Advanced search

Report side effect

Report a suspected side effect or falsified product to the MHRA Yellow Card scheme.
Go to {yellow_card_logo} site
{arrow_up} Back to top

OPDIVO 10 mg/mL concentrate for solution for infusion

Active Ingredient:
nivolumab
Company:  
Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals limited See contact details
ATC code: 
L01FF01
{info_black}
About Medicine
{healthcare_pro_orange} This information is for use by healthcare professionals
Last updated on emc: 09 Feb 2024
1. Name of the medicinal product

OPDIVO 10 mg/mL concentrate for solution for infusion.

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each mL of concentrate for solution for infusion contains 10 mg of nivolumab.

One vial of 4 mL contains 40 mg of nivolumab.

One vial of 10 mL contains 100 mg of nivolumab.

One vial of 12 mL contains 120 mg of nivolumab.

One vial of 24 mL contains 240 mg of nivolumab.

Nivolumab is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells by recombinant DNA technology.

Excipient with known effect

Each mL of concentrate contains 0.1 mmol (or 2.5 mg) sodium.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Concentrate for solution for infusion (sterile concentrate).

Clear to opalescent, colourless to pale yellow liquid that may contain few light particles. The solution has a pH of approximately 6.0 and an osmolality of approximately 340 mOsm/kg.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Melanoma

OPDIVO as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab is indicated for the treatment of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older.

Relative to nivolumab monotherapy, an increase in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the combination of nivolumab with ipilimumab is established only in patients with low tumour PD-L1 expression (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

Adjuvant treatment of melanoma

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older with Stage IIB or IIC melanoma, or melanoma with involvement of lymph nodes or metastatic disease who have undergone complete resection (see section 5.1).

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

OPDIVO in combination with ipilimumab and 2 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy is indicated for the first-line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in adults whose tumours have no sensitising EGFR mutation or ALK translocation.

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after prior chemotherapy in adults.

Neoadjuvant treatment of NSCLC

OPDIVO in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy is indicated for the neoadjuvant treatment of resectable (tumours ≥ 4 cm or node positive) non-small cell lung cancer in adults (see section 5.1).

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM)

OPDIVO in combination with ipilimumab is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma after prior therapy in adults.

OPDIVO in combination with ipilimumab is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with intermediate/poor-risk advanced renal cell carcinoma (see section 5.1).

OPDIVO in combination with cabozantinib is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (see section 5.1).

Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL)

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) and treatment with brentuximab vedotin.

Squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN)

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck in adults progressing on or after platinum-based therapy (see section 5.1).

Urothelial carcinoma

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the treatment of locally advanced unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma in adults after failure of prior platinum-containing therapy.

Adjuvant treatment of urothelial carcinoma

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adults with muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) with tumour cell PD-L1 expression ≥ 1%, who are at high risk of recurrence after undergoing radical resection of MIUC (see section 5.1).

Mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) or microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer (CRC)

OPDIVO in combination with ipilimumab is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with mismatch repair deficient or microsatellite instability-high metastatic colorectal cancer after prior fluoropyrimidine-based combination chemotherapy (see section 5.1).

Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)

OPDIVO in combination with ipilimumab is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with unresectable advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma with tumour cell PD-L1 expression ≥ 1%.

OPDIVO in combination with fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based combination chemotherapy is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with unresectable advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma with tumour cell PD-L1 expression ≥ 1%.

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma after prior fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based combination chemotherapy.

Adjuvant treatment of oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (OC or GEJC)

OPDIVO as monotherapy is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adult patients with completely resected oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer who have residual pathologic disease following prior neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (see section 5.1).

Gastric, gastro-oesophageal junction (GEJ) or oesophageal adenocarcinoma

OPDIVO in combination with fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based combination chemotherapy is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with HER2-negative advanced or metastatic gastric, gastro-oesophageal junction or oesophageal adenocarcinoma whose tumours express PD-L1 with a combined positive score (CPS) ≥ 5.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Treatment must be initiated and supervised by physicians experienced in the treatment of cancer.

PD-L1 testing

If specified in the indication, patient selection for treatment with OPDIVO based on the tumour expression of PD-L1 should be confirmed by a validated test (see sections 4.1, 4.4, and 5.1).

Posology

OPDIVO as monotherapy

The recommended dose of OPDIVO is either nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks depending on the indication and population (see sections 5.1 and 5.2), as presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Recommended dose and infusion time for intravenous administration of nivolumab monotherapy

Indication*

Recommended dose and infusion time

Melanoma (advanced or adjuvant treatment)

Renal cell carcinoma

Muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) (adjuvant treatment)

Adults and adolescents (12 years of age and older and weighing at least 50 kg):

240 mg every 2 weeks over 30 minutes or 480 mg every 4 weeks over 60 minutes or over 30 minutes (adjuvant melanoma, see section 5.1)

Adolescents (12 years of age and older and weighing less than 50 kg):

3 mg/kg every 2 weeks over 30 minutes or 6 mg/kg every 4 weeks over 60 minutes

Oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (adjuvant treatment)

240 mg every 2 weeks over 30 minutes or 480 mg every 4 weeks over 30 minutes for the first 16 weeks, followed by 480 mg every 4 weeks over 30 minutes

Locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

Classical Hodgkin lymphoma

Squamous cell cancer of the head and neck

Urothelial carcinoma

Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

240 mg every 2 weeks over 30 minutes

*As per monotherapy indication in section 4.1.

If melanoma, RCC, OC, GEJC or MIUC (adjuvant treatment) patients need to be switched from the 240 mg every 2 weeks schedule to the 480 mg every 4 weeks schedule, the first 480 mg dose should be administered two weeks after the last 240 mg dose. Conversely, if melanoma or RCC patients need to be switched from the 480 mg every 4 weeks schedule to the 240 mg every 2 weeks schedule, the first 240 mg dose should be administered four weeks after the last 480 mg dose.

OPDIVO in combination with ipilimumab

Melanoma

In adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older and weighing at least 50 kg, the recommended dose is 1 mg/kg nivolumab in combination with 3 mg/kg ipilimumab administered intravenously every 3 weeks for the first 4 doses. This is then followed by a second phase in which nivolumab monotherapy is administered intravenously at either 240 mg every 2 weeks or at 480 mg every 4 weeks (see sections 5.1 and 5.2), as presented in Table 2. For the monotherapy phase, the first dose of nivolumab should be administered;

3 weeks after the last dose of the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab if using 240 mg every 2 weeks; or

6 weeks after the last dose of the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab if using 480 mg every 4 weeks.

In adolescents 12 years of age and older and weighing less than 50 kg, the recommended dose is 1 mg/kg nivolumab in combination with 3 mg/kg ipilimumab administered intravenously every 3 weeks for the first 4 doses. This is then followed by a second phase in which nivolumab monotherapy is administered intravenously at either 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 6 mg/kg every 4 weeks (see sections 5.1 and 5.2), as presented in Table 2. For the monotherapy phase, the first dose of nivolumab should be administered:

3 weeks after the last dose of the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab if using 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks; or

6 weeks after the last dose of the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab if using 6 mg/kg every 4 weeks.

Table 2: Recommended doses and infusion times for intravenous administration of nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab for melanoma

Combination phase, every 3 weeks for 4 dosing cycles

Monotherapy phase

Nivolumab

Adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older:

1 mg/kg over 30 minutes

Adults and adolescents (12 years of age and older and weighing at least 50 kg):

240 mg every 2 weeks over 30 minutes or 480 mg every 4 weeks over 60 minutes

Adolescents (12 years of age and older and weighing less than 50 kg):

3 mg/kg every 2 weeks over 30 minutes or 6 mg/kg every 4 weeks over 60 minutes

Ipilimumab

Adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older:

3 mg/kg over 30 minutes

-

Malignant pleural mesothelioma

The recommended dose is 360 mg nivolumab administered intravenously over 30 minutes every 3 weeks in combination with 1 mg/kg ipilimumab administered intravenously over 30 minutes every 6 weeks. Treatment is continued for up to 24 months in patients without disease progression.

Renal cell carcinoma and dMMR or MSI-H colorectal cancer

The recommended dose is 3 mg/kg nivolumab in combination with 1 mg/kg ipilimumab administered intravenously every 3 weeks for the first 4 doses. This is then followed by a second phase in which nivolumab monotherapy is administered intravenously at either 240 mg every 2 weeks or at 480 mg every 4 weeks (RCC only), as presented in Table 3. For the monotherapy phase, the first dose of nivolumab should be administered;

3 weeks after the last dose of the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab if using 240 mg every 2 weeks; or

6 weeks after the last dose of the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab if using 480 mg every 4 weeks (RCC only).

Table 3: Recommended doses and infusion times for intravenous administration of nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab for RCC and dMMR or MSI-H CRC

Combination phase, every 3 weeks for 4 dosing cycles

Monotherapy phase

Nivolumab

3 mg/kg over 30 minutes

240 mg every 2 weeks over 30 minutes or 480 mg every 4 weeks over 60 minutes (RCC only)

Ipilimumab

1 mg/kg over 30 minutes

-

Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

The recommended dose is either 3 mg/kg nivolumab every 2 weeks or 360 mg nivolumab every 3 weeks administered intravenously over 30 minutes in combination with 1 mg/kg ipilimumab administered intravenously over 30 minutes every 6 weeks. Treatment is recommended until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or up to 24 months in patients without disease progression.

OPDIVO in combination with cabozantinib

Renal cell carcinoma

The recommended dose is nivolumab administered intravenously at either 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks in combination with 40 mg cabozantinib administered orally every day.

Table 4: Recommended doses and infusion times for intravenous administration of nivolumab in combination with oral administration of cabozantinib for RCC

Combination phase

Nivolumab

240 mg every 2 weeks over 30 minutes or

480 mg every 4 weeks over 60 minutes

Cabozantinib

40 mg once daily

OPDIVO in combination with ipilimumab and chemotherapy

Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

The recommended dose is 360 mg nivolumab administered intravenously over 30 minutes every 3 weeks in combination with 1 mg/kg ipilimumab administered intravenously over 30 minutes every 6 weeks, and platinum-based chemotherapy administered every 3 weeks. After completion of 2 cycles of chemotherapy, treatment is continued with 360 mg nivolumab administered intravenously every 3 weeks in combination with 1 mg/kg ipilimumab every 6 weeks. Treatment is recommended until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or up to 24 months in patients without disease progression.

OPDIVO in combination with chemotherapy

Neoadjuvant treatment of non-small cell lung cancer

The recommended dose is 360 mg nivolumab administered intravenously over 30 minutes in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy every 3 weeks for 3 cycles (see section 5.1).

Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

The recommended dose of nivolumab is 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks administered intravenously over 30 minutes in combination with fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based chemotherapy (see section 5.1). Treatment with nivolumab is recommended until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or up to 24 months in patients without disease progression.

Gastric, gastro-oesophageal junction or oesophageal adenocarcinoma

The recommended dose is 360 mg nivolumab administered intravenously over 30 minutes in combination with fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based chemotherapy administered every 3 weeks or 240 mg nivolumab administered intravenously over 30 minutes in combination with fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based chemotherapy administered every 2 weeks (see section 5.1). Treatment with nivolumab is recommended until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or up to 24 months in patients without disease progression.

Duration of treatment

Treatment with OPDIVO, either as a monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab or other therapeutic agents, should be continued as long as clinical benefit is observed or until treatment is no longer tolerated by the patient (and up to maximum duration of therapy if specified for an indication).

For adjuvant therapy, the maximum treatment duration with OPDIVO is 12 months.

For OPDIVO in combination with cabozantinib, OPDIVO should be continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or up to 24 months in patients without disease progression. Cabozantinib should be continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Refer to the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) for cabozantinib.

Atypical responses (i.e., an initial transient increase in tumour size or small new lesions within the first few months followed by tumour shrinkage) have been observed. It is recommended to continue treatment with nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab for clinically stable patients with initial evidence of disease progression until disease progression is confirmed.

Dose escalation or reduction is not recommended for OPDIVO as monotherapy or in combination with other therapeutic agents. Dosing delay or discontinuation may be required based on individual safety and tolerability. Guidelines for permanent discontinuation or withholding of doses are described in Table 5. Detailed guidelines for the management of immune-related adverse reactions are described in section 4.4. When nivolumab is administered in combination with other therapeutic agents, refer to the SmPC of these other combination therapeutic agents regarding dosing.

Table 5: Recommended treatment modifications for OPDIVO or OPDIVO in combination

Immune-related adverse reaction

Severity

Treatment modification

Immune-related pneumonitis

Grade 2 pneumonitis

Withhold dose(s) until symptoms resolve, radiographic abnormalities improve, and management with corticosteroids is complete

Grade 3 or 4 pneumonitis

Permanently discontinue treatment

Immune-related colitis

Grade 2 diarrhoea or colitis

Withhold dose(s) until symptoms resolve and management with corticosteroids, if needed, is complete

Grade 3 diarrhoea or colitis

- OPDIVO monotherapy

Withhold dose(s) until symptoms resolve and management with corticosteroids is complete

- OPDIVO+ipilimumaba

Permanently discontinue treatment

Grade 4 diarrhoea or colitis

Permanently discontinue treatment

Immune-related hepatitis

NOTE: for RCC patients treated with OPDIVO in combination with cabozantinib with liver enzyme elevations, see dosing guidelines following this table.

Grade 2 elevation in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), or total bilirubin

Withhold dose(s) until laboratory values return to baseline and management with corticosteroids, if needed, is complete

Grade 3 or 4 elevation in AST, ALT, or total bilirubin

Permanently discontinue treatment

Immune-related nephritis and renal dysfunction

Grade 2 or 3 creatinine elevation

Withhold dose(s) until creatinine returns to baseline and management with corticosteroids is complete

Grade 4 creatinine elevation

Permanently discontinue treatment

Immune-related endocrinopathies

Symptomatic Grade 2 or 3 hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypophysitis,

Grade 2 adrenal insufficiency

Grade 3 diabetes

Withhold dose(s) until symptoms resolve and management with corticosteroids (if needed for symptoms of acute inflammation) is complete. Treatment should be continued in the presence of hormone replacement therapyb as long as no symptoms are present

Grade 4 hypothyroidism

Grade 4 hyperthyroidism

Grade 4 hypophysitis

Grade 3 or 4 adrenal insufficiency

Grade 4 diabetes

Permanently discontinue treatment

Immune-related skin adverse reactions

Grade 3 rash

Withhold dose(s) until symptoms resolve and management with corticosteroids is complete

Grade 4 rash

Permanently discontinue treatment

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)

Permanently discontinue treatment (see section 4.4)

Immune-related myocarditis

Grade 2 myocarditis

Withhold dose(s) until symptoms resolve and management with corticosteroids is completec

Grade 3 or 4 myocarditis

Permanently discontinue treatment

Other immune-related adverse reactions

Grade 3 (first occurrence)

Withhold dose(s)

Grade 4 or recurrent Grade 3 ; persistent Grade 2 or 3 despite treatment modification; inability to reduce corticosteroid dose to 10 mg prednisone or equivalent per day

Permanently discontinue treatment

Note: Toxicity grades are in accordance with National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0 (NCI-CTCAE v4).

a During administration of the second phase of treatment (nivolumab monotherapy) following combination treatment, permanently discontinue treatment if Grade 3 diarrhoea or colitis occurs.

b Recommendation for the use of hormone replacement therapy is provided in section 4.4.

c The safety of re-initiating nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab therapy in patients previously experiencing immune-related myocarditis is not known.

OPDIVO as monotherapy or in combination with other therapeutic agents should be permanently discontinued for:

• Grade 4 or recurrent Grade 3 adverse reactions;

• Persistent Grade 2 or 3 adverse reactions despite management.

Patients treated with OPDIVO must be given the patient alert card and be informed about the risks of OPDIVO (see also package leaflet).

When OPDIVO is administered in combination with ipilimumab, if either agent is withheld, the other agent should also be withheld. If dosing is resumed after a delay, either the combination treatment or OPDIVO monotherapy could be resumed based on the evaluation of the individual patient.

When OPDIVO is administered in combination with chemotherapy, refer to the SmPC of the other combination therapy agents regarding dosing. If any agents are withheld, the other agents may be continued. If dosing is resumed after a delay, either the combination treatment, OPDIVO monotherapy or chemotherapy alone could be resumed based on the evaluation of the individual patient.

OPDIVO in combination with cabozantinib in RCC

When OPDIVO is used in combination with cabozantinib, the above treatment modifications in Table 5 also apply to the OPDIVO component. In addition, for liver enzyme elevations, in patients with RCC being treated with OPDIVO in combination with cabozantinib:

• If ALT or AST > 3 times ULN but ≤ 10 times ULN without concurrent total bilirubin ≥ 2 times ULN, both OPDIVO and cabozantinib should be withheld until these adverse reactions recover to Grades 0-1. Corticosteroid therapy may be considered. Rechallenge with a single medicine or rechallenge with both medicines after recovery may be considered. If rechallenging with cabozantinib, refer to cabozantinib SmPC.

• If ALT or AST > 10 times ULN or > 3 times ULN with concurrent total bilirubin ≥ 2 times ULN, both OPDIVO and cabozantinib should be permanently discontinued and corticosteroid therapy may be considered.

Special populations

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of OPDIVO in children below 18 years of age have not been established except in adolescents 12 years of age and older with melanoma. Currently available data of OPDIVO as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab are described in sections 4.2, 4.8, 5.1 and 5.2.

Elderly

No dose adjustment is required for elderly patients (≥ 65 years) (see section 5.2).

Renal impairment

Based on the population pharmacokinetic (PK) results, no dose adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (see section 5.2). Data from patients with severe renal impairment are too limited to draw conclusions on this population.

Hepatic impairment

Based on the population PK results, no dose adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment (see section 5.2). Data from patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment are too limited to draw conclusions on these populations. OPDIVO must be administered with caution in patients with moderate (total bilirubin > 1.5 × to 3 × the upper limit of normal [ULN] and any AST) or severe (total bilirubin > 3 × ULN and any AST) hepatic impairment.

Method of administration

OPDIVO is for intravenous use only. It is to be administered as an intravenous infusion over a period of 30 or 60 minutes depending on the dose (see Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4). The infusion must be administered through a sterile, non-pyrogenic, low protein binding in-line filter with a pore size of 0.2-1.2 μ m.

OPDIVO must not be administered as an intravenous push or bolus injection.

The total dose of OPDIVO required can be infused directly as a 10 mg/mL solution or can be diluted with sodium chloride 9 mg/mL (0.9%) solution for injection or glucose 50 mg/mL (5%) solution for injection (see section 6.6).

When administered in combination with ipilimumab and/or chemotherapy, OPDIVO should be given first followed by ipilimumab (if applicable) and then by chemotherapy on the same day. Use separate infusion bags and filters for each infusion.

For instructions on the preparation and handling of the medicinal product before administration, see section 6.6.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Traceability

In order to improve the traceability of biological medicinal products, the name and the batch number of the administered product should be clearly recorded.

Assessment of PD-L1 status

When assessing the PD-L1 status of the tumour, it is important that a well-validated and robust methodology is used.

Immune-related adverse reactions

When nivolumab is administered in combination, refer to the SmPC of the other combination therapy agents prior to initiation of treatment. Immune-related adverse reactions have occurred at higher frequencies when nivolumab was administered in combination with ipilimumab compared with nivolumab as monotherapy. Immune-related adverse reactions have occurred at similar frequencies when OPDIVO was administered in combination with cabozantinib relative to nivolumab monotherapy. Therefore, the guidance below for immune-related adverse reactions applies to the OPDIVO component of the combination, except where specifically noted. Most immune-related adverse reactions improved or resolved with appropriate management, including initiation of corticosteroids and treatment modifications (see section 4.2).

Immune-related adverse reactions affecting more than one body system can occur simultaneously.

Cardiac and pulmonary adverse reactions including pulmonary embolism have also been reported with combination therapy. Patients should be monitored for cardiac and pulmonary adverse reactions continuously, as well as for clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities indicative of electrolyte disturbances and dehydration prior to and periodically during treatment. Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be discontinued for life-threatening or recurrent severe cardiac and pulmonary adverse reactions (see section 4.2).

Patients should be monitored continuously (at least up to 5 months after the last dose) as an adverse reaction with nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may occur at any time during or after discontinuation of therapy.

For suspected immune-related adverse reactions, adequate evaluation should be performed to confirm aetiology or exclude other causes. Based on the severity of the adverse reaction, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld and corticosteroids administered. If immunosuppression with corticosteroids is used to treat an adverse reaction, a taper of at least 1 month duration should be initiated upon improvement. Rapid tapering may lead to worsening or recurrence of the adverse reaction. Non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive therapy should be added if there is worsening or no improvement despite corticosteroid use.

Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should not be resumed while the patient is receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive therapy. Prophylactic antibiotics should be used to prevent opportunistic infections in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued for any severe immune-related adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening immune-related adverse reaction.

Immune-related pneumonitis

Severe pneumonitis or interstitial lung disease, including fatal cases, has been observed with nivolumab monotherapy or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (see section 4.8). Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis such as radiographic changes (e.g., focal ground glass opacities, patchy filtrates), dyspnoea, and hypoxia. Infectious and disease-related aetiologies should be ruled out.

For Grade 3 or 4 pneumonitis, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued, and corticosteroids should be initiated at a dose of 2 to 4 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents.

For Grade 2 (symptomatic) pneumonitis, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld and corticosteroids initiated at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents. Upon improvement, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may be resumed after corticosteroid taper. If worsening or no improvement occurs despite initiation of corticosteroids, corticosteroid dose should be increased to 2 to 4 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents and nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued.

Immune-related colitis

Severe diarrhoea or colitis has been observed with nivolumab monotherapy or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (see section 4.8). Patients should be monitored for diarrhoea and additional symptoms of colitis, such as abdominal pain and mucus or blood in stool. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/reactivation has been reported in patients with corticosteroid-refractory immune-related colitis. Infectious and other aetiologies of diarrhoea should be ruled out, therefore appropriate laboratory tests and additional examinations must be performed. If diagnosis of corticosteroid-refractory immune-related colitis is confirmed addition of an alternative immunosuppressive agent to the corticosteroid therapy, or replacement of the corticosteroid therapy, should be considered.

For Grade 4 diarrhoea or colitis, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued, and corticosteroids should be initiated at a dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents.

Nivolumab monotherapy should be withheld for Grade 3 diarrhoea or colitis, and corticosteroids initiated at a dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents. Upon improvement, nivolumab monotherapy may be resumed after corticosteroid taper. If worsening or no improvement occurs despite initiation of corticosteroids, nivolumab monotherapy must be permanently discontinued. Grade 3 diarrhoea or colitis observed with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab requires permanent discontinuation of treatment and initiation of corticosteroids at a dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents.

For Grade 2 diarrhoea or colitis, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld. Persistent diarrhoea or colitis should be managed with corticosteroids at a dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents. Upon improvement, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may be resumed after corticosteroid taper, if needed. If worsening or no improvement occurs despite initiation of corticosteroids, corticosteroid dose should be increased to 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents and nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued.

Immune-related hepatitis

Severe hepatitis has been observed with nivolumab monotherapy or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (see section 4.8). Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of hepatitis such as transaminase and total bilirubin elevations. Infectious and disease-related aetiologies should be ruled out.

For Grade 3 or 4 transaminase or total bilirubin elevation, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued, and corticosteroids should be initiated at a dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents.

For Grade 2 transaminase or total bilirubin elevation, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld. Persistent elevations in these laboratory values should be managed with corticosteroids at a dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents. Upon improvement, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may be resumed after corticosteroid taper, if needed. If worsening or no improvement occurs despite initiation of corticosteroids, corticosteroid dose should be increased to 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents and nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued.

Immune-related nephritis and renal dysfunction

Severe nephritis and renal dysfunction have been observed with monotherapy treatment or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (see section 4.8). Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of nephritis or renal dysfunction. Most patients present with asymptomatic increases in serum creatinine. Disease-related aetiologies should be ruled out.

For Grade 4 serum creatinine elevation, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued, and corticosteroids should be initiated at a dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents.

For Grade 2 or 3 serum creatinine elevation, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld, and corticosteroids should be initiated at a dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents. Upon improvement, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may be resumed after corticosteroid taper. If worsening or no improvement occurs despite initiation of corticosteroids, corticosteroid dose should be increased to 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents, and nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued.

Immune-related endocrinopathies

Severe endocrinopathies, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency (including secondary adrenocortical insufficiency), hypophysitis (including hypopituitarism), diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis have been observed with nivolumab monotherapy or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (see section 4.8).

Patients should be monitored for clinical signs and symptoms of endocrinopathies and for hyperglycaemia and changes in thyroid function (at the start of treatment, periodically during treatment, and as indicated based on clinical evaluation). Patients may present with fatigue, headache, mental status changes, abdominal pain, unusual bowel habits, and hypotension, or nonspecific symptoms which may resemble other causes such as brain metastasis or underlying disease. Unless an alternate aetiology has been identified, signs or symptoms of endocrinopathies should be considered immune-related.

For symptomatic hypothyroidism, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld, and thyroid hormone replacement should be initiated as needed. For symptomatic hyperthyroidism, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld and antithyroid medication should be initiated as needed. Corticosteroids at a dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents should also be considered if acute inflammation of the thyroid is suspected. Upon improvement, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may be resumed after corticosteroid taper, if needed. Monitoring of thyroid function should continue to ensure appropriate hormone replacement is utilised. Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued for life-threatening hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

For symptomatic Grade 2 adrenal insufficiency, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld, and physiologic corticosteroid replacement should be initiated as needed. Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) adrenal insufficiency. Monitoring of adrenal function and hormone levels should continue to ensure appropriate corticosteroid replacement is utilised.

For symptomatic Grade 2 or 3 hypophysitis, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld, and hormone replacement should be initiated as needed. Corticosteroids at a dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents should also be considered if acute inflammation of the pituitary gland is suspected. Upon improvement, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may be resumed after corticosteroid taper, if needed. Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued for life-threatening (Grade 4) hypophysitis. Monitoring of pituitary function and hormone levels should continue to ensure appropriate hormone replacement is utilised.

For symptomatic diabetes, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld, and insulin replacement should be initiated as needed. Monitoring of blood sugar should continue to ensure appropriate insulin replacement is utilised. Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued for life-threatening diabetes.

Immune-related skin adverse reactions

Severe rash has been observed with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab and, less commonly, with nivolumab as monotherapy (see section 4.8). Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld for Grade 3 rash and discontinued for Grade 4 rash. Severe rash should be managed with high-dose corticosteroid at a dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone equivalents.

Rare cases of SJS and TEN some of them with fatal outcome have been observed. If symptoms or signs of SJS or TEN appear, treatment with nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be discontinued and the patient referred to a specialised unit for assessment and treatment. If the patient has developed SJS or TEN with the use of nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab, permanent discontinuation of treatment is recommended (see section 4.2).

Caution should be used when considering the use of nivolumab in a patient who has previously experienced a severe or life-threatening skin adverse reaction on prior treatment with other immune-stimulatory anticancer agents.

Other immune-related adverse reactions

The following immune-related adverse reactions were reported in less than 1% of patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab in clinical trials across doses and tumour types: pancreatitis, uveitis, demyelination, autoimmune neuropathy (including facial and abducens nerve paresis), Guillain-Barré syndrome, myasthenia gravis, myasthenic syndrome, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, gastritis, sarcoidosis, duodenitis, myositis, myocarditis, and rhabdomyolysis. Cases of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, hypoparathyroidism, and cystitis noninfective have been reported post-marketing (see sections 4.2 and 4.8).

For suspected immune-related adverse reactions, adequate evaluation should be performed to confirm aetiology or exclude other causes. Based on the severity of the adverse reaction, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld and corticosteroids administered. Upon improvement, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may be resumed after corticosteroid taper. Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab must be permanently discontinued for any severe immune-related adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening immune-related adverse reaction.

Cases of myotoxicity (myositis, myocarditis, and rhabdomyolysis), some with fatal outcome, have been reported with nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab. If a patient develops signs and symptoms of myotoxicity, close monitoring should be implemented, and the patient referred to a specialist for assessment and treatment without delay. Based on the severity of myotoxicity, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld or discontinued (see section 4.2), and appropriate treatment instituted.

The diagnosis of myocarditis requires a high index of suspicion. Patients with cardiac or cardio-pulmonary symptoms should be assessed for potential myocarditis. If myocarditis is suspected, prompt initiation of a high dose of steroids (prednisone 1 to 2 mg/kg/day or methylprednisolone 1 to 2 mg/kg/day) and prompt cardiology consultation with diagnostic workup according to current clinical guidelines should be initiated. Once a diagnosis of myocarditis is established, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be withheld or permanently discontinued (see section 4.2).

Solid organ transplant rejection has been reported in the post-marketing setting in patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors. Treatment with nivolumab may increase the risk of rejection in solid organ transplant recipients. The benefit of treatment with nivolumab versus the risk of possible organ rejection should be considered in these patients.

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has been observed with nivolumab as monotherapy and nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab. Caution should be taken when nivolumab is administered as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab. If HLH is confirmed, administration of nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be discontinued and treatment for HLH initiated.

Infusion reactions

Severe infusion reactions have been reported in clinical trials of nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (see section 4.8). In case of a severe or life-threatening infusion reaction, the nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab infusion must be discontinued and appropriate medical therapy administered. Patients with mild or moderate infusion reaction may receive nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab with close monitoring and use of premedication according to local treatment guidelines for prophylaxis of infusion reactions.

Disease-specific precautions

Advanced melanoma

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, active brain metastases or leptomeningeal metastases, autoimmune disease, and patients who had been receiving systemic immunosuppressants prior to study entry were excluded from the pivotal clinical trials of nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). Patients with ocular/uveal melanoma were excluded from pivotal clinical trials of melanoma. In addition, CA209037 excluded patients who have had a Grade 4 adverse reaction that was related to anti-CTLA-4 therapy (see section 5.1). Patients with baseline performance score of 2, treated leptomeningeal metastases, ocular/uveal melanoma, autoimmune disease and patients who have had a Grade 3-4 adverse reaction that was related to prior anti-CTLA-4 therapy were included in study CA209172 (see section 5.1). In the absence of data for patients who had been receiving systemic immunosuppressants prior to study entry, and for patients with active brain or leptomeningeal metastases, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Relative to nivolumab monotherapy, an increase in PFS for the combination of nivolumab with ipilimumab is established only in patients with low tumour PD-L1 expression. The improvement in OS was similar between nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab and nivolumab monotherapy in patients with high tumour PD-L1 expression (PD-L1 ≥ 1%). Before initiating treatment with the combination, physicians are advised to carefully evaluate the individual patient and tumour characteristics, taking into consideration the observed benefits and the toxicity of the combination relative to nivolumab monotherapy (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).

Use of nivolumab in melanoma patients with rapidly progressing disease

Physicians should consider the delayed onset of nivolumab effect before initiating treatment in patients with rapidly progressing disease (see section 5.1).

Adjuvant treatment of melanoma

There are no data on adjuvant treatment in patients with melanoma with the following risk factors (see sections 4.5 and 5.1):

• patients with prior autoimmune disease, and any condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (≥ 10 mg daily prednisone or equivalent) or other immunosuppressive medications,

• patients with prior therapy for melanoma (except patients with surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy after neurosurgical resection for lesions of the central nervous system, and prior adjuvant interferon completed ≥ 6 months prior to randomisation),

• patients treated with prior therapy with anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CD137, or anti CTLA-4 antibody (including ipilimumab or any other antibody or drug specifically targeting T cell co-stimulation or checkpoint pathways),

• subjects under the age of 18 years.

In the absence of data, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Non-small cell lung cancer

First-line treatment of NSCLC

Patients with active autoimmune disease, symptomatic interstitial lung disease, medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression, active (untreated) brain metastasis, who received prior systemic treatment for advanced disease, or who had sensitising EGFR mutations or ALK translocations were excluded from the pivotal trial in first-line treatment of NSCLC (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). Limited data are available in elderly patients (≥ 75 years) (see section 5.1). In these patients, nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab and chemotherapy should be used with caution after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Treatment of NSCLC after prior chemotherapy

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, active brain metastases or autoimmune disease, symptomatic interstitial lung disease, and patients who had been receiving systemic immunosuppressants prior to study entry were excluded from the pivotal clinical trials of NSCLC (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). Patients with baseline performance score of 2 were included in study CA209171 (see section 5.1). In the absence of data for patients with autoimmune disease, symptomatic interstitial lung disease, active brain metastases and patients who had been receiving systemic immunosuppressants prior to study entry, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Physicians should consider the delayed onset of nivolumab effect before initiating treatment in patients with poorer prognostic features and/or aggressive disease. In non-squamous NSCLC, a higher number of deaths within 3 months was observed in nivolumab compared to docetaxel. Factors associated with early deaths were poorer prognostic factors and/or more aggressive disease combined with low or no tumour PD-L1 expression (see section 5.1).

Neoadjuvant treatment of NSCLC

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, active autoimmune disease, symptomatic interstitial lung disease, medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression, unresectable or metastatic disease, who received prior anti-cancer treatment for resectable disease, or who had known EGFR mutations or ALK translocations were excluded from the pivotal trial in neoadjuvant treatment of resectable NSCLC (see sections 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma

Patients with primitive peritoneal, pericardial, testis, or tunica vaginalis mesothelioma, interstitial lung disease, active autoimmune disease, medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression, and brain metastasis (unless surgically resected or treated with stereotaxic radiotherapy and no evolution within 3 months prior to inclusion in the study) were excluded from the pivotal trial in first-line treatment of MPM (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Renal cell carcinoma

Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab

Patients with any history of concurrent brain metastases, active autoimmune disease, or medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression were excluded from the clinical trials of nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib

Patients with any active brain metastases, autoimmune disease, or medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression were excluded from the clinical trials of nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

When nivolumab is given with cabozantinib, higher frequencies of Grades 3 and 4 ALT and AST elevations have been reported relative to nivolumab monotherapy in patients with advanced RCC (see section 4.8). Liver enzymes should be monitored before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment. Medical management guidelines for both medicines should be followed (see section 4.2 and refer to the SmPC for cabozantinib).

Classical Hodgkin lymphoma

Patients with active autoimmune disease and symptomatic interstitial lung disease were excluded from clinical trials of cHL (see section 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Complications of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

Cases of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplant related mortality (TRM) have been observed from the follow-up of patients with cHL undergoing allogeneic HSCT after previous exposure to nivolumab. Careful consideration to the potential benefits of HSCT and the possible increased risk of transplant related complications should be made case-by-case (see section 4.8).

In patients treated with nivolumab after allogeneic HSCT, rapid-onset and severe GVHD, some with fatal outcome, have been reported in the post-marketing setting. Treatment with nivolumab may increase the risk of severe GVHD and death in patients who have had prior allogeneic HSCT, mainly in those with prior history of GVHD. The benefit of treatment with nivolumab versus the possible risk should be considered in these patients (see section 4.8).

Head and neck cancer

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, active brain or leptomeningeal metastases, active autoimmune disease, medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression, or carcinoma of the nasopharynx or salivary gland as the primary tumour sites were excluded from the SCCHN clinical trial (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Physicians should consider the delayed onset of nivolumab effect before initiating treatment in patients with poorer prognostic features and/or aggressive disease. In head and neck cancer, a higher number of deaths within 3 months was observed in nivolumab compared to docetaxel. Factors associated with early deaths were ECOG performance status, fast progressive disease on prior platinum therapy and high tumour burden.

Urothelial carcinoma

Treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, active brain metastases or leptomeningeal metastases, active autoimmune disease, or medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression were excluded from the clinical trials of urothelial carcinoma (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Adjuvant treatment of urothelial carcinoma

Patients with a baseline performance score of ≥ 2 (except patients with a baseline performance score of 2 who have not received cisplatin based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and are considered ineligible for cisplatin adjuvant chemotherapy), evidence of disease after surgery, active autoimmune disease, or medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression were excluded from the clinical trial of adjuvant treatment of urothelial carcinoma (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

dMMR or MSI-H colorectal cancer

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, active brain metastases or leptomeningeal metastases, active autoimmune disease, or medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression were excluded from the clinical trial in dMMR or MSI-H metastatic CRC (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

First-line treatment of OSCC

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, any history of concurrent brain metastases, active autoimmune disease, medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression, or at high risk of bleeding or fistula due to apparent invasion of tumour to organs adjacent to the oesophageal tumour were excluded from the clinical trial in OSCC (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab or chemotherapy should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

In the first-line OSCC trial, a higher number of deaths within 4 months was observed with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab compared to chemotherapy. Physicians should consider the delayed onset of effect of nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab before initiating treatment in patients with poorer prognostic features and/or aggressive disease (see section 5.1).

Treatment of OSCC after prior first-line chemotherapy

The majority of clinical data available in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma are in patients of Asian origin (see section 5.1).

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, brain metastases that were symptomatic or required treatment, apparent tumour invasion in organs located adjacent to the oesophagus (e.g. the aorta or respiratory tract), active autoimmune disease, or medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression were excluded from the clinical study in OSCC (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Physicians should consider the delayed onset of nivolumab effect before initiating treatment in patients with OSCC. A higher number of deaths within 2.5 months after randomisation was observed with nivolumab compared to chemotherapy. No specific factor(s) associated with early deaths could be identified (see section 5.1).

Adjuvant treatment of oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer

Patients with a baseline performance score ≥ 2, who did not receive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) prior to surgery, stage IV resectable disease, autoimmune disease, any condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids ( > 10 mg daily prednisone or equivalent) or other immunosuppressive medications were excluded from the clinical study in oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Gastric, gastro-oesophageal junction or oesophageal adenocarcinoma

Patients who had baseline ECOG performance score ≥ 2, untreated central nervous system metastases, active, known, or suspected autoimmune disease, or medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression were excluded from the clinical study in gastric, GEJ or oesophageal adenocarcinoma (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). In the absence of data, nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy should be used with caution in these populations after careful consideration of the potential benefit/risk on an individual basis.

Study CA209649 excluded patients with known HER2-positive status. Patients with undetermined status were allowed in the study and represented 40.3% of patients (see section 5.1).

Patients on controlled sodium diet

Each mL of this medicinal product contains 0.1 mmol (or 2.5 mg) sodium. This medicinal product contains 10 mg sodium per 4 ml vial, 25 mg sodium per 10 ml vial, 30 mg sodium per 12 ml vial or 60 mg sodium per 24 ml vial, which is equivalent to 0.5%, 1.25%, 1.5% or 3% respectively, of the WHO recommended maximum daily intake of 2 g sodium for an adult.

Patient alert card

All prescribers of OPDIVO must be familiar with the physician information and management guidelines. The prescriber must discuss the risks of OPDIVO therapy with the patient. The patient will be provided with the patient alert card with each prescription.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody, as such pharmacokinetic interaction studies have not been conducted. As monoclonal antibodies are not metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes or other drug metabolising enzymes, inhibition or induction of these enzymes by co-administered medicinal products is not anticipated to affect the pharmacokinetics of nivolumab.

Other forms of interaction

Systemic immunosuppression

The use of systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressants at baseline, before starting nivolumab, should be avoided because of their potential interference with the pharmacodynamic activity. However, systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressants can be used after starting nivolumab to treat immune-related adverse reactions. The preliminary results show that systemic immunosuppression after starting nivolumab treatment does not appear to preclude the response on nivolumab.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are no data from the use of nivolumab in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown embryofoetal toxicity (see section 5.3). Human IgG4 is known to cross the placental barrier and nivolumab is an IgG4; therefore, nivolumab has the potential to be transmitted from the mother to the developing foetus. Nivolumab is not recommended during pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential not using effective contraception unless the clinical benefit outweighs the potential risk. Effective contraception should be used for at least 5 months following the last dose of nivolumab.

Breast-feeding

It is unknown whether nivolumab is secreted in human milk. Because many medicinal products, including antibodies, can be secreted in human milk, a risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue from nivolumab therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.

Fertility

Studies to evaluate the effect of nivolumab on fertility have not been performed. Thus, the effect of nivolumab on male and female fertility is unknown.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab may have a minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Because of potential adverse reactions such as fatigue (see section 4.8), patients should be advised to use caution when driving or operating machinery until they are certain that nivolumab does not adversely affect them.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Nivolumab as monotherapy (see section 4.2)

Summary of the safety profile

In the pooled dataset of nivolumab as monotherapy across tumour types (n = 4646) with minimum follow-up ranging from 2.3 to 28 months, the most frequent adverse reactions (≥ 10%) were fatigue (44%), musculoskeletal pain (28%), diarrhoea (26%), rash (24%), cough (22%), nausea (22%), pruritus (19%), decreased appetite (17%), arthralgia (17%), constipation (16%), dyspnoea (16%), abdominal pain (15%), upper respiratory tract infection (15%), pyrexia (13%), headache (13%), anaemia (13%) and vomiting (12%). The majority of adverse reactions were mild to moderate (Grade 1 or 2). The incidence of Grade 3 5 adverse reactions was 44%, with 0.3% fatal adverse reactions attributed to study drug. With a minimum of 63 months follow-up in NSCLC, no new safety signals were identified.

Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

Adverse reactions reported in the pooled dataset for patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy (n = 4646) are presented in Table 6. These reactions are presented by system organ class and by frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from available post-marketing data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in the order of decreasing seriousness.

Table 6: Adverse reactions with nivolumab monotherapy

Nivolumab monotherapy

Infections and infestations

Very common

upper respiratory tract infection

Common

pneumoniaa, bronchitis

Rare

aseptic meningitis

Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (including cysts and polyps)

Rare

histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis (Kikuchi lymphadenitis)

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very common

lymphopaeniab, anaemiab,i, leucopoeniab, neutropaeniaa,b, thrombocytopaeniab

Uncommon

eosinophilia

Not known

haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Immune system disorders

Common

infusion related reaction (including cytokine release syndrome), hypersensitivity (including anaphylactic reaction)

Uncommon

sarcoidosis

Not known

solid organ transplant rejectionf

Endocrine disorders

Common

hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis

Uncommon

adrenal insufficiencyj, hypopituitarism, hypophysitis, diabetes mellitus

Rare

diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoparathyroidism

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common

decreased appetite, hyperglycaemiab

Common

dehydration, weight decreased, hypoglycaemiab

Uncommon

metabolic acidosis

Not known

tumour lysis syndromeg

Nervous system disorders

Very common

headache

Common

peripheral neuropathy, dizziness

Uncommon

polyneuropathy, autoimmune neuropathy (including facial and abducens nerve paresis)

Rare

Guillain-Barré syndrome, demyelination, myasthenic syndrome, encephalitisa,k

Eye disorders

Common

blurred vision, dry eye

Uncommon

uveitis

Not known

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndromef

Cardiac disorders

Common

tachycardia, atrial fibrillation

Uncommon

myocarditisa, pericardial disordersh, arrhythmia (including ventricular arrhythmia)

Vascular disorders

Common

hypertension

Rare

vasculitis

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Very common

dyspnoeaa, cough

Common

pneumonitisa, pleural effusion

Uncommon

lung infiltration

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common

diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation

Common

colitisa, stomatitis, dry mouth

Uncommon

pancreatitis, gastritis

Rare

duodenal ulcer

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon

hepatitis, cholestasis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Very common

rashc, pruritus

Common

vitiligo, dry skin, erythema, alopecia

Uncommon

psoriasis, erythema multiforme, urticaria

Rare

rosacea, toxic epidermal necrolysisa,d, Stevens-Johnson syndromea

Not known

lichen sclerosusg, other lichen disorders

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very common

musculoskeletal paine, arthralgia

Common

arthritis

Uncommon

polymyalgia rheumatica

Rare

Sjogren's syndrome, myopathy, myositis (including polymyositis)a, rhabdomyolysisa,d

Renal and urinary disorders

Common

renal failure (including acute kidney injury)a

Rare

tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystitis noninfective

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very common

fatigue, pyrexia

Common

pain, chest pain, oedemal

Investigationsb

Very common

increased AST, hyponatraemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased creatinine, increased ALT, increased lipase, hyperkalaemia, increased amylase, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypokalaemia, hypercalcaemia

Common

increased total bilirubin, hypernatraemia, hypermagnesaemia

Adverse reaction frequencies presented in Table 6 may not be fully attributable to nivolumab alone but may contain contributions from the underlying disease.

a Fatal cases have been reported in completed or ongoing clinical studies.

b Frequencies of laboratory terms reflect the proportion of patients who experienced a worsening from baseline in laboratory measurements. See “ Description of selected adverse reactions; laboratory abnormalities” below.

c Rash is a composite term which includes rash maculopapular, rash erythematous, rash pruritic, rash follicular, rash macular, rash morbilliform, rash papular, rash pustular, rash vesicular, exfoliative rash, dermatitis, dermatitis acneiform, dermatitis allergic, dermatitis atopic, dermatitis bullous, dermatitis exfoliative, dermatitis psoriasiform, drug eruption and pemphigoid.

d Reported also in studies outside the pooled dataset. The frequency is based on the program-wide exposure.

e Musculoskeletal pain is a composite term which includes back pain, bone pain, musculoskeletal chest pain, musculoskeletal discomfort, myalgia, myalgia intercostal, neck pain, pain in extremity, and spinal pain.

f Post-marketing event (also see section 4.4).

g Reported in clinical studies and in the post-marketing setting.

h Pericardial disorders is a composite term which includes pericarditis, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and Dressler's syndrome.

i Anaemia is a composite term which includes, among other causes, haemolytic anaemia and autoimmune anaemia, haemoglobin decreased, iron deficiency anaemia and red blood cell count decreased.

j Includes adrenal insufficiency, adrenocortical insufficiency acute, and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency.

k Includes encephalitis and limbic encephalitis.

l Oedema is a composite term which includes generalised oedema, oedema peripheral, peripheral swelling and swelling.

Nivolumab in combination with other therapeutic agents (see section 4.2)

Summary of the safety profile

When nivolumab is administered in combination, refer to the SmPC for the other therapeutic agents for additional information on the safety profile, prior to initiation of treatment.

Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy)

In the pooled dataset of nivolumab administered in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy) across tumour types (n = 2094) with minimum follow-up ranging from 6 to 47 months, the most frequent adverse reactions (≥ 10%) were fatigue (50%), rash (38%), diarrhoea (37%), nausea (31%), pruritus (29%), musculoskeletal pain (28%), pyrexia (25%), cough (24%), decreased appetite (23%), vomiting (20%), dyspnoea (19%), constipation (19%), arthralgia (19%), abdominal pain (18%), hypothyroidism (16%), headache (16%), upper respiratory tract infection (15%), oedema (13%), and dizziness (11%). The incidence of Grade 3-5 adverse reactions was 67% for nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), with 0.7% fatal adverse reactions attributed to study drug. Among patients treated with nivolumab 1 mg/kg in combination with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, fatigue (62%), rash (57%), diarrhoea (52%), nausea (42%), pruritus (40%), pyrexia (36%), and headache (26%) were reported at an incidence rate ≥ 10% higher than the rates reported in the pooled dataset of nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy) incidence rate. Among patients treated with nivolumab 360 mg in combination with ipilimumab 1 mg/kg and chemotherapy, anaemia (32%) and neutropaenia (15%) were reported at an incidence rate ≥ 10% higher than the rates reported in the pooled dataset of nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy) incidence rate.

Nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy

In the pooled dataset of nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks or 360 mg every 3 weeks in combination with chemotherapy across tumour types (n = 1268), with a minimum follow-up ranging from 12.1 to 20 months for gastric, GEJ or oesophageal adenocarcinoma, or OSCC, or following 3 cycles of treatment for resectable NSCLC, the most frequent adverse reactions (≥ 10%) were nausea (51%), peripheral neuropathy (39%), fatigue (39%), diarrhoea (33%), decreased appetite (33%), constipation (31%), vomiting (27%), stomatitis (22%), abdominal pain (21%), rash (18%), pyrexia (17%), musculoskeletal pain (16%), cough (13%), oedema (including peripheral oedema) (12%), and hypoalbuminaemia (11%). Incidences of Grade 3-5 adverse reactions were 71% for nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, with 1.2% fatal adverse reactions attributed to nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy. Median duration of therapy was 6.44 months (95% CI: 5.95, 6.80) for nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy and 4.34 months (95% CI: 4.04, 4.70) for chemotherapy for gastric, GEJ or oesophageal adenocarcinoma, or OSCC. Ninety-three percent (93%) of patients received 3 cycles of nivolumab for resectable NSCLC.

Nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib

In the dataset of nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks in combination with cabozantinib 40 mg once daily in RCC (n =320), with a minimum follow-up of 16.0 months, the most frequent adverse reactions (≥ 10%) were diarrhoea (64.7%), fatigue (51.3%), palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia syndrome (40.0%), stomatitis (38.8%), musculoskeletal pain (37.5%), hypertension (37.2%), rash (36.3%), hypothyroidism (35.6%), decreased appetite (30.3%), nausea (28.8%), abdominal pain (25.0%), dysguesia (23.8%), upper respiratory tract infection (20.6%), cough (20.6%), pruritus (20.6%), arthralgia (19.4%), vomiting (18.4%), dysphonia (17.8%), headache (16.3%), dyspepsia (15.9%), dizziness (14.1%), constipation (14.1%), pyrexia (14.1%), oedema (13.4%), muscle spasm (12.2%), dyspnoea (11.6%), proteinuria (10.9%) and hyperthyroidism (10.0%). The incidence of Grade 3-5 adverse reactions was 78%, with 0.3% fatal adverse reactions attributed to study drug.

Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

Adverse reactions reported in the pooled dataset for patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy) (n = 2094), nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy (n = 1268), and nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib (n = 320) are presented in Table 7. These reactions are presented by system organ class and by frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), not known (cannot be estimated from available post-marketing data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in the order of decreasing seriousness.

Table 7: Adverse reactions with nivolumab in combination with other therapeutic agents

Combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy)

Combination with chemotherapy

Combination with cabozantinib

Infections and infestations

Very common

upper respiratory tract infection

upper respiratory tract infection

Common

pneumonia, bronchitis, conjunctivitis

upper respiratory tract infection, pneumoniaa

pneumonia

Rare

aseptic meningitis

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very common

anaemiab,i, thrombocytopaeniab, leucopoeniab, lymphopaeniab, neutropaeniab

neutropaeniab, anaemiab,i, leucopoeniab, lymphopaeniab, thrombocytopaeniab

anaemiab, thrombocytopaeniab, leucopoeniab, lymphopaeniab, neutropaeniab

Common

eosinophilia

febrile neutropaeniaa

eosinophilia

Uncommon

febrile neutropaenia

eosinophilia

Not known

haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Immune system disorders

Common

infusion related reaction (including cytokine release syndrome), hypersensitivity

hypersensitivity (including anaphylactic reaction), infusion related reaction (including cytokine release syndrome)

hypersensitivity (including anaphylactic reaction)

Uncommon

infusion related hypersensitivity reaction

Rare

sarcoidosis

Not known

solid organ transplant rejectionf

Endocrine disorders

Very common

hypothyroidism

hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism

Common

hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, adrenal insufficiency, hypophysitis, hypopituitarism, diabetes mellitus

hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism

adrenal insufficiency

Uncommon

diabetic ketoacidosis

hypopituitarism, thyroiditis, diabetes mellitus, adrenal insufficiency

hypophysitis, thyroiditis

Rare

hypoparathyroidism

hypophysitis

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common

decreased appetite, hyperglycaemiab, hypoglycaemiab

decreased appetite, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperglycaemiab, hypoglycaemiab

decreased appetite, hypoglycaemiab, hyperglycaemiab, weight decreased

Common

dehydration, hypoalbuminaemia, hypophosphataemia, weight decreased

hypophosphataemia

dehydration

Uncommon

metabolic acidosis

Rare

tumour lysis syndrome

Not known

tumour lysis syndromeg

Nervous system disorders

Very common

headache, dizziness

peripheral neuropathy

dysgeusia, dizziness, headache

Common

peripheral neuropathy

headache, paraesthesia, dizziness

peripheral neuropathy

Uncommon

polyneuropathy, peroneal nerve palsy, autoimmune neuropathy (including facial and abducens nerve paresis), encephalitis, myasthenia gravis

encephalitis autoimmune, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myasthenic syndrome

Rare

Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuritis

Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalitis

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Common

tinnitus

Eye disorders

Common

blurred vision, dry eye

dry eye, blurred vision

dry eye, blurred vision

Uncommon

uveitis, episcleritis

uveitis

uveitis

Rare

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

Cardiac disorders

Common

tachycardia, atrial fibrillation

tachycardia, atrial fibrillation

atrial fibrillation, tachycardia

Uncommon

myocarditisa, arrhythmia (including ventricular arrhythmia)a, bradycardia

myocarditis

myocarditis

Not known

pericardial disordersh

Vascular disorders

Very common

hypertension

Common

hypertension

thrombosisa, j, hypertension, vasculitis

thrombosisj

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Very common

cough, dyspnoea

cough

dysphonia, dyspnoea, cough

Common

pneumonitisa, pulmonary embolisma, pleural effusion

pneumonitisa, dyspnoea

pneumonitis, pulmonary embolism, pleural effusion, epistaxis

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common

diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation

diarrhoeaa, stomatitis, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation

diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, constipation, stomatitis, abdominal pain, dyspepsia

Common

colitisa, pancreatitis, stomatitis, gastritis, dry mouth

colitis, dry mouth

colitis, gastritis, oral pain, dry mouth, haemorrhoids

Uncommon

duodenitis

pancreatitis

pancreatitis, small intestine perforationa, glossodynia

Rare

intestinal perforationa

Hepatobiliary disorders

Common

hepatitis

hepatitis

Uncommon

hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Very common

rashc, pruritus

rashc

palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia syndrome, rashc, pruritus

Common

alopecia, vitiligo, urticaria, dry skin, erythema,

palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia syndrome, pruritus, skin hyperpigmentation, alopecia, dry skin, erythema

alopecia, dry skin, erythema, hair colour change

Uncommon

Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, psoriasis

psoriasis, urticaria

Rare

toxic epidermal necrolysisa,d, lichen sclerosus, other lichen disorders

Not known

lichen sclerosus, other lichen disorders

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very common

musculoskeletal paine, arthralgia

musculoskeletal paine

musculoskeletal paine, arthralgia, muscle spasm

Common

muscle spasms, muscular weakness, arthritis

arthralgia, muscular weakness

arthritis

Uncommon

polymyalgia rheumatica, myopathy, myositis (including polymyositis)a

myopathy, osteonecrosis of the jaw, fistula

Rare

spondyloarthropathy, Sjogren's syndrome, rhabdomyolysisa

Renal and urinary disorders

Very common

proteinuria

Common

renal failure (including acute kidney injury)a

renal failurea

renal failure, acute kidney injury

Uncommon

tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephritis

cystitis noninfective

nephritis

Rare

cystitis noninfective

nephritis

cystitis noninfectiveg

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very common

fatigue, pyrexia, oedema (including peripheral oedema)

fatigue, pyrexia, oedema (including peripheral oedema)

fatigue, pyrexia, oedema

Common

chest pain, pain, chills

malaise

pain, chest pain

Investigations

Very common

increased alkaline phosphataseb, increased ASTb, increased ALTb, increased total bilirubinb, increased creatinineb, increased amylaseb, increased lipaseb, hyponatraemiab, hyperkalaemiab, hypokalaemiab, hypercalcaemiab, hypocalcaemiab

hypocalcaemiab, increased transaminasesb, hyponatraemiab, increased amylaseb, hypomagnesaemiab, increased alkaline phosphataseb, hypokalaemiab, increased creatinineb, increased lipaseb, hyperkalaemiab, increased total bilirubinb

increased alkaline phosphataseb, increased ALTb, increased ASTb, increased total bilirubinb, increased creatinineb, increased amylaseb, increased lipaseb, hypokalaemiab, hypomagnesaemiab, hyponatraemiab, hypocalcaemiab, hypercalcaemiab, hypophosphataemiab, hyperkalaemiab, hypermagnesaemiab, hypernatraemiab

Common

hypernatraemiab, hypermagnesaemiab, increased thyroid stimulating hormone, increased gamma-glutamyltransferase

hypernatraemiab, hypercalcaemiab, hypermagnesaemiab

blood cholesterol increased, hypertriglyceridaemia

Adverse reaction frequencies presented in Table 7 may not be fully attributable to nivolumab alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents, but may contain contributions from the underlying disease or from medicinal product used in combination.

a Fatal cases have been reported in completed or ongoing clinical studies.

b Frequencies of laboratory terms reflect the proportion of patients who experienced a worsening from baseline in laboratory measurements. See “ Description of selected adverse reactions; laboratory abnormalities” below.

c Rash is a composite term which includes maculopapular rash, rash erythematous, rash pruritic, rash follicular, rash macular, rash morbilliform, rash papular, rash pustular, rash papulosquamous, rash vesicular, rash generalised, exfoliative rash, dermatitis, dermatitis acneiform, dermatitis allergic, dermatitis atopic, dermatitis bullous, dermatitis exfoliative, dermatitis psoriasiform, drug eruption, nodular rash, and pemphigoid.

d Reported also in studies outside the pooled dataset. The frequency is based on the program-wide exposure.

e Musculoskeletal pain is a composite term which includes back pain, bone pain, musculoskeletal chest pain, musculoskeletal discomfort, myalgia, myalgia intercostal, neck pain, pain in extremity, and spinal pain.

f Post-marketing event (also see section 4.4).

g Reported in clinical studies and in the post-marketing setting.

h Pericardial disorders is a composite term which includes pericarditis, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and Dressler's syndrome.

i Anaemia is a composite term which includes, among other causes, haemolytic anaemia and autoimmune anaemia, haemoglobin decreased, iron deficiency anaemia and red blood cell count decreased.

j Thrombosis is a composite term which includes portal vein thrombosis, pulmonary vein thrombosis, pulmonary thrombosis, aortic thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, pelvic vein thrombosis, vena cava thrombosis, venous thrombosis, limb venous thrombosis.

Description of selected adverse reactions

Nivolumab or nivolumab in combination with other therapeutic agents is associated with immune-related adverse reactions. With appropriate medical therapy, immune-related adverse reactions resolved in most cases. Permanent discontinuation of treatment generally was required in a greater proportion of patients receiving nivolumab in combination with other agents than in those receiving nivolumab monotherapy. Table 8 presents the percentage of patients with immune-related adverse reactions who were permanently discontinued from treatment by dosing regimen. Additionally, for patients who experienced an event, Table 8 presents the percentage of patients who required high-dose corticosteroids (at least 40 mg daily prednisone equivalents) by dosing regimen. The management guidelines for these adverse reactions are described in section 4.4.

Table 8: Immune-related adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation or requiring high-dose corticosteroids by dosing regimen (nivolumab monotherapy, nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, or nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib)

Nivolumab monotherapy

%

Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy)

%

Nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy

%

Nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib

%

Immune-related adverse reaction leading to permanent discontinuation

Pneumonitis

1.4

2.5

2.1

2.5

Colitis

1.2

6

2.1

2.5

Hepatitis

1.1

5

1.0

4.1

Nephritis and renal dysfunction

0.3

1.2

3.0

0.6

Endocrinopathies

0.5

2.0

0.5

1.3

Skin

0.8

1.0

1.1

2.2

Hypersensitivity/Infusion reaction

0.1

0.3

2.3

0

Immune-related adverse reaction requiring high-dose corticosteroidsa,b

Pneumonitis

65

59

59

56

Colitis

14

32

8

8

Hepatitis

21

37

8

23

Nephritis and renal dysfunction

22

27

9

9

Endocrinopathies

5

20

5

4.2

Skin

3.3

8

6

8

Hypersensitivity/Infusion reaction

18

16

23

0

a at least 40 mg daily prednisone equivalents

b frequency is based on the number of patients who experienced the immune-related adverse reaction

Immune-related pneumonitis

In patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy, the incidence of pneumonitis, including interstitial lung disease and lung infiltration, was 3.3% (155/4646) The majority of cases were Grade 1 or 2 in severity reported in 0.9% (42/4646) and 1.7% (77/4646) of patients respectively. Grade 3 and 4 cases were reported in 0.7% (33/4646) and <0.1% (1/4646) of patients respectively. Six patients (0.1%) had a fatal outcome. Median time to onset was 15.1 weeks (range: 0.7-85.1). Resolution occurred in 107 patients (69.0%) with a median time to resolution of 6.6 weeks (range: 0.1+-109.1+); + denotes a censored observation.

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), the incidence of pneumonitis including interstitial lung disease, was 6.9% (145/2094). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 3.5% (73/2094), 1.1% (24/2094), and 0.4% (8/2094) of patients, respectively. Four patients (0.2%) had a fatal outcome. Median time to onset was 2.7 months (range: 0.1-56.8). Resolution occurred in 119 patients (82.1%) with a median time to resolution of 6.1 weeks (range: 0.3-149.3+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, the incidence of pneumonitis including interstitial lung disease was 4.8% (61/1268). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 2.4% (31/1268), 1.0% (13/1268), and 0.2% (3/1268), of patients, respectively. Two patients (0.2%) had a fatal outcome. Median time to onset was 24.1 weeks (range: 1.6-96.9). Resolution occurred in 42 patients (68.9%) with a median time to resolution of 10.4 weeks (range: 0.3+-121.3+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, the incidence of pneumonitis including interstitial lung disease was 5.6% (18/320). Grade 2 and Grade 3 cases were reported in 1.9% (6/320) and 1.6% (5/320) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 26.9 weeks (range: 12.3-74.3 weeks). Resolution occurred in 14 patients (77.8%) with a median time to resolution of 7.5 weeks (range: 2.1-60.7+ weeks).

Immune-related colitis

In patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy, the incidence of diarrhoea, colitis, or frequent bowel movements was 15.4% (716/4646). The majority of cases were Grade 1 or 2 in severity reported in 9.9% (462/4646) and 4.0% (186/4646) of patients respectively. Grade 3 and 4 cases were reported in 1.4% (67/4646) and <0.1% (1/4646) of patients respectively. Median time to onset was 8.3 weeks (range: 0.1-115.6). Resolution occurred in 639 patients (90.3%) with a median time to resolution of 2.9 weeks (range: 0.1-124.4+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), the incidence of diarrhoea or colitis was 27.7% (580/2094). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 8.8% (184/2094), 6.8% (142/2094), and 0.1% (3/2094), of patients, respectively. One patient (<0.1%) had a fatal outcome. Median time to onset was 1.4 months (range: 0.0-48.9). Resolution occurred in 577 patients (90.8%) with a median time to resolution of 2.7 weeks (range: 0.1-159.4+). Among patients treated with nivolumab 1 mg/kg in combination with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, the incidence of diarrhoea or colitis was 46.7%, including Grade 2 (13.6%), Grade 3 (15.8%), and Grade 4 (0.4%).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, the incidence of diarrhoea or colitis was 26.4% (335/1268). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 8.2% (104/1268), 3.5% (45/1268), and 0.5% (6/1268) of patients, respectively. One patient (<0.1%) had a fatal outcome. Median time to onset was 4.3 weeks (range: 0.1-93.6). Resolution occurred in 293 patients (88.0%) with a median time to resolution of 1.4 weeks (range: 0.1-117.6+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, the incidence of diarrhoea, colitis, frequent bowel movements or enteritis was 59.1% (189/320). Grade 2 and Grade 3 cases were reported in 25.6% (82/320) and 6.3% (20/320) of patients, respectively. Grade 4 were reported in 0.6% (2/320). Median time to onset was 12.9 weeks (range: 0.3-110.9 weeks). Resolution occurred in 143 patients (76.1%) with a median time to resolution of 12.9 weeks (range: 0.1-139.7+ weeks).

Immune-related hepatitis

In patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy, the incidence of liver function test abnormalities was 8.0% (371/4646). The majority of cases were Grade 1 or 2 in severity reported in 4.3% (200/4646) and 1.8% (82/4646) of patients respectively. Grade 3 and 4 cases were reported in 1.6% (74/4646) and 0.3% (15/4646) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 10.6 weeks (range: 0.1-132.0). Resolution occurred in 298 patients (81.4%) with a median time to resolution of 6.1 weeks (range: 0.1-126.4+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), the incidence of liver function test abnormalities was 19.2% (402/2094). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 4.2% (88/2094), 7.8% (163/2094), and 1.2% (25/2094) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 1.9 months (range: 0.0-36.6). Resolution occurred in 351 patients (87.8%) with a median time to resolution of 5.3 weeks (range: 0.1-175.9+). Among patients treated with nivolumab 1 mg/kg in combination with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, the incidence of liver function test abnormalities was 30.1% including Grade 2 (6.9%), Grade 3 (15.8%), and Grade 4 (1.8%).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, the incidence of liver function test abnormalities was 20.0% (253/1268). Grade 2, Grade 3 and Grade 4 cases were reported in 6.2% (78/1268), 2.9% (37/1268) and < 0.1% (1/1268) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was7.0 weeks (range: 0.1-84.1). Resolution occurred in202 patients (81.1%) with a median time to resolution of7.4 weeks (range: 0.4-150.6+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, the incidence of liver function test abnormalities was 41.6% (133/320). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 14.7% (47/320), 10.3% (33/320), and 0.6% (2/320) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 8.3 weeks (range: 0.1-107.9 weeks). Resolution occurred in 101 patients (75.9%) with a median time to resolution of 9.6 weeks (range: 0.1-89.3+ weeks).

Immune-related nephritis and renal dysfunction

In patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy, the incidence of nephritis or renal dysfunction was 2.6% (121/4646). The majority of cases were Grade 1 or 2 in severity reported in 1.5% (69/4646) and 0.7% (32/4646) of patients respectively. Grade 3 and 4 cases were reported in 0.4% (18/4646) and <0.1% (2/4646) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 12.1 weeks (range: 0.1-79.1). Resolution occurred in 80 patients (69.0%) with a median time to resolution of 8.0 weeks (range: 0.3-79.1+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), the incidence of nephritis or renal dysfunction was 6.1% (128/2094). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 2.3% (49/2094), 1.0% (20/2094), and 0.5% (10/2094) of patients, respectively. Two patients (<0.1%) had a fatal outcome. Median time to onset was 2.5 months (range: 0.0-34.8). Resolution occurred in 97 patients (75.8%) with a median time to resolution of 6.3 weeks (range: 0.1-172.1+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, the incidence of nephritis or renal dysfunction was 8.8% (112/1268). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 3.3% (42/1268), 1.0% (13/1268), and 0.2% (2/1268) of patients, respectively. One patient (<0.1%) had a fatal outcome. Median time to onset was 9.6 weeks (range: 0.7-60.7). Resolution occurred in 72 patients (64.3%) with a median time to resolution of 11.1 weeks (range: 0.1-191.1+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, the incidence of nephritis, immune mediated nephritis, renal failure, acute kidney injury, blood creatinine increased, or blood urea increased was 10.0% (32/320). Grade 2 and Grade 3 cases were reported in 3.4% (11/320), and 1.3% (4/320) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 14.2 weeks (range: 2.1-87.1 weeks). Resolution occurred in 18 patients (58.1%) with a median time to resolution of 10.1 weeks (range: 0.6-90.9+ weeks).

Immune-related endocrinopathies

In patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy, the incidence of thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, was 13.0% (603/4646). The majority of cases were Grade 1 or 2 in severity reported in 6.6% (305/4646) and 6.2% (290/4646) of patients, respectively. Grade 3 thyroid disorders were reported in 0.2% (8/4646) of patients. Hypophysitis (3 Grade 1, 7 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4), hypopituitarism (6 Grade 2 and 1 Grade 3), adrenal insufficiency (including secondary adrenocortical insufficiency, adrenocortical insufficiency acute and blood corticotrophin decreased) (2 Grade 1, 23 Grade 2, and 11 Grade 3), diabetes mellitus (including Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis) (1 Grade 1, 3 Grade 2 and 8 Grade 3 and 2 Grade 4), were reported. Median time to onset of these endocrinopathies was 11.1 weeks (range: 0.1-126.7). Resolution occurred in 323 patients (48.7%). Median time to resolution was 48.6 weeks (range: 0.4-204.4+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), the incidence of thyroid disorders was 22.9% (479/2094). Grade 2 and Grade 3 thyroid disorders were reported in 12.5% (261/2094) and 1.0% (21/2094) of patients, respectively. Grade 2 and Grade 3 hypophysitis (including lymphocytic hypophysitis) occurred in 2.0% (42/2094) and 1.6% (33/2094) of patients, respectively. Grade 2 and Grade 3 hypopituitarism occurred in 0.8% (16/2094)) and 0.5% ((11/2094)) of patients, respectively. Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 adrenal insufficiency (including secondary adrenocortical insufficiency) occurred in 2.3% (49/2094), 1.5% (32/2094) and 0.2% (4/2094) of patients, respectively. Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 diabetes mellitus occurred in 0.1% (1/2094), 0.2% (4/2094), <0.1% (1/2094), and 0.1 (3/2094) of patients, respectively, and Grade 4 diabetic ketoacidosis was reported in <0.1% (2/2094) of patients. Median time to onset of these endocrinopathies was 2.1 months (range: 0.0-28.1). Resolution occurred in 201 patients (40.7%). Time to resolution ranged from 0.3 to 257.1+ weeks.

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, the incidence of thyroid disorders was 10.8% (137/1268). Grade 2 thyroid disorder was reported in 4.8% (61/1268) patients. Grade 3 hypophysitis occurred in < 0.1% (1/1268) of patients. Grade 2 and Grade 3 hypopituitarism occurred in 0.2% (3/1268) and 0.2% (3/1268) of patients, respectively. Grade 2, Grade 3 and Grade 4 adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.6% (8/1268), 0.2% (2/1268) and <0.1% (1/1268) of patients, respectively. Diabetes mellitus including Type 1 diabetes mellitus and fulminant Type 1 diabetes mellitus (2 Grade 2, 2 Grade 3 and 1 Grade 4), and diabetic ketoacidosis (1 Grade 4) were reported. Median time to onset of these endocrinopathies was 13.0 weeks (range: 2.0-124.3). Resolution occurred in 63 patients (40.9%). Time to resolution ranged from 0.4 to 221.6+ weeks.

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, the incidence of thyroid disorders was 43.1% (138/320). Grade 2 and Grade 3 thyroid disorders were reported in 23.1% (74/320) and 0.9% (3/320) of patients, respectively. Hypophysitis occurred in 0.6% (2/320) of patients, all Grade 2. Adrenal insufficiency (including secondary adrenocortical insufficiency) occurred in 4.7% (15/320) of patients. Grade 2 and Grade 3 adrenal insufficiency cases were reported in 2.2% (7/320) and 1.9% (6/320) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset of these endocrinopathies was 12.3 weeks (range: 2.0-89.7 weeks). Resolution occurred in 50 patients (35.2%). Time to resolution ranged from 0.9 to 132.0+ weeks.

Immune-related skin adverse reactions

In patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy, the incidence of rash was 30.0% (1396/4646). The majority of cases were Grade 1 in severity reported in 22.8% (1060/4646) of patients. Grade 2 and Grade 3 cases were reported in 5.9% (274/4646) and 1.3% (62/4646) of patients respectively. Median time to onset was 6.7 weeks (range: 0.1-121.1). Resolution occurred in 896 patients (64.6%) with a median time to resolution of 20.1 weeks (0.1-192.7+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), the incidence of rash was 46.2% (968/2094). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 14.1% (296/2094), 4.6% (97/2094), and <0.1% (2/2094) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 0.7 months (range: 0.0-33.8). Resolution occurred in 671 patients (69.6%) with a median time to resolution of 11.1 weeks (range: 0.1-268.7+). Among patients treated with nivolumab 1 mg/kg in combination with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, the incidence of rash was 65.2%, including Grade 2 (20.3%) and Grade 3 (7.8%).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, the incidence of rash was 24.1% (306/1268). Grade 2 and Grade 3 cases were reported in 6.4% (81/1268), and 2.4% (31/1268) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 6.6 weeks (range: 0.1-97.4). Resolution occurred in205 patients (67.0%) with a median time to resolution of13.6 weeks (range: 0.1-188.1+).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, the incidence of rash was 62.8% (201/320). Grade 2 and Grade 3 cases were reported in 23.1% (74/320) and 10.6% (34/320) of patients, respectively. Median time to onset was 6.14 weeks (range: 0.1-104.4 weeks). Resolution occurred in 137 patients (68.2%) with a median time to resolution of 18.1 weeks (range: 0.1-130.6+ weeks).

Rare cases of SJS and TEN some of them with fatal outcome have been observed (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Infusion reactions

In patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy, the incidence of hypersensitivity/infusion reactions was 4.0% (188/4646), including 9 Grade 3 and 3 Grade 4 cases.

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (with or without chemotherapy), the incidence of hypersensitivity/infusion reactions was 4.9% (103/2094). Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 2.1% (44/2094), 2.5% (53/2094), 0.2% (5/2094), and <0.1% (1/2094) of patients, respectively. Among patients with MPM treated with nivolumab 3 mg/kg in combination with ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, the incidence of hypersensitivity/infusion reactions was 12%.

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, the incidence of hypersensitivity/infusion reactions was 9.8% (124/1268). Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4 cases were reported in 5.7% (72/1268), 1.4% (18/1268) and 0.2% (3/1268) of patients, respectively.

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, the incidence of hypersensitivity/infusion reactions was 2.5% (8/320). All 8 patients were Grade 1 or 2 in severity. Grade 2 cases were reported in 0.3% (1/320) of patients.

Complications of allogeneic HSCT in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

Rapid onset of GVHD has been reported with nivolumab use before and after allogeneic HSCT (see section 4.4).

In 62 evaluated patients from two cHL studies who underwent allogeneic HSCT after discontinuing nivolumab monotherapy, Grade 3 or 4 acute GVHD was reported in 17/62 patients (27.4%). Hyperacute GVHD, defined as acute GVHD occurring within 14 days after stem cell infusion, was reported in four patients (6%). A steroid-requiring febrile syndrome, without an identified infectious cause, was reported in six patients (12%) within the first 6 weeks post-transplantation. Steroids were used in four patients and three patients responded to steroids. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease occurred in two patients, one of whom died of GVHD and multi-organ failure. Nineteen of 62 patients (30.6%) died from complications of allogeneic HSCT after nivolumab. The 62 patients had a median follow-up from subsequent allogeneic HSCT of 38.5 months (range: 0-68 months).

Elevated liver enzymes when nivolumab is combined with cabozantinib in RCC

In a clinical study of previously untreated patients with RCC receiving nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, a higher incidence of Grades 3 and 4 ALT increased (10.1%) and AST increased (8.2%) were observed relative to nivolumab monotherapy in patients with advanced RCC. In patients with Grade ≥ 2 increased ALT or AST (n=85): median time to onset was 10.1 weeks (range: 2.0 to 106.6 weeks), 26% received corticosteroids for median duration of 1.4 weeks (range: 0.9 to 75.3 weeks), and resolution to Grades 0-1 occurred in 91% with median time to resolution of 2.3 weeks (range: 0.4 to 108.1+ weeks). Among the 45 patients with Grade ≥ 2 increased ALT or AST who were rechallenged with either nivolumab (n=10) or cabozantinib (n=10) administered as a single agent or with both (n=25), recurrence of Grade ≥ 2 increased ALT or AST was observed in 3 patients receiving OPDIVO, 4 patients receiving cabozantinib, and 8 patients receiving both OPDIVO and cabozantinib.

Laboratory abnormalities

In patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy, the proportion of patients who experienced a shift from baseline to a Grade 3 or 4 laboratory abnormality was as follows: 3.4% for anaemia (all Grade 3), 0.7% for thrombocytopaenia, 0.7% for leucopoenia, 8.7% for lymphopaenia, 0.9% for neutropaenia, 1.7% for increased alkaline phosphatase, 2.6% for increased AST, 2.3% for increased ALT, 0.8% for increased total bilirubin, 0.7% for increased creatinine, 2.0% for hyperglycaemia, 0.7% for hypoglycaemia, 3.8% for increased amylase, 6.9% for increased lipase, 4.7% for hyponatraemia, 1.6% for hyperkalaemia, 1.3% for hypokalaemia, 1.1% for hypercalcaemia, 0.6% for hypermagnesaemia, 0.4% for hypomagnesaemia, 0.6% for hypocalcaemia, 0.6% for hypoalbuminaemia, and <0.1% for hypernatraemia.

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab(with or without chemotherapy),, the proportion of patients who experienced a worsening from baseline to a Grade 3 or 4 laboratory abnormality was as follows: 4.9% for anaemia, 1.5% for thrombocytopaenia, 2.3% for leucopoenia, 7.3% for lymphopaenia, 3.4% for neutropaenia, 2.9% for increased alkaline phosphatase, 7.3% for increased AST, 8.4% for increased ALT, 1.2% for increased total bilirubin, 1.6% for increased creatinine, 5.8% for hyperglycaemia, 8.4% for increased amylase, 16.7% for increased lipase, 0.8% for hypocalcaemia, 0.2% for hypernatraemia , 1.0% for hypercalcaemia, 1.9% for hyperkalaemia, 0.5% for hypermagnesaemia, 3.4% for hypokalaemia, and 9.8% for hyponatraemia.

Among patients treated with nivolumab 1 mg/kg in combination with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, a higher proportion of patients experienced a worsening from baseline to Grade 3 or 4 increased ALT (15.3%).

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with chemotherapy, the proportion of patients who experienced a worsening from baseline to a Grade 3 or 4 laboratory abnormality was as follows: 14.5% for anaemia, 5.4% for thrombocytopaenia, 10.7% leukopaenia, 14.0% for lymphopaenia, 25.7% neutropaenia, 2.4% for increased alkaline phosphatase, 3.6% for increased AST, 2.7% for increased ALT, 1.9% for increased bilirubin, 1.2% for increased creatinine, 4.6% for increased amylase, 5.6% for increased lipase, 0.5% for hypernatraemia, 7.8% for hyponatraemia, 1.6% for hyperkalaemia, 6.4% for hypokalaemia, 0.9% for hypercalcaemia, 1.8% for hypocalcaemia, 1.7% for hypomagnesaemia, 3.4% for hyperglycaemia, and 0.6% for hypoglycaemia.

In patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, the proportion of patients who experienced a worsening from baseline to a Grade 3 or 4 laboratory abnormality was as follows: 3.5% for anaemia (all Grade 3), 0.3% for thrombocytopaenia, 0.3% for leucopoenia, 7.5% for lymphopaenia, 3.5% for neutropaenia, 3.2% for increased alkaline phosphatase, 8.2% for increased AST, 10.1% for increased ALT, 1.3% for increased total bilirubin, 1.3% for increased creatinine, 11.9% for increased amylase, 15.6% for increased lipase, 3.5% for hyperglycaemia, 0.8% for hypoglycaemia, 2.2% for hypocalcaemia, 0.3% for hypercalcaemia, 5.4% for hyperkalaemia, 4.2% for hypermagnesaemia, 1.9% for hypomagnesaemia 3.2% for hypokalaemia, 12.3% for hyponatraemia, and 21.2% for hypophosphataemia.

Immunogenicity

Of the 3529 patients who were treated with nivolumab monotherapy 3 mg/kg or 240 mg every 2 weeks and evaluable for the presence of anti-product-antibodies, 328 patients (9.3%) tested positive for treatment-emergent anti-product-antibodies with 21 patients (0.6%) testing positive for neutralising antibodies.

Co-administration with chemotherapy did not affect nivolumab immunogenicity. Of the patients who were treated with nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks or 360 mg every 3 weeks in combination with chemotherapy and evaluable for the presence of anti-product-antibodies, 7.5% tested positive for treatment emergent anti-product-antibodies with 0.5% tested positive for neutralising antibodies.

Of the patients who were treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab and evaluable for the presence of anti-nivolumab antibodies, the incidence of anti-nivolumab antibodies was 26.0% with nivolumab 3 mg/kg and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks, 24.9% with nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks, and 37.8% with nivolumab 1 mg/kg and ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The incidence of neutralising antibodies against nivolumab was 0.8% with nivolumab 3 mg/kg and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks, 1.5% with nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks, and 4.6% with nivolumab 1 mg/kg and ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Of patients evaluable for the presence of anti-ipilimumab antibodies, the incidence of anti-ipilimumab antibodies ranged from 6.3 to 13.7% and neutralising antibodies against ipilimumab ranged from 0 to 0.4%.

Of the patients who were treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab and chemotherapy and evaluable for the presence of anti-nivolumab antibodies or neutralising antibodies against nivolumab, the incidence of anti-nivolumab antibodies was 33.8% and the incidence of neutralising antibodies was 2.6%. Of the patients who were treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab and chemotherapy and evaluable for the presence of anti-ipilimumab antibodies or neutralising antibodies against ipilimumab, the incidence of anti-ipilimumab antibodies was 7.5%, and the neutralising antibodies was 1.6%.

Although the clearance of nivolumab was increased by 20% when anti-nivolumab-antibodies were present, there was no evidence of loss of efficacy or altered toxicity profile in the presence of nivolumab antibodies based on the pharmacokinetic and exposure-response analyses for both monotherapy and combination.

Paediatric population

The safety of nivolumab as monotherapy (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) and in combination with ipilimumab (nivolumab 1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg in combination with ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for the first 4 doses, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg as monotherapy every 2 weeks) was evaluated in 97 paediatric patients aged ≥ 1 year to < 18 years (including 53 patients 12 to < 18 years) with recurrent or refractory solid or haematological tumours, including advanced melanoma, in clinical study CA209070. The safety profile in paediatric patients was generally similar to that seen in adults treated with nivolumab as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab. No new safety signals were observed.

The most common adverse reactions (reported in at least 20% of paediatric patients) treated with nivolumab monotherapy were fatigue (35.9%) and decreased appetite (21.9%). The majority of adverse reactions reported for nivolumab monotherapy were Grade 1 or 2 in severity. Twenty-one patients (33%) had one or more Grades 3 to 4 adverse reactions.

The most common adverse reactions (reported in at least 20% of paediatric patients) treated with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab were fatigue (33.3%) and rash maculo-papular (21.2%). The majority of adverse reactions reported for nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab were Grade 1 or 2 in severity. Ten patients (30%) had one or more Grades 3 to 4 adverse reactions.

No new safety signals were observed in clinical study CA209908 of 151 paediatric patients with high-grade primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies (see section 5.1), relative to data available in adult studies across indications.

Elderly

No overall differences in safety were reported between elderly (≥ 65 years) and younger patients (< 65 years). Data from SCCHN, adjuvant melanoma, and adjuvant OC or GEJC patients 75 years of age or older are too limited to draw conclusions on this population (see section 5.1). Data from dMMR or MSI-H CRC patients 75 years of age or older are limited (see section 5.1). Data from cHL patients 65 years of age or older are too limited to draw conclusions on this population (see section 5.1).

In MPM patients, there was a higher rate of serious adverse reactions and discontinuation rate due to adverse reactions in patients 75 years of age or older (68% and 35%, respectively) relative to all patients who received nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (54% and 28%, respectively).

For patients treated with nivolumab in combination with cabozantinib, data from RCC patients 75 years of age or older are too limited to draw conclusions on this population (see section 5.1).

Hepatic or renal impairment

In the non-squamous NSCLC study (CA209057), the safety profile in patients with baseline renal or hepatic impairment was comparable to that in the overall population. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size within the subgroups.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via;

Yellow Card Scheme

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store

4.9 Overdose

No cases of overdose have been reported in clinical trials. In case of overdose, patients should be closely monitored for signs or symptoms of adverse reactions, and appropriate symptomatic treatment instituted immediately.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antineoplastic agents, monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates, PD-1/PDL-1 (Programmed cell death protein 1/ death ligand 1) inhibitors. ATC code: L01FF01.

Mechanism of action

Nivolumab is a human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), which binds to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2. The PD-1 receptor is a negative regulator of T-cell activity that has been shown to be involved in the control of T-cell immune responses. Engagement of PD-1 with the ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are expressed in antigen presenting cells and may be expressed by tumours or other cells in the tumour microenvironment, results in inhibition of T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. Nivolumab potentiates T-cell responses, including anti-tumour responses, through blockade of PD-1 binding to PD-L1 and PD-L2 ligands. In syngeneic mouse models, blocking PD-1 activity resulted in decreased tumour growth.

Combined nivolumab (anti-PD-1) and ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) mediated inhibition results in improved anti-tumour responses in metastatic melanoma. In murine syngeneic tumour models, dual blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 resulted in synergistic anti-tumour activity.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Based on modelling of dose/exposure efficacy and safety relationships, there are no clinically significant differences in efficacy and safety between a nivolumab dose of 240 mg every 2 weeks or 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Additionally, based on these relationships, there were no clinically significant differences between a nivolumab dose of 480 mg every 4 weeks or 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks in adjuvant treatment of melanoma, advanced melanoma and advanced RCC.

Melanoma

Treatment of advanced melanoma

Randomised phase 3 study vs. dacarbazine (CA209066)

The safety and efficacy of nivolumab 3 mg/kg for the treatment of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma were evaluated in a phase 3, randomised, double-blind study (CA209066). The study included adult patients (18 years or older) with confirmed, treatment-naive, Stage III or IV BRAF wild-type melanoma and an ECOG performance-status score of 0 or 1. Patients with active autoimmune disease, ocular melanoma, or active brain or leptomeningeal metastases were excluded from the study.

A total of 418 patients were randomised to receive either nivolumab (n = 210) administered intravenously over 60 minutes at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or dacarbazine (n = 208) at 1000 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by tumour PD-L1 status and M stage (M0/M1a/M1b versus M1c). Treatment was continued as long as clinical benefit was observed or until treatment was no longer tolerated. Treatment after disease progression was permitted for patients who had a clinical benefit and did not have substantial adverse events with the study drug, as determined by the investigator. Tumour assessments, according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), version 1.1, were conducted 9 weeks after randomisation and continued every 6 weeks for the first year and then every 12 weeks thereafter. The primary efficacy outcome measure was OS. Key secondary efficacy outcome measures were investigator-assessed PFS and objective response rate (ORR).

Baseline characteristics were balanced between the two groups. The median age was 65 years (range: 18-87), 59% were men, and 99.5% were white. Most patients had ECOG performance score of 0 (64%) or 1 (34%). Sixty-one percent of patients had M1c stage disease at study entry. Seventy-four percent of patients had cutaneous melanoma, and 11% had mucosal melanoma; 35% of patients had PD-L1 positive melanoma (5% tumour cell membrane expression). Sixteen percent of patients had received prior adjuvant therapy; the most common adjuvant treatment was interferon (9%). Four percent of patients had a history of brain metastasis, and 37% of patients had a baseline LDH level greater than ULN at study entry.

The Kaplan-Meier curves for OS are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier curves of OS (CA209066)

SMPC_30476_image1_59.png

The observed OS benefit was consistently demonstrated across subgroups of patients including baseline ECOG performance status, M stage, history of brain metastases, and baseline LDH level. Survival benefit was observed regardless of whether patients had tumours that were designated PD-L1 negative or PD-L1 positive (tumour membrane expression cut off of 5% or 10%).

Data available indicate that the onset of nivolumab effect is delayed such that benefit of nivolumab above chemotherapy may take 2-3 months.

Efficacy results are shown in Table 9.

Table 9: Efficacy results (CA209066)

nivolumab

(n = 210)

dacarbazine

(n = 208)

Overall survival

Events

50 (23.8%)

96 (46.2%)

Hazard ratio

0.42

99.79% CI

(0.25, 0.73)

95% CI

(0.30, 0.60)

p-value

< 0.0001

Median (95% CI)

Not reached

10.8 (9.33, 12.09)

Rate (95% CI)

At 6 months

84.1 (78.3, 88.5)

71.8 (64.9, 77.6)

At 12 months

72.9 (65.5, 78.9)

42.1 (33.0, 50.9)

Progression-free survival

Events

108 (51.4%)

163 (78.4%)

Hazard ratio

0.43

95% CI

(0.34, 0.56)

p-value

< 0.0001

Median (95% CI)

5.1 (3.48, 10.81)

2.2 (2.10, 2.40)

Rate (95% CI)

At 6 months

48.0 (40.8, 54.9)

18.5 (13.1, 24.6)

At 12 months

41.8 (34.0, 49.3)

NA

Objective response

84 (40.0%)

29 (13.9%)

(95% CI)

(33.3, 47.0)

(9.5, 19.4)

Odds ratio (95% CI)

4.06 (2.52, 6.54)

p-value

< 0.0001

Complete response (CR)

16 (7.6%)

2 (1.0%)

Partial response (PR)

68 (32.4%)

27 (13.0%)

Stable disease (SD)

35 (16.7%)

46 (22.1%)

Median duration of response

Months (range)

Not reached (0+-12.5+)

6.0 (1.1-10.0+)

Median time to response

Months (range)

2.1 (1.2-7.6)

2.1 (1.8-3.6)

+” denotes a censored observation.

Randomised phase 3 study vs. chemotherapy (CA209037)

The safety and efficacy of nivolumab 3 mg/kg for the treatment of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma were evaluated in a phase 3, randomised, open-label study (CA209037). The study included adult patients who had progressed on or after ipilimumab and if BRAF V600 mutation positive had also progressed on or after BRAF kinase inhibitor therapy. Patients with active autoimmune disease, ocular melanoma, active brain or leptomeningeal metastases or a known history of prior ipilimumab-related high-grade (Grade 4 per CTCAE v4.0) adverse reactions, except for resolved nausea, fatigue, infusion reactions, or endocrinopathies, were excluded from the study.

A total of 405 patients were randomised to receive either nivolumab (n = 272) administered intravenously over 60 minutes at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or chemotherapy (n = 133) which consisted of the investigator's choice of either dacarbazine (1000 mg/m2 every 3 weeks) or carboplatin (AUC 6 every 3 weeks) and paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks). Randomisation was stratified by BRAF and tumour PD-L1 status and best response to prior ipilimumab.

The co-primary efficacy outcome measures were confirmed ORR in the first 120 patients treated with nivolumab, as measured by independent radiology review committee (IRRC) using RECIST, version 1.1, and comparison of OS of nivolumab to chemotherapy. Additional outcome measures included duration and timing of response.

The median age was 60 years (range: 23-88). Sixty-four percent of patients were men and 98% were white. ECOG performance scores were 0 for 61% of patients and 1 for 39% of patients. The majority (75%) of patients had M1c stage disease at study entry. Seventy-three percent of patients had cutaneous melanoma and 10% had mucosal melanoma. The number of prior systemic regimen received was 1 for 27% of patients, 2 for 51% of patients, and > 2 for 21% of patients. Twenty-two percent of patients had tumours that tested BRAF mutation positive and 50% of patients had tumours that were considered PD-L1 positive. Sixty-four percent of patients had no prior clinical benefit (CR/PR or SD) on ipilimumab. Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups except for the proportions of patients who had a history of brain metastasis (19% and 13% in the nivolumab group and chemotherapy group, respectively) and patients with LDH greater than ULN at baseline (51% and 35%, respectively).

At the time of this final ORR analysis, results from 120 nivolumab-treated patients and 47 chemotherapy-treated patients who had a minimum of 6 months of follow-up were analysed. Efficacy results are presented in Table 10.

Table 10: Best overall response, time and duration of response (CA209037)

nivolumab

(n = 120)

chemotherapy

(n = 47)

Confirmed objective response (IRRC)

38 (31.7%)

5 (10.6%)

(95% CI)

(23.5, 40.8)

(3.5, 23.1)

Complete response (CR)

4 (3.3%)

0

Partial response (PR)

34 (28.3%)

5 (10.6%)

Stable disease (SD)

28 (23.3%)

16 (34.0%)

Median duration of response

Months (range)

Not reached

3.6 (Not available)

Median time to response

Months (range)

2.1 (1.6-7.4)

3.5 (2.1-6.1)

Data available indicate that the onset of nivolumab effect is delayed such that benefit of nivolumab above chemotherapy may take 2-3 months.

Updated analysis (24-month follow-up)

Among all randomised patients, the ORR was 27.2% (95% CI: 22.0, 32.9) in the nivolumab group and 9.8% (95% CI: 5.3, 16.1) in the chemotherapy group. Median durations of response were 31.9 months (range: 1.4+-31.9) and 12.8 months (range: 1.3+-13.6+), respectively. The PFS HR for nivolumab vs. chemotherapy was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.36). The ORR and PFS were assessed by IRRC per RECIST version 1.1.

There was no statistically significant difference between nivolumab and chemotherapy in the final OS analysis. The primary OS analysis was not adjusted to account for subsequent therapies, with 54 (40.6%) patients in the chemotherapy arm subsequently receiving an anti-PD1 treatment. OS may be confounded by dropout, imbalance of subsequent therapies and differences in baseline factors. More patients in the nivolumab arm had poor prognostic factors (elevated LDH and brain metastases) than in the chemotherapy arm.

Efficacy by BRAF status: Objective responses to nivolumab (according to the definition of the co-primary endpoint) were observed in patients with or without BRAF mutation-positive melanoma. The ORRs in the BRAF mutation-positive subgroup were 17% (95% CI: 8.4, 29.0) for nivolumab and 11% (95% CI: 2.4, 29.2) for chemotherapy, and in the BRAF wild-type subgroup were 30% (95% CI: 24.0, 36.7) and 9% (95% CI: 4.6, 16.7), respectively.

The PFS HRs for nivolumab vs. chemotherapy were 1.58 (95% CI: 0.87, 2.87) for BRAF mutation-positive patients and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12) for BRAF wild-type patients. The OS HRs for nivolumab vs. chemotherapy were 1.32 (95% CI: 0.75, 2.32) for BRAF mutation-positive patients and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.11) for BRAF wild-type patients.

Efficacy by tumour PD-L1 expression: Objective responses to nivolumab were observed regardless of tumour PD-L1 expression. However, the role of this biomarker (tumour PD-L1 expression) has not been fully elucidated.

In patients with tumour PD-L1 expression ≥ 1%, ORR was 33.5% for nivolumab (n = 179; 95% CI: 26.7, 40.9) and 13.5% for chemotherapy (n = 74; 95% CI: 6.7, 23.5). In patients with tumour PD-L1 expression <1%, ORR per IRRC was 13.0% (n = 69; 95% CI: 6.1, 23.3) and 12.0% (n = 25; 95% CI: 2.5, 31.2), respectively.

The PFS HRs for nivolumab vs. chemotherapy were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.07) in patients with tumour PD-L1 expression ≥ 1% and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.05, 3.5) in patients with tumour PD-L1 expression <1%.

The OS HRs for nivolumab vs. chemotherapy were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.96) in patients with tumour PD-L1 expression ≥ 1% and 1.52 (95% CI: 0.89, 2.57) in patients with tumour PD-L1 expression <1%.

These subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution given the small size of the subgroups and lack of statistically significant difference in OS in the all randomised population.

Open-label phase 1 dose-escalation study (MDX1106-03)

The safety and tolerability of nivolumab were investigated in a phase 1, open-label dose-escalation study in various tumour types, including malignant melanoma. Of the 306 previously treated patients enrolled in the study, 107 had melanoma and received nivolumab at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg for a maximum of 2 years. In this patient population, objective response was reported in 33 patients (31%) with a median duration of response of 22.9 months (95% CI: 17.0, NR). The median PFS was 3.7 months (95% CI: 1.9, 9.3). The median OS was 17.3 months (95% CI: 12.5, 37.8), and the estimated OS rates were 42% (95% CI: 32, 51) at 3 years, 35% (95% CI: 26, 44) at 4 years, and 34% (95% CI: 25, 43) at 5 years (minimum follow-up of 45 months).

Single-arm phase 2 study (CA209172)

Study CA209172 was a single-arm, open label study of nivolumab monotherapy in patients with stage III (unresectable) or stage IV metastatic melanoma after prior treatment containing an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody. Safety was the primary endpoint and efficacy was a secondary endpoint. Of the 1008 treated patients, 103 (10%) had ocular/uveal melanoma, 66 (7%) had an ECOG performance score of 2, 165 (16%) had asymptomatic treated and untreated CNS metastases, 13 (1.3%) had treated leptomeningeal metastases, 25 (2%) had autoimmune disease, and 84 (8%) had Grade 3-4 immune-related AEs with prior anti-CTLA-4 therapy. No new safety signals were identified in all treated patients and the overall safety profile of nivolumab was similar across subgroups. Efficacy results based on investigator-assessed response rates at week 12 are presented in Table 11 below.

Table 11: Response rate at week 12 - all response evaluable patients and by subgroup (CA209172)

Total

Ocular/Uveal melanoma

ECOG PS 2

CNS metastasis

Autoimmune disease

Grade 3-4 irAEs with anti-CTLA-4

N

(%)a

161/588

(27.4)

4/61

(6.6)

4/20

(20.0)

20/73

(27.4)

3/16

(18.8)

13/46

(28.3)

a Responses were assessed per RECIST 1.1 for 588/1008 (58.3%) of patients who continued treatment through week 12 and had a follow-up scan at week 12.

Randomised phase 3 study of nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab or nivolumab as monotherapy vs. ipilimumab as monotherapy (CA209067)

The safety and efficacy of nivolumab 1 mg/kg in combination with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg or nivolumab 3 mg/kg vs. ipilimumab 3 mg/kg monotherapy for the treatment of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma were evaluated in a phase 3, randomised, double-blind study (CA209067). The differences between the two nivolumab-containing groups were evaluated descriptively. The study included adult patients with confirmed unresectable Stage III or Stage IV melanoma. Patients were to have ECOG performance status score of 0 or 1. Patients who had not received prior systemic anticancer therapy for unresectable or metastatic melanoma were enrolled. Prior adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy was allowed if it was completed at least 6 weeks prior to randomisation. Patients with active autoimmune disease, ocular/uveal melanoma, or active brain or leptomeningeal metastases were excluded from the study.

A total of 945 patients were randomised to receive nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (n = 314), nivolumab monotherapy (n = 316), or ipilimumab monotherapy (n = 315). Patients in the combination arm received nivolumab 1 mg/kg over 60 minutes and ipilimumab 3 mg/kg over 90 minutes administered intravenously every 3 weeks for the first 4 doses, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg as monotherapy every 2 weeks. Patients in the nivolumab monotherapy arm received nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Patients in the comparator arm received ipilimumab 3 mg/kg and nivolumab-matched placebo intravenously every 3 weeks for 4 doses followed by placebo every 2 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by PD-L1 expression (≥ 5% vs. < 5% tumour cell membrane expression), BRAF status, and M stage per the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Treatment was continued as long as clinical benefit was observed or until treatment was no longer tolerated. Tumour assessments were conducted 12 weeks after randomisation then every 6 weeks for the first year, and every 12 weeks thereafter. The primary outcome measures were progression-free survival and OS. ORR and the duration of response were also assessed.

Baseline characteristics were balanced across the three treatment groups. The median age was 61 years (range: 18 to 90 years), 65% of patients were men, and 97% were white. ECOG performance status score was 0 (73%) or 1 (27%). The majority of the patients had AJCC Stage IV disease (93%); 58% had M1c disease at study entry. Twenty-two percent of patients had received prior adjuvant therapy. Thirty-two percent of patients had BRAF mutation-positive melanoma; 26.5% of patients had PD-L1 ≥ 5% tumour cell membrane expression. Four percent of patients had a history of brain metastasis, and 36% of patients had a baseline LDH level greater than ULN at study entry. Among patients with quantifiable tumour PD-L1 expression, the distribution of patients was balanced across the three treatment groups. Tumour PD-L1 expression was determined using the PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx assay.

At primary analysis (minimum follow-up 9 months) the median PFS was 6.9 months in the nivolumab group as compared with 2.9 months in the ipilimumab group (HR = 0.57, 99.5% CI: 0.43, 0.76; p < 0.0001). The median PFS was 11.5 months in the nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab group, as compared with 2.9 months in the ipilimumab group (HR = 0.42, 99.5% CI: 0.31, 0.57; p < 0.0001).

PFS results from descriptive analysis (with minimum follow up of 90 months) are shown in Figure 2 (all randomised population), Figure 3 (at the tumour PD-L1 5% cut off), and Figure 4 (at the tumour PD-L1 1% cut off).

Figure 2: Progression-free survival (CA209067)

SMPC_30476_image2_59.png

Figure 3: Progression-free survival by PD-L1 expression: 5% cut off (CA209067)

SMPC_30476_image3_59.png

SMPC_30476_image4_59.png

Figure 4: Progression-free survival by PD-L1 expression: 1% cut off (CA209067)

SMPC_30476_image5_59.png

SMPC_30476_image6_59.png

The final (primary) OS analysis occurred when all patients had a minimum follow-up of 28 months. At 28 months, median OS was not reached in the nivolumab group as compared with 19.98 months in the ipilimumab group (HR = 0.63, 98% CI: 0.48, 0.81; p-value: < 0.0001). Median OS was not reached in the nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab group as compared with the ipilimumab group (HR = 0.55, 98% CI: 0.42, 0.72; p-value: < 0.0001).

OS results at an additional descriptive analysis undertaken at a minimum follow-up of 90 months show outcomes consistent with the original primary analysis. OS results from this follow-up analysis are shown in Figure 5 (all randomised), Figure 6 and 7 (at the tumour PD-L1 5% and 1% cut off).

The OS analysis was not adjusted to account for subsequent therapies received. Subsequent systemic therapy was received by 36.0%, 49.1%, and 66.3% of patients in the combination, nivolumab monotherapy, and ipilimumab arms, respectively. Subsequent immunotherapy (including anti-PD1 therapy, anti-CTLA-4 antibody, or other immunotherapy) was received by 19.1%, 34.2%, and 48.3% of patients in the combination, nivolumab monotherapy, and ipilimumab arms, respectively.

Figure 5: Overall survival (CA209067) - Minimum follow-up of 90 months

SMPC_30476_image7_59.png

Figure 6: Overall survival by PD-L1 expression: 5% cut off (CA209067) - Minimum follow-up of 90 months

SMPC_30476_image8_59.png

SMPC_30476_image9_59.png

Figure 7: Overall survival by PD-L1 expression: 1% cut off (CA209067) - Minimum follow-up of 90 months

SMPC_30476_image10_59.png

SMPC_30476_image11_59.png

Minimum follow-up for the analysis of ORR was 90 months. Responses are summarised in Table 12.

Table 12: Objective response (CA209067)

nivolumab + ipilimumab

(n = 314)

nivolumab

(n = 316)

ipilimumab

(n = 315)

Objective response

183 (58%)

142 (45%)

60 (19%)

(95% CI)

(52.6, 63.8)

(39.4, 50.6)

(14.9, 23.8)

Odds ratio (vs. ipilimumab)

6.35

3.5

(95% CI)

(4.38, 9.22)

(2.49, 5.16)

Complete response (CR)

71(23%)

59 (19%)

19 (6%)

Partial response (PR)

112 (36%)

83 (26%)

41 (13%)

Stable disease (SD)

38 (12%)

29 (9%)

69 (22%)

Duration of response

Median (range), months

N.A.

(69.1-N.A.)

90.8

(45.7-N.A.)

19.3

(8.8-47.4)

Proportion ≥ 12 months in duration

68%

73%

44%

Proportion ≥ 24 months in duration

58%

63%

30%

ORR (95% CI) by tumour PD-L1 expression

<5%

56% (48.7, 62.5)

n = 210

43% (36, 49.8)

n = 208

18% (12.8, 23.8)

n = 202

≥ 5%

72% (59.9, 82.3)

n = 68

59% (47.2, 69.6)

n = 80

21% (12.7, 32.3)

n = 75

<1%

54% (44.4, 62.7)

n = 123

36% (27.2, 45.3)

n = 117

18% (11.2, 26.0)

n = 113

≥ 1%

65% (56.4, 72)

n = 155

55% (47.2, 62.6)

n = 171

20% (13.7, 26.4)

n = 164

Both nivolumab-containing arms demonstrated a significant PFS and OS benefit and greater ORR compared with ipilimumab alone. The observed PFS results at 18 months of follow-up and ORR and OS results at 28 months of follow-up were consistently demonstrated across subgroups of patients including baseline ECOG performance status, BRAF status, M stage, age, history of brain metastases, and baseline LDH level. This observation was maintained with the OS results with a minimum follow-up of 90 months.

Among 131 patients who discontinued the combination due to adverse reaction after 28 months of follow-up, the ORR was 71% (93/131) with 20% (26/131) achieving a complete response and median OS was not reached.

Both nivolumab-containing arms demonstrated greater objective response rates than ipilimumab regardless of PD-L1 expression levels. ORRs were higher for the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab relative to nivolumab monotherapy across tumour PD-L1 expression levels (Table 12) after 90 months of follow-up, with a best overall response of complete response correlating to an improved survival rate.

After 90 months of follow-up, median durations of response for patients with tumour PD-L1 expression level ≥ 5% were 78.19 months (range: 18.07-N.A.) in the combination arm, 77.21 months (range: 26.25-N.A.) in the nivolumab monotherapy arm and 31.28 months (range: 6.08-N.A.) in the ipilimumab arm. At tumour PD-L1 expression <5%, median durations of response were not reached (range: 61.93-N.A.) in the combination arm, were 90.84 months (range: 50.43-N.A.) in the nivolumab monotherapy arm and 19.25 months (range: 5.32-47.44) in the ipilimumab monotherapy arm.

No clear cut off for PD-L1 expression can reliably be established when considering the relevant endpoints of tumour response and PFS and OS. Results from exploratory multivariate analyses identified patient and tumour characteristics (ECOG performance status, M stage, baseline LDH, BRAF mutation status, PD-L1 status, and gender) which might contribute to the survival outcome.

Efficacy by BRAF status:

After 90 months of follow-up, BRAF[V600] mutation-positive and BRAF wild-type patients randomised to nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab had a median PFS of 16.76 months (95% CI: 8.28, 32.0) and 11.7 months (95% CI: 7.0, 19.32), while those in the nivolumab monotherapy arm had a median PFS of 5.62 months (95% CI: 2.79, 9.46) and 8.18 months (95% CI: 5.13, 19.55), respectively. BRAF[V600] mutation-positive and BRAF wild-type patients randomised to ipilimumab monotherapy had a median PFS of 3.09 months (95% CI: 2.79, 5.19) and 2.83 months (95% CI: 2.76, 3.06), respectively.

After 90 months of follow-up, BRAF[V600] mutation-positive and BRAF wild-type patients randomised to nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab had an ORR of 67.0% (95% CI: 57.0, 75.9; n = 103) and 54.0% (95% CI: 47.1, 60.9; n = 211), while those in the nivolumab monotherapy arm had an ORR of 37.87% (95% CI: 28.2, 48.1; n = 98) and 48.2% (95% CI: 41.4, 55.0; n = 218), respectively. BRAF[V600] mutation-positive and BRAF wild-type patients randomised to ipilimumab monotherapy had an ORR of 23.0% (95% CI: 15.2, 32.5; n = 100) and 17.2% (95% CI: 12.4, 22.9; n = 215).

After 90 months of follow-up, in BRAF [V600] mutation-positive patients median OS was not reached in the combination arm and 45.5 months in the nivolumab monotherapy arm. Median OS for BRAF [V600] mutation-positive patients in the ipilimumab monotherapy arm was 24.6 months. In BRAF wild-type patients median OS was 39.06 months in the combination arm, 34.37 months in the nivolumab monotherapy arm and 18.5 months in the ipilimumab monotherapy arm. The OS HRs for nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab vs. nivolumab monotherapy were 0.66 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.98) for BRAF[V600] mutation-positive patients and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.22) for BRAF wild-type patients.

Randomised phase 2 study of nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab and ipilimumab (CA209069)

Study CA209069 was a randomised, Phase 2, double-blind study comparing the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab with ipilimumab alone in 142 patients with advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma with similar inclusion criteria to study CA209067 and the primary analysis in patients with BRAF wild-type melanoma (77% of patients). Investigator assessed ORR was 61% (95% CI: 48.9, 72.4) in the combination arm (n = 72) versus 11% (95% CI: 3.0, 25.4) for the ipilimumab arm (n = 37). The estimated 2 and 3 year OS rates were 68% (95% CI: 56, 78) and 61% (95% CI: 49, 71), respectively, for the combination (n = 73) and 53% (95% CI: 36, 68) and 44% (95% CI: 28, 60), respectively, for ipilimumab (n = 37).

Adjuvant treatment of melanoma

Randomised phase 3 study of nivolumab vs. placebo (CA20976K)

The safety and efficacy of nivolumab 480 mg monotherapy for the treatment of patients with completely resected melanoma were evaluated in a phase 3, randomised, double-blind study (CA20976K). The study included patients with an ECOG performance status score of 0 or 1 who had Stage IIB or IIC American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), 8th edition, histologically confirmed melanoma that had been completely surgically resected. Enrolment required complete resection of the primary melanoma with negative margins and a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy within 12 weeks prior to randomisation. Patients were enrolled regardless of their tumour PD-L1 status. The study excluded patients with ocular/uveal or mucosal melanoma, active autoimmune disease, any condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (≥ 10 mg daily prednisone or equivalent) or other immunosuppressive medications, as well as patients with prior therapy for melanoma except surgery.

A total of 790 patients were randomised (2:1) to receive either nivolumab (n = 526) administered intravenously over 30 minutes at 480 mg every 4 weeks or placebo (n = 264) for up to 1 year or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. Randomisation was stratified by AJCC 8th edition T-category (T3b vs. T4a vs. T4b). Tumour assessments were conducted every 26 weeks during years 1-3 and every 52 weeks from 3 years to 5 years. The primary efficacy outcome measure was recurrence-free survival (RFS). RFS, assessed by the investigator, was defined as the time between the date of randomisation and the date of first recurrence (local, regional, or distant metastasis), new primary melanoma, or death from any cause, whichever occurred first. The secondary outcome measures included OS and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS).

Baseline characteristics were generally balanced between the two groups. The median age was 62 years (range: 19-92), 61% were men, and 98% were white. Baseline ECOG performance status score was 0 (94%) or 1 (6%). Sixty percent had stage IIB and 40% had stage IIC.

At a primary pre-specified interim analysis (minimum follow-up 7.8 months) a statistically significant improvement in RFS was demonstrated with nivolumab compared to placebo with a HR of 0.42 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.59; p<0.0001). At an updated descriptive RFS analysis (minimum follow-up of 15.6 months), nivolumab continued to demonstrate an RFS improvement with a HR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.71). OS was not mature. Results reported from the analyses with minimum follow-up of 15.6 months are summarised in Table 13 and Figure 8.

Table 13: Efficacy results (CA20976K)

nivolumab

(n = 526)

placebo

(n = 264)

Recurrence-free survival with minimum follow-up 15.6 months

Recurrence-free survival

Events

102 (19.4%)

84 (31.8%)

Hazard ratioa

0.53

95% CI

(0.40, 0.71)

Median (95% CI) months

NR

36.14 (24.77, NR)

Rate (95% CI) at 12 monthsb

88.8 (85.6, 91.2)

81.1 (75.7, 85.4)

Rate (95% CI) at 18 monthsb

83.9 (80.3, 86.9)

70.7 (64.5, 76.1)

a Based on stratified Cox proportional hazard model.

b Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates.

RFS benefit was consistent across key subgroups, including disease stage, T-category, and age.

Figure 8: Recurrence-free survival (CA20976K)

SMPC_30476_image12_59.png

Tumour PD-L1 expression data were available for 302/790 (38.2%) randomised patients (36.3% and 42.0% in the nivolumab and placebo arms, respectively), as PD-L1 expression was not a stratification factor for randomisation. The exploratory RFS analyses by PD-L1 expression showed a HR for nivolumab vs placebo of 0.43 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.84) in patients (N=167) with PD- L1 expression ≥ 1%, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.44, 1.54) in patients (N=135) with PD-L1 expression < 1%, and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.73) in patients (N=488) with indeterminate/not reported/not evaluable PD-L1 expression.

Randomised phase 3 study of nivolumab vs ipilimumab 10 mg/kg (CA209238)

The safety and efficacy of nivolumab 3 mg/kg as a single agent for the treatment of patients with completely resected melanoma were evaluated in a phase 3, randomised, double-blind study (CA209238). The study included adult patients, who had an ECOG performance status score of 0 or 1, with Stage IIIB/C or Stage IV American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), 7th edition, histologically confirmed melanoma that is completely surgically resected. Per the AJCC 8th edition, this corresponds to patients with lymph node involvement or metastases. Patients were enrolled regardless of their tumour PD-L1 status. Patients with prior autoimmune disease, and any condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (≥ 10 mg daily prednisone or equivalent) or other immunosuppressive medications, as well as patients with prior therapy for melanoma (except patients with surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy after neurosurgical resection for lesions of the central nervous system, and prior adjuvant interferon completed ≥ 6 months prior to randomisation) prior therapy with, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CD137, or anti CTLA-4 antibody (including ipilimumab or any other antibody or drug specifically targeting T cell co-stimulation or checkpoint pathways), were excluded from the study.

A total of 906 patients were randomised to receive either nivolumab 3 mg/kg (n = 453) administered every 2 weeks or ipilimumab 10 mg/kg (n = 453) administered every 3 weeks for 4 doses then every 12 weeks beginning at week 24 for up to 1 year. Randomisation was stratified by tumour PD-L1 expression (≥ 5% vs. < 5%/indeterminate), and stage of disease per the AJCC staging system. Tumour assessments were conducted every 12 weeks for the first 2 years then every 6 months thereafter. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). RFS, assessed by investigator, was defined as the time between the date of randomisation and the date of first recurrence (local, regional, or distant metastasis), new primary melanoma, or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first.

Baseline characteristics were generally balanced between the two groups. The median age was 55 years (range: 18-86), 58% were men, and 95% were white. Baseline ECOG performance status score was 0 (90%) or 1 (10%). The majority of patients had AJCC Stage III disease (81%), and 19% had Stage IV disease. Forty-eight percent of patients had macroscopic lymph nodes and 32% had tumour ulceration. Forty-two percent of patients were BRAF V600 mutation positive while 45% were BRAF wild type and 13% BRAF were status unknown. For tumour PD-L1 expression, 34% of patients had PD-L1 expression ≥ 5% and 62% had < 5% as determined by clinical trial assay. Among patients with quantifiable tumour PD-L1 expression, the distribution of patients was balanced across the treatment groups. Tumour PD-L1 expression was determined using the PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx assay.

At a primary pre-specified interim analysis (minimum follow-up 18 months) a statistically significant improvement in RFS with nivolumab compared to ipilimumab with HR of 0.65 (97.56% CI: 0.51, 0.83; stratified logrank p<0.0001) was demonstrated. At an updated descriptive RFS analysis, with minimum follow-up of 24 months RFS improvement was confirmed with HR of 0.66 (95% Cl: 0.54, 0.81; p<0.0001) and OS was not mature. Efficacy results with minimum follow-up of 36 months (RFS pre-specified final analysis) and 48 months (OS pre-specified final analysis) are shown in Table 14 and Figure 9 and 10 (all randomised population).

Table 14: Efficacy results (CA209238)

nivolumab

(n = 453)

ipilimumab 10 mg/kg

(n = 453)

Final pre-specified analysis

Recurrence-free survival with minimum follow-up 36 months

Events

188 (41.5%)

239 (52.8%)

Hazard ratioa

0.68

95% CI

(0.56, 0.82)

p-value

p<0.0001

Median (95% CI) months

NR (38.67, NR)

24.87 (16.62, 35.12)

Recurrence-free survival with minimum follow-up 48 months

Events

212 (46.8%)

253 (55.8%)

Hazard ratioa

0.71

95% CI

(0.60, 0.86)

Median (95% CI) months

52.37 (42.51, NR)

24.08 (16.56, 35.09)

Rate (95% CI) at 12 months

70.4 (65.9, 74.4)

60.0 (55.2, 64.5)

Rate (95% CI) at 18 months

65.8 (61.2, 70.0)

53.0 (48.1, 57.6)

Rate (95% CI) at 24 months

62.6 (57.9, 67.0)

50.2 (45.3, 54.8)

Rate (95% CI) at 36 months

57.6 (52.8, 62.1)

44.4 (39.6, 49.1)

Rate (95% CI) at 48 months

51.7 (46.8, 56.3)

41.2 (36.4, 45.9)

Final pre-specified analysis

Overall survival with minimum follow-up 48 months

Events

100 (22.1%)

111 (24.5%)

Hazard ratioa

0.87

95.03% CI