- chlorpromazine hydrochloride
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride 100mg/5ml Oral Syrup
Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride 100mg/5ml
Brown-red syrup with odour and taste of mint and apricot for oral administration
Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine neuroleptic. It is indicated in the following conditions:
- Schizophrenia and other psychoses (especially paranoid), mania and hypomania;
- In severe anxiety, psychomotor agitation, excitement and violent or dangerously impulsive behaviour. Chlorpromazine is used as an adjunct in the short term management of these conditions;
- Nausea and vomiting of terminal illness (where other drugs have failed or are not available);
- Childhood schizophrenia and autism;
- Intractable hiccups.
For oral administration only.
Dosage should be low to begin with and gradually increased under close supervision until the optimum dosage within the recommended range is reached. Individual response and dosage requirements may vary greatly.
Dosage for schizophrenia, other psychoses, mania, hypomania, anxiety, psychomotor agitation, excitement, violent or dangerously impulsive behaviour
Adults: Initially 25mg three times daily or 75mg at bedtime increasing daily by 25mg to an effective maintenance dose. This maintenance dose is usually 70 to 300mg daily, but may be up to 1g daily in some patients.
Children under 1 year: Not recommended unless the need is life saving.
Children 1 - 5 years: 0.5mg/Kg bodyweight every 4 - 6 hours to a maximum recommended dose of 40mg daily.
Children 6 - 12 years: 1/3 to 1/2 the adult dose up to a maximum recommended dose of 75 mg daily.
Elderly or disabled patients: Start with 1/3 to 1/2 the usual adult dose with a more gradual increase in dosage.
Dosage for Intractable Hiccup
Adults: 25 - 50mg tds or qds
Children: Not recommended/ no information available.
Dosage for Vomiting and Nausea of Terminal Illness
Adults: 10 - 25mg every 4 - 6 hours
Children under 1 year: Do not use unless need is life saving.
Children 1 - 5 years: 0.5mg/Kg every 4 - 6 hours. Maximum daily dosage should not exceed 40 mg.
Children 6 - 12 years: 0.5mg/Kg every 4 - 6 hours. Maximum daily dosage should not exceed 75mg.
Elderly or disabled patients: Initially 1/3 to 1/2 the adult dose. The clinician should then use his clinical judgement to obtain control.
• comatose states
• severe CNS depression
• history of blood dyscrasias including bone marrow depression and agranulocytosis.
• severe cardiovascular disease
• hypersensitivity to any of the constituents
• Risk of angle-closure glaucoma
• Risk of urinary retention related to urethroprostatic disorders
• Dopaminergic antiparkinsonism agents (see Section 4.5)
• Nursing mothers (see Section 4.6)
• Citalopram and escitalopram
Chlorpromazine should be used with caution in patients with cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, severe respiratory disease, renal failure, Parkinson's disease, history of narrow angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, phaeochromocytoma and in patients who have shown hypersensitivity to phenothiazines. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution in the elderly, particularly during very hot or very cold weather due to the risk of hyper/hypothermia. The elderly are particularly susceptible to postural hypotension, sedation, extrapyramidal effects, chronic constipation (risk of paralytic ileus) and potentially prostatic hypertrophy.
Close monitoring is required in patients with epilepsy or a history of seizures, as phenothiazines may lower the seizure threshold.
Chlorpromazine should be avoided in patients with liver dysfunction, hypothyroidism, cardiac failure and agranulocytosis.
In patients with impaired liver function, regular monitoring of liver function is necessary.
During the first few months of treatment if signs of blood dyscrasia appear, regular blood counts should be carried out. All patients must be advised that, if they experience fever, sore throat or any other infection, they should inform their physician immediately and undergo a complete blood count. Treatment will be discontinued if any marked changes (hyperleucocytosis, granulocytopenia) are observed in the latter.
Withdrawal of antipsychotic drugs after long-term therapy should always be gradual and closely monitored to avoid the risk of acute withdrawal syndromes or rapid relapse Symptoms including nausea, vomiting and insomnia, have very rarely been reported following the abrupt cessation of high doses of neuroleptics. Relapse may also occur, and the emergence of extrapyramidal reactions has been reported.
In schizophrenia, the response to neuroleptic treatment may be delayed. Conversely, if treatment is withdrawn, the recurrence of symptoms may not become apparent for some time.
It is imperative that treatment be discontinued in the event of unexplained fever, as this may be a sign of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (Pallor, hyperthermia, autonomic dysfunction, altered consciousness, muscle rigidity). Signs of autonomic dysfunction, such as sweating and arterial instability, may precede the onset of hyperthermia and serve as early warning signs. Although neuroleptic malignant syndrome may be idiosyncratic in origin, dehydration and organic brains disease are predisposing factors.
As with all antipsychotic drugs, chlorpromazine should not be used alone where depression is predominant. However, it may be combined with antidepressant therapy to treat those conditions in which depression and psychosis coexist.
Because of the risk of photosensitisation, patients should be advised to avoid exposure to direct sunlight.
In those frequently handling preparations of phenothiazines, the greatest care must be taken to avoid contact of the drug with the skin.
An approximately 3-fold increased risk of cerebrovascular adverse events have been seen in randomised placebo controlled clinical trials in the dementia population with some atypical antipsychotics. The mechanism for this increased risk is not known. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution in patients with risk factors for stroke.
Neuroleptic phenothiazines may potentiate QT interval prolongation which increases the risk of onset of serious ventricular arrhythmias of the torsade de pointes type, which is potentially fatal (sudden death). QT prolongation is exacerbated, in particular, in the presence of bradycardia, hypokalaemia, and congenital or acquired (i.e. drug induced) QT prolongation. If the clinical situation permits, medical and laboratory evaluations should be performed to rule out possible risk factors before initiating treatment with a neuroleptic agent and as deemed necessary during treatment (see section 4.8).
Where clinically possible, the absence of any factors favouring the onset of ventricular arrhythmias should be ensured before administration:
• Bradycardia less than 55 beats per minute;
• Alcohol abuse;
• Concomitant therapy with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval;
• Congenital long QT interval;
• Ongoing treatment with any drug which could induce marked bradycardia (<55 beats per minute), hypokalemia, intracardiac conduction depression or QT prolongation (see section 4.5).
With the exception of emergencies, it is recommended that the initial work up of patients receiving a neuroleptic should include an ECG.
Cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been reported with antipsychotic drugs. Since patients treated with antipsychotics often present with acquired risk factors for VTE, all possible risk factors for VTE should be identified before and during treatment with chlorpromazine and preventive measures undertaken.
Except under exceptional circumstances, this drug must not be administered to patients with Parkinson's disease.
The concomitant use of chlorpromazine with lithium, other QT prolonging agents, and dopaminergic anti-parkinsonism agents is not recommended (see section 4.5).
The onset of paralytic ileus, potentially indicated by abdominal bloating and pain, must be treated as an emergency (see section 4.8).
Concomitant use of chlorpromazine with other neuroleptics should be avoided.
Elderly Patients with Dementia: Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotics drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death in clinical trials with atypical antipsychotics were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g. pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear.
Chlorpromazine is not licensed for the treatment of dementia-related behavioural disturbances.
Hyperglycaemia or intolerance to glucose has been reported in patients treated with Chlorpromazine. Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or with risk factors for the development of diabetes who are started on Chlorpromazine, should get appropriate glycaemic monitoring during treatment (see section 4.8).
Patients are strongly advised not to consume alcohol and alcohol-containing drugs throughout treatment (see section 4.5)
Since there is a potential impact on cognitive function, children should undergo a yearly clinical examination to evaluate learning capacity. The dosage should be adjusted regularly as a function of the clinical status of the child.
Excipients in the formulation
This product contains small amounts of ethanol (alcohol), less than 100mg per dose.
This product contains hydroxybenzoate esters. These may cause allergic reactions (possibly delayed).
It also contains sorbitol and sucrose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine. It may have a mild laxative effect. The calorific value provided by sorbitol in the maximum daily dose of the product is 36kcal. Each 5ml dose contains 2.25g of sucrose. This should be taken into account in patients with diabetes mellitus. It may be harmful to teeth.
Phenothiazines may enhance the CNS depressant effect of alcohol, narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnotics and other CNS depressants. Respiratory depression may occur.
Barbiturates may reduce serum chlorpromazine concentrations.
Phenothiazines antagonise the action of adrenaline and other sympathomimetic drugs, and anti-epileptic drugs (lowering of convulsive threshold).
Phenothiazines enhance the hypotensive effect of anaesthetics, calcium channel blockers and other anti-hypertensives and trazodone. Higher dosages of chlorpromazine antagonise the hypotensive effect of adrenergic neurone blockers such as guanethidine. Severe postural hypotension occurs when chlorpromazine is administered concomitantly with ACE inhibitors.
Some neuroleptics and beta-blockers may increase the plasma concentrations of each other resulting in enhanced pharmacological effects of both drugs. Chlorpromazine and propranolol each inhibit the metabolism of the other. Increases or decreases in the plasma concentrations of a number of drugs, e.g. propranolol and phenobarbital have been observed but were not of clinical significance.
Concomitant use of chlorpromazine with drugs known to prolong the QT interval may increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmias, including torsade de pointes. Therefore concomitant use of these products is not recommended. Examples include certain antiarrhythmics, such as those of Class 1A (such as quinidine, disopyramide and procainamide) and Class III (such as amiodarone, sotalol and dofetilide), certain antimicrobials (sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin IV), tricyclic antidepressants (such as amitriptyline), certain tetracyclic antidepressants (such as maprotiline), other neuroleptics (e.g. phenothiazines, pimozide, sertindole and haloperidol), certain antihistamines (such as terfenadine), cisapride, bretylium and certain antimalarials such as quinine and mefloquine. This list is not comprehensive.
Concurrent use of drugs causing electrolyte imbalance is not recommended. Diuretics, in particular causing hypokalaemia, should be avoided but, if necessary, potassium-sparing diuretics are preferred.
Anticholinergic drugs may reduce the antipsychotic effect of Chlorpromazine and the mild anticholinergic effect of Chlorpromazine may be enhanced by other anticholinergic drugs possibly leading to constipation, heat stroke, etc.
Combinations not recommended
Dopaminergic antiparkinsonium agents (amantadine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, levodopa, lisuride, pergolide, piribedil, ropinirole) are not recommended: reciprocal antagonism of the antiparkinsonism agent and neuroleptic (see section 4.4). Neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndrome should be treated with an anticholinergic rather than a dopaminergic antiparkinsonism agent (dopaminergic receptors blocked by neuroleptics).
Levodopa: reciprocal antagonism of levodopa and the neuroleptic. In Parkinson's patients, it is recommended to use the minimal doses of each drug.
The serum concentration of chlorpromazine is increased by anti-malarial agents.
Cimetidine has been reported to both increase and decrease the effects of chlorpromazine.
At high dosage, chlorpromazine reduces the response to hypoglycaemic agents and dosage of the latter may need increasing. Forewarn the patient and advise increased self-monitoring of blood and urine levels. If necessary, adjust the anti-diabetic dosage during and after discontinuing neuroleptic treatment.
Topical gastrointestinal agents (magnesium, aluminium and calcium salts, oxides and hydroxides): decreased GI absorption of phenothiazine neuroleptics. Do not administer phenothiazine neuroleptics simultaneously with topical GI agents (administer more than 2 hours apart if possible).
Combinations to be taken into consideration
Antihypertensive agents: potentiation of the antihypertensive effect and risk of orthostatic hypotension (additive effects). Guanethidine has adverse clinically significant interactions documented.
Atropine and other atropine derivatives: imipramine, antidepressants, histamine H1-receptor antagonists, anticholinergic antiparkinsonism agents, atropinic antispasmodics, dispyramide: build-up of atropine-associated adverse effects such as urinary retention, constipation and dry mouth, heat stroke etc.
Other CNS depressants: morphine derivatives (analgesics, antitussives and substitution treatments), barbiturates, benzodiazepines, anxiolytics other than benzodiazepines, hypnotics, sedative antidepressants, histamine H1 receptor antagonists, central antihypertensive agents increased central depression. Changes in alertness can make it dangerous to drive or operate machinery.
Phenothiazines may increase the risk of extrapyramidal effects with methyldopa, metirosine, tetrabenazine and lithium.
Lithium: Concomitant use can cause confusional syndrome, hypertonia and hyper-reflexivity, occasionally with a rapid increase in serum concentrations of lithium (see section 4.4). The risk of neurotoxicity with lithium may also be enhanced by phenothiazines in general though combined use with chlorpromazine may lower serum concentrations of both drugs. Chlorpromazine has been reported to induce increased renal excretion of lithium. Lithium can interfere with the absorption of neuroleptic agents.
Antacids reduce the absorption of phenothiazines and should not be used within two hours of administering the phenothiazine.
Documented adverse clinically significant interactions occur with alcohol. Alcohol potentiates the sedative effect of neuroleptics. Changes in alertness can make it dangerous to drive or operate machinery. Alcoholic beverages and medication containing alcohol should be avoided (see section 4.4)
The action of some drugs may be opposed by chlorpromazine; these include amphetamine, levodopa, guanethidine, and clonidine.
Simultaneous administration of desferrioxamine and prochlorperazine has been observed to induce transient metabolic encephalopathy characterised by loss of consciousness for 48-72 hours. It is possible this may occur with chlorpromazine since it shares many of the pharmacological properties of prochlorperazine.
There is an increased risk of agranulocytosis when neuroleptics are used concurrently with drugs with myelosuppressive potential, such as carbamazepine or certain antibiotics and cytotoxics.
In patients treated concurrently with neuroleptics and lithium, there have been rare reports of neurotoxicity.
Dopaminergics (quinaglide, cabergoline), not including dopaminergic antiparkinsonism agents, are contraindicated (see section 4.3); reciprocal antagonism of the dopaminergic agent and neuroleptic.
Citalopram and escitalopram are contraindicated.
Chlorpromazine should not be used during pregnancy unless there are compelling reasons. Chlorpromazine crosses the placenta and may prolong labour. Possible effects on the foetus include lethargy, paradoxical hyperexcitability, tremor and low Apgar score. Reproductive studies in rodents have shown a potential for embryotoxicity and increased neonatal mortality.
Chlorpromazine should not be used during lactation. Phenothiazines are excreted in breast milk, with the potential of causing drowsiness and increased risk of tardive dyskinesia in the infant if nursing is prolonged.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotics (including Chlorpromazine) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk of adverse reactions including extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms that may vary in severity and duration following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, or feeding disorder. Consequently, newborns should be monitored carefully.
A decrease in fertility was observed in female animals treated with chlorpromazine. In male animals data are insufficient to assess fertility.
In humans, because of the interaction with dopamine receptors, chlorpromazine may cause hyperprolactinaemia which can be associated with impaired fertility in women (see section 4.8). In men, data on consequences of hyperprolactinaemia are insufficient with regard to fertility.
Chlorpromazine causes drowsiness, particularly at the start of treatment.
If affected, patients should not drive or operate machinery.
Side effects of Chlorpromazine include insomnia, nightmares, depression, agitation, dry mouth, nasal stuffiness, apathy, pallor, convulsions and hypothermia.
Hypotension, usually postural, is a common side effect and elderly or debilitated patients are more susceptible. Cardiac arrhythmias, possibly dose related, have been reported with neuroleptic therapy and include atrial arrhythmia, A-V block, ventricular tachycardia (rare), and fibrillation. Pre-disposing factors including pre-existing cardiac disease, hypokalaemia, old age and concurrent use of tricyclic anti-depressants. ECG changes have been reported, including prolongation of the Q-T interval, S-T depression, T wave changes , Torsades de pointes and appearance of U waves. Sudden unexplained death and cardiac arrest have been reported.
In a small percentage of patients taking chlorpromazine, jaundice, which is usually transient, occurs and may be preceded by the sudden onset of fever after one to three weeks of treatment. Chlorpromazine-induced jaundice shares the biochemical and other characteristics of obstructive jaundice. The frequently accompanying eosinophilia indicates the allergic nature of this phenomenon. Treatment with chlorpromazine should be withdrawn if jaundice develops. Liver function may also be affected. Liver damage, sometimes fatal, has been reported rarely in patients treated with chlorpromazine.
Transient leucopenia may occur and agranulocytosis has been reported very rarely, most often during the first three months of treatment, but occasionally later. If a patient shows signs of persistent infection, blood counts should be performed.
Extrapyramidal actions may occur with chlorpromazine. Acute dystonias or dyskinesias, which are usually transient are more common in children and young adults. They usually occur within the first four days of treatment or after increase in dosage.
Parkinsonism is more common in adults and elderly patients and usually develops after weeks or months of treatment. One or more of the characteristics of Parkinsonism may be apparent (e.g. tremor, rigidity, akinesia). Tremor is common.
Akathisia characteristically occurs after administration of large initial doses. Tardive dyskinesia may occur with chlorpromazine. The possible risk of developing this should be considered whenever an antipsychotic agent is used and the patient monitored for early signs.
The potential seriousness and unpredictability of tardive dyskinesia and the fact that occasionally, it has been reported to occur when neuroleptic antipsychotic agents have been prescribed for relatively short periods in low dosage, means that prescribing of such agents requires especially careful assessment of risks versus benefit. Tardive dyskinesia can be precipitated or aggravated by anti-parkinsonian drugs. Short lived dyskinesias may occur after abrupt drug withdrawal.
Contact sensitisation is a rare but serious complication in those who frequently handle phenothiazine preparations. Extreme care must be taken to avoid contact of the drug with the skin.
Immune system disorders: allergic phenomena such as angiodema, bronchospasm and urticaria have occurred with phenothiazines but anaphylactic reactions have been exceedingly rare. In very rare cases, treatment with chlorpromazine may be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Patients treated with chlorpromazine may develop skin rashes of various kinds. Patients taking higher doses should be warned that they may develop photosensitivity and should avoid exposure to direct sunlight.
Ocular changes including corneal and lens opacities and development of a metallic greyish-mauve colouration of exposed skin, the cornea, the retina and conjunctiva have been reported in patients receiving long-term chlorpromazine therapy.
Antipsychotic agents including chlorpromazine, may cause hyperprolactinaemia, resulting in galactorrhoea, gynaecomastia and oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea. Impotence and weight gain may occur.
Phenothiazines have been reported to cause hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, faecal impaction, severe paralytic ileus and megacolon.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome characterised by hyperthermia, rigidity, autonomic dysfunction and altered consciousness may occur with any neuroleptic. Treatment involves immediate cessation of the neuroleptic and symptomatic management as appropriate.
Clinical doses of neuroleptics usually have little effect on respiration, but respiratory depression may occur in susceptible individuals.
Reproductive system and breast disorders: Priapism has been very rarely reported in patients treated with chlorpromazine.
Cases of venous thromboembolism, including cases of pulmonary embolism and cases of deep vein thrombosis have been reported with antipsychotic drugs – Frequency unknown
Sedation2, orthostatic hypotension (Elderly or volume depleted subjects are particularly susceptible) and constipation (see section 4.4) have been reported – frequency very common
Glucose tolerance impaired (see section 4.4) and anxiety have been reported – frequency common
Antinuclear antibody positive1, erectile dysfunction , female sexual arousal disorder hyponatraemia, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, lethargy, mood altered, tortcolis, oculogyric crisis, trismus, hyperkinesia, accommodation disorder3, deposit eye4.
Ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac arrests have been reported during neuroleptic phenothiazine therapy, possibly related to dosage. Pre-existing cardiac disease, old age, hypokalaemia and concurrent tricyclic antidepressants may predispose.
Embolism venous, colitis ischaemic, intestinal perforation (sometimes fatal), gastrointestinal necrosis (sometimes fatal), necrotising colitis (sometimes fatal), Intestinal obstruction, cholestatic liver injury5, mixed liver injury, dermatitis allergic, urinary retention3 and temperature regulation disorder have been reported – frequency unknown
Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions:
Not known: Drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal (see 4.6).
1 may be seen without evidence of clinical disease
2 particularly at the start of treatment
3 linked to anticholinergic effects
4 in the anterior segment of the eye caused by accumulation of the drug but generally without any impact on sight
5 A premonitory sign may be a sudden onset of fever after one to three weeks of treatment followed by the development of jaundice. Chlorpromazine jaundice has the biochemical and other characteristics of obstructive (cholestatic) jaundice and is associated with obstructions of the canaliculi by bile thrombi; the frequent presence of an accompanying eosinophilia indicates the allergic nature of this phenomenon. Liver injury, sometimes fatal, has been reported rarely in patients treated with chlorpromazine. Treatment should be withheld on the development of jaundice (see section 4.4).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
Acute overdosage usually results in coma with shallow breathing, hypotension, hypothermia, absence of reflexes tachycardia, ECG changes and ventricular arrhythmias. Motor restlessness, hyperflexia, epileptiform convulsions and severe extrapyramidal dyskinesias may occur.
Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. If the patient is seen soon after the overdose (up to six hours), after ingestion of a toxic dose, gastric lavage may be attempted. Pharmacological induction of emesis is unlikely to be of any use. Activated charcoal should be given. There is no specific antidote. Positive inotropic agents such as dopamine may be tried if fluid replacement is insufficient to correct the circulatory collapse.
Generalised vasodilation may result in circulatory collapse; raising the patient's legs may suffice. In severe cases, volume expansion by intravenous fluids may be needed; infusion fluids should be warmed before administration in order not to aggravate hypothermia. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems should be monitored and supported. Acute hypotension should be treated with plasma expanders. If treatment with a vasopressor is necessary, the patient should be carefully monitored, particularly cardiac function. Adrenaline should not be used. Peripheral vasoconstriction agents are not generally recommended. Attention should be paid to symptoms of metabolic acidosis and delayed cardiac effects. Ventricular or supraventricular tachyarrhythmias usually respond to restoration of normal body temperature and correction of circulatory or metabolic disturbances.
Anti-arrhythmic therapy may be considered for persistent or life- threatening arrhythmias. Lidocaine should be avoided and, as far as possible, so should long acting anti-arrhythmics. Pronounced central nervous system depression requires airway maintenance or, in extreme circumstances, assisted respiration. If severe dystonic reactions occur, they usually respond to procyclidine 5 - 10mg or orphenadrine 20 - 40mg IM or IV. Convulsions may be treated with intravenous diazepam. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome may be treated with dantrolene sodium together with cooling and general supportive measures. Chlorpromazine is not dialysable.
Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine with an aliphatic side chain. Its pharmacological profile of activity includes pronounced sedative and hypotensive properties, with fairly marked anti-cholinergic and anti-emetic activity and a moderate tendency to cause extrapyramidal reactions.
As an antipsychotic, it is thought to improve psychotic conditions by blocking post-synaptic dopamine receptors in the brain. Also produces an alpha-adrenergic blocking effect and depresses the release of hypothalamic, pituitary and hypophyseal hormones.
As an anti- emetic, it inhibits the medullary chemoreceptor trigger zone.
As a sedative, it is thought to cause indirect reduction of stimuli to the brain stem reticular system.
Peak plasma concentrations attained in 2 - 4 hours. The drug is highly lipophilic, highly membrane or protein bound, and accumulates in the brain, lung and other tissues with good blood supply.
Pharmacokinetics follow a multiphasic pattern. The elimination half life with respect to total concentrations in plasma are typically 20 - 40 hours. Biological effects of single doses usually persist for at least 24 hours.
Elimination from plasma may be more rapid than sites of high lipid content and binding, notably the CNS.
Main route of metabolism is by oxidation, this is mediated by hepatic microsomal and other enzymes. Conjugation with glucuronic acid is prominent. Hydrophilic metabolites are excreted in urine, and to some extent in the bile.
Oral dose bioavailability: 32 +/- 19%, 95 - 98% plasma bound. Half life 30 +/- 7 hours.
Isopropyl alcohol 60%v/v, caramel (E150), methyl hydroxybenzoate (E218), ethyl hydroxybenzoate (E214), propyl hydroxybenzoate (E216), propylene glycol (E1520), sucrose, sorbitol solution 70% (E420), apricot flavour, garden mint flavour, ascorbic acid (E300) and purified water.
24 months - unopened
6 months after opening
Store below 25°C and protect from light and freezing.
Amber (Type III) glass.
HDPE, EPE wadded, tamper evident, child resistant closure.
Keep out of the reach of children
Rosemont Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Yorkdale Industrial Park
Date of first authorisation: 03 July 1986
Date of latest renewal: 22 March 2005
Rosemont House, Yorkdale Industrial Park, Braithwaite Street, Leeds, Yorkshire, LS11 9XE
+44 (0)113 244 1400
+44 (0)800 919 312
+44 (0)113 245 3567
+44 (0)7836 557 879