaemia can correlate with hypocalcaemia

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon: Insomnia

Rare: Agitation, confusion, depression

Very rare: Aggression, hallucinations

Nervous system disorders

Common: Headache

Uncommon: Dizziness, paraesthesia, somnolence

Rare: Taste disturbance

Eye disorders

Uncommon: Blurred vision

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon: Vertigo

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Rare: Bronchospasm

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: Abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence, nausea/vomiting, fundic gland polyps (benign)

Uncommon: Dry mouth

Rare: Stomatitis, gastrointestinal candidiasis

Not known: Microscopic colitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon: Increased liver enzymes

Rare: Hepatitis with or without jaundice

Very rare: Hepatic failure, encephalopathy in patients with pre-existing liver disease

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common: Administration site reactions*

Uncommon: Dermatitis, pruritus, rash, urticaria

Rare: Alopecia, photosensitivity

Very rare: Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)

Frequency 'not known': Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (see section 4.4).

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Uncommon: Fracture of the hip, wrist or spine (see section 4.4)

Rare: Arthralgia, myalgia

Very rare: Muscular weakness

Renal and urinary disorders

Very rare: Interstitial nephritis

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Very rare: Gynaecomastia

General disorders and administration site conditions

Rare: Malaise, increased sweating

*Administration site reactions have mainly been observed in a study with high-dose exposure over 3 days (72 hours). See section 5.3.

Irreversible visual impairment has been reported in isolated cases of critically ill patients who have received omeprazole (the racemate) intravenous injection, especially at high doses, but no causal relationship has been established.

Paediatric population

A randomised, open-label, multi-national study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of repeated intravenous doses for 4 days of once daily esomeprazole in paediatric patients 0 to 18 years old (see section 5.2). A total of 57 patients (8 children in the age group 1–5 years) were included for safety evaluation. The safety results are consistent with the known safety profile of esomeprazole, and no new safety signals were identified.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

4.9 Overdose

There is very limited experience to date with deliberate overdose. The symptoms described in connection with an oral dose of 280 mg were gastrointestinal symptoms and weakness. Single oral doses of 80 mg esomeprazole and intravenous doses of 308 mg esomeprazole over 24 hours were uneventful. No specific antidote is known. Esomeprazole is extensively plasma protein bound and is therefore not readily dialyzable. As in any case of overdose, treatment should be symptomatic and general supportive measures should be utilised.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Proton pump inhibitor

ATC Code: A02B C05

Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole and reduces gastric acid secretion through a specific targeted mechanism of action. It is a specific inhibitor of the acid pump in the parietal cell. Both the R- and S-isomer of omeprazole have similar pharmacodynamic activity.

Site and mechanism of action

Esomeprazole is a weak base and is concentrated and converted to the active form in the highly acidic environment of the secretory canaliculi of the parietal cell, where it inhibits the enzyme H+K+-ATPase – the acid pump and inhibits both basal and stimulated acid secretion.

Effect on gastric acid secretion

After 5 days of oral dosing with 20 mg and 40 mg of esomeprazole, intragastric pH above 4 was maintained for a mean time of 13 hours and 17 hours, respectively over 24 hours in symptomatic GORD patients. The effect is similar irrespective of whether esomeprazole is administered orally or intravenously.

Using AUC as a surrogate parameter for plasma concentration, a relationship between inhibition of acid secretion and exposure has been shown after oral administration of esomeprazole.

During intravenous administration of 80 mg esomeprazole as a bolus infusion over 30 minutes followed by a continuous intravenous infusion of 8 mg/h for 23.5 hours, intragastric pH above 4, and pH above 6 was maintained for a mean time of 21 hours and 11-13 hours, respectively, over 24 hours in healthy subjects.

Therapeutic effects of acid inhibition

Healing of reflux esophagitis with esomeprazole 40 mg occurs in approximately 78% of patients after 4 weeks, and in 93% after 8 weeks of oral treatment.

In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, patients with endoscopically confirmed peptic ulcer bleeding characterised as Forrest Ia, Ib, IIa or IIB (9%, 43%, 38% and 10% respectively) were randomised to receive Esomeprazole solution for infusion (n=375) or placebo (n=389). Following endoscopic haemostasis, patients received either 80 mg esomeprazole as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes followed by a continuous infusion of 8 mg per hour or placebo for 72 hours. After the initial 72 hour period, all patients received open-label 40 mg oral Esomeprazole for 27 days for acid suppression. The occurrence of rebleeding within 3 days was 5.9% in the Esomeprazole treated group compared to 10.3% for the placebo group. At 30 days post-treatment, the occurrence of rebleeding in the Esomeprazole treated versus the placebo treated group was 7.7% vs 13.6%.

Other effects related to acid inhibition

During treatment with antisecretory medicinal products, serum gastrin increases in response to the decreased acid secretion. Also CgA increases due to decreased gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumours.

Available published evidence suggests that proton pump inhibitors should be discontinued between 5 days and 2 weeks prior to CgA measurements. This is to allow CgA levels that might be spuriously elevated following PPI treatment to return to reference range.

An increased number of ECL cells possibly related to the increased serum gastrin levels, have been observed in some patients during long-term treatment with orally administered esomeprazole.

During long-term oral treatment with antisecretory drugs, gastric glandular cysts have been reported to occur at a somewhat increased frequency. These changes are a physiological consequence of pronounced inhibition of acid secretion, are benign and appear to be reversible.

Decreased gastric acidity due to any means including proton pump inhibitors, increases gastric counts of bacteria normally present in the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors may lead to slightly increased risk of gastrointestinal infections such as Salmonella and Campylobacter and, in hospitalised patients, possibly also Clostridium difficile.

Paediatric population

In a placebo-controlled study (98 patients aged 1-11 months) efficacy and safety in patients with signs and symptoms of GORD were evaluated. Esomeprazole 1 mg/kg once daily was given orally for 2 weeks (open-label phase) and 80 patients were included for an additional 4 weeks (double blind, treatment-withdrawal phase). There was no significant difference between esomeprazole and placebo for the primary endpoint time to discontinuation due to symptom worsening.

In a placebo-controlled study (52 patients aged < 1 month) efficacy and safety in patients with symptoms of GORD were evaluated. Esomeprazole 0.5 mg/kg once daily was given orally for a minimum of 10 days. There was no significant difference between esomeprazole and placebo in the primary endpoint, change from baseline of number of occurrences of symptoms of GORD.

Results from the paediatric studies further show that 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg esomeprazole in < 1 month old and 1 to 11 month old infants, respectively, reduced the mean percentage of time with intra-oesophageal pH < 4.

The safety profile appeared to be similar to that seen in adults.

In a study in paediatric GORD patients (<1 to 17 years of age) receiving long-term PPI treatment, 61% of the children developed minor degrees of ECL cell hyperplasia with no known clinical significance and with no development of atrophic gastritis or carcinoid tumours.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Distribution

The apparent volume of distribution at steady state in healthy subjects is approximately 0.22 l/kg body weight. Esomeprazole is 97% plasma protein bound.

Metabolism and excretion

Esomeprazole is completely metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system (CYP). The major part of the metabolism of esomeprazole is dependent on the polymorphic CYP2C19, responsible for the formation of the hydroxy- and desmethyl metabolites of esomeprazole. The remaining part is dependent on another specific isoform, CYP3A4, responsible for the formation of esomeprazole sulphone, the main metabolite in plasma.

The parameters below reflect mainly the pharmacokinetics in individuals with a functional CYP2C19 enzyme, extensive metabolisers.

Total plasma clearance is about 17 l/h after a single dose and about 9 l/h after repeated administration. The plasma elimination half-life is about 1.3 hours after repeated once-daily dosing. Total exposure (AUC) increases with repeated administration of esomeprazole. This increase is dose-dependent and results in a non-linear dose-AUC relationship after repeated administration.

This time- and dose-dependency is due to a decrease of first pass metabolism and systemic clearance probably caused by inhibition of the CYP2C19 enzyme by esomeprazole and/or its sulphone metabolite.

Esomeprazole is completely eliminated from plasma between doses with no tendency for accumulation during once daily administration.

Following repeated doses of 40 mg administered as intravenous injections, the mean peak plasma concentration is approx. 13.6 micromol/l. The mean peak plasma concentration after corresponding oral doses is approx. 4.6 micromol/l. A smaller increase (of approx 30%) can be seen in total exposure after intravenous administration compared to oral administration. There is a dose-linear increase in total exposure following intravenous administration of esomeprazole as a 30-minute infusion (40 mg, 80 mg or 120 mg) followed by a continuous infusion (4 mg/h or 8 mg/h) over 23.5 hours.

The major metabolites of esomeprazole have no effect on gastric acid secretion. Almost 80% of an oral dose of esomeprazole is excreted as metabolites in the urine, the remainder in the faeces. Less than 1% of the parent drug is found in urine.

Special patient populations

Approximately 2.9±1.5% of the population lacks a functional CYP2C19 enzyme and is called poor metabolisers. In these individuals the metabolism of esomeprazole is probably mainly catalysed by CYP3A4. After repeated once-daily administration of 40 mg oral esomeprazole, the mean total exposure was approximately 100% higher in poor metabolisers than in subjects with a functional CYP2C19 enzyme (extensive metabolisers). Mean peak plasma concentrations were increased by about 60%. Similar differences have been seen for intravenous administration of esomeprazole. These findings have no implications for the posology of esomeprazole.

The metabolism of esomeprazole is not significantly changed in elderly subjects (71-80 years of age).

Following a single oral dose of 40 mg esomeprazole the mean total exposure is approximately 30% higher in females than in males. No gender difference is seen after repeated once-daily administration. Similar differences have been observed for intravenous administration of esomeprazole. These findings have no implications for the posology of esomeprazole.

The metabolism of esomeprazole in patients with mild to moderate liver dysfunction may be impaired. The metabolic rate is decreased in patients with severe liver dysfunction resulting in a doubling of the total exposure of esomeprazole. Therefore, a maximum dose of 20 mg should not be exceeded in GORD patients with severe dysfunction. For patients with bleeding ulcers and severe liver impairment, following an initial bolus dose of 80 mg, a maximum continuous intravenous infusion dose of 4 mg/h for 71.5 hours may be sufficient. Esomeprazole or its major metabolites do not show any tendency to accumulate with once-daily dosing.

No studies have been performed in patients with decreased renal function. Since the kidney is responsible for the excretion of the metabolites of esomeprazole but not for the elimination of the parent compound, the metabolism of esomeprazole is not expected to be changed in patients with impaired renal function.

Paediatric population

In a randomized, open-label, multi-national, repeated dose study, esomeprazole was given as a once-daily 3-minute injection over four days. The study included a total of 59 paediatric patients 0 to 18 years old of which 50 patients (7 children in the age group 1 to 5 years) completed the study and were evaluated for the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole.

The table below describes the systemic exposure to esomeprazole following the intravenous administration as a 3-minute injection in paediatric patients and adult healthy subjects. The values in the table are geometric means (range). The 20 mg dose for adults was given as a 30-minute infusion. The Css, max was measured 5 minutes post-dose in all paediatric groups and 7 minutes post-dose in adults on the 40 mg dose, and after stop of infusion in adults on the 20 mg dose.

Age group

Dose group

AUC (μmol*h/l)

Css,max (μmol/l)

0-1 month*

0.5 mg/kg (n=6)

7.5 (4.5-20.5)

3.7 (2.7-5.8)

1-11 months*

1.0 mg/kg (n=6)

10.5 (4.5-22.2)

8.7 (4.5-14.0)

1-5 years

10 mg (n=7)

7.9 (2.9-16.6)

9.4 (4.4-17.2)

6-11 years

10 mg (n=8)

6.9 (3.5-10.9)

5.6 (3.1-13.2)

20 mg (n=8)

14.4 (7.2-43.3)

8.8 (3.4-29.4)

20 mg (n=6)**

10.1 (7.2-13.7)

8.1 (3.4-29.4)

12-17 years

20 mg (n=6)

8.1 (4.7-15.9)

7.1 (4.8-9.0)

40 mg (n=8)

17.6 (13.1-19.8)

10.5 (7.8-14.2)

Adults

20 mg (n=22)

5.1 (1.5-11.8)

3.9 (1.5-6.7)

40 mg (n=41)

12.6 (4.8-21.7)

8.5 (5.4-17.9)

* A patient in the age group 0 up to 1 month was defined as a patient with a corrected age of ≥32 complete weeks and <44 complete weeks, where corrected age was the sum of the gestational age and the age after birth in complete weeks.

A patient in the age group 1 to 11 months had a corrected age of _44 complete weeks.

** Two patients excluded, 1 most likely a CYP2C19 poor metaboliser and 1 on concomitant treatment with a CYP3A4 inhibitor.

Model based predictions indicate that Css,max following intravenous administration of esomeprazole as a 10-minute, 20-minute and 30-minute infusions will be reduced by on average 37% to 49%, 54% to 66% and 61% to 72%, respectively, across all age and dose groups compared to when the dose is administered as a 3-minute injection.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Preclinical studies reveal no particular hazard for humans, based on conventional studies of single and repeated dose toxicity, embryo-foetal toxicity and mutagenicity. Oral carcinogenicity studies in the rat with the racemic mixture have shown gastric ECL-cell hyperplasia and carcinoids. These gastric effects are the result of sustained, pronounced hypergastrinaemia secondary to reduced production of gastric acid, and are observed after long-term treatment in the rat with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion. In the non-clinical program for esomeprazole intravenous formulation there was no evidence of vaso-irritation but a slight tissue inflammatory reaction at the injection site after subcutaneous (paravenous) injection was noted. See section 4.8.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Disodium edetate

Sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment).

6.2 Incompatibilities

This medicinal product should not be used with other medicinal products except those mentioned in 6.6.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years.

Shelf-life after reconstitution

Chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated for 12 hours at 30°C. From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

Store in the original package, in order to protect from light.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Vial made of colourless borosilicate glass, type I. Stopper made of bromobutyl rubber, cap made of aluminium and a plastic polypropylene lid.

Pack sizes: 1 vial, 10 vials.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The reconstituted solution should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Only clear solution should be used. For single use only.

If the entire reconstituted content of the vial is not required any unused solution should be discarded in accordance with local requirements.

Injection 40mg

A solution for injection (8 mg/ml) is prepared by adding 5 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride for intravenous use to the esomeprazole 40 mg vial.

The reconstituted solution for injection is clear and colourless to very slightly yellow.

Infusion 40 mg

A solution for infusion is prepared by dissolving the content of one vial with esomeprazole 40 mg in up to 100 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride for intravenous use.

Infusion 80 mg

A solution for infusion is prepared by dissolving the contents of two vials of esomeprazole 40 mg in up to 100 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride for intravenous use.

The reconstituted solution for infusion is clear and colourless to very slightly yellow.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Laboratórios Azevedos - Indústria Farmacêutica, S.A.

Edifícios Azevedos - Estrada Nacional 117-2, Alfragide

2614-503 Amadora

Portugal

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 24065/0003

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation: 10/03/2014

10. Date of revision of the text

26/04/2017