Repinex XL 4 mg prolonged-release tablets
Each prolonged-release tablet contains 4 mg ropinirole (as hydrochloride).
Excipients with known effect
Each 4 mg prolonged-release tablet contains 0.8100 mg of sunset yellow (E110).
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
4 mg prolonged-release tablets: light brown, oval biconvex tablets 12.6 x 6.6 ± 0.1 mm in diameter and 5.3 ± 0.2 mm in thickness.
Treatment of Parkinson's disease under the following conditions:
• Initial treatment as monotherapy, in order to delay the introduction of levodopa
• In combination with levodopa, over the course of the disease, when the effect of levodopa wears off or becomes inconsistent and fluctuations in the therapeutic effect occur (“end of dose” or “on-off” type fluctuations).
Individual dose titration against efficacy and tolerability is recommended. Repinex XL prolonged-release tablets should be taken once a day, at a similar time each day. The prolonged-release tablets may be taken with or without food (see section 5.2).
Repinex XL prolonged-release tablets must be swallowed whole and must not be chewed, crushed or divided.
The starting dose of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets is 2 mg once daily for the first week; this should be increased to 4 mg once daily from the second week of treatment. A therapeutic response may be seen at a dose of 4 mg once daily of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets.
Patients who initiate treatment with a dose of 2 mg/day of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets and who experience undesirable effects that they cannot tolerate may benefit from switching to treatment with ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablets at a lower daily dose, divided into three equal doses.
Patients should be maintained on the lowest dose of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets that achieves symptomatic control.
If sufficient symptomatic control is not achieved or maintained at a dose of 4 mg once daily of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets, the daily dose may be increased by 2 mg at weekly or longer intervals up to a dose of 8 mg once daily of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets.
If sufficient symptomatic control is still not achieved or maintained at a dose of 8 mg once daily of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets, the daily dose may be increased by 2 mg to 4 mg at two weekly or longer intervals. The maximum daily dose of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets is 24 mg.
It is recommended that patients are prescribed the minimum number of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets that are necessary to achieve the required dose by utilising the highest available strengths of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets.
If treatment is interrupted for one day or more, re-initiation by dose titration should be considered (see above).
When Repinex XL prolonged-release tablets are administered as adjunct therapy to levodopa, it may be possible to gradually reduce the levodopa dose, depending on the clinical response. In clinical trials, the levodopa dose was reduced gradually by approximately 30% in patients receiving ropinirole prolonged-release tablets concurrently. In patients with advanced Parkinson's disease receiving Repinex XL prolonged-release tablets in combination with levodopa, dyskinesias can occur during the initial titration of Repinex XL prolonged-release tablets. In clinical trials it was shown that a reduction of the levodopa dose may ameliorate dyskinesia (see section 4.8).
When switching treatment from another dopamine agonist to ropinirole, the marketing authorisation holder's guidance on discontinuation should be followed before initiating ropinirole.
As with other dopamine agonists, it is necessary to discontinue ropinirole treatment gradually by reducing the daily dose over the period of one week (see section 4.4).
Switching from ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablets to Repinex XL prolonged-release tablets
Patients may be switched overnight from ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablets to ropinirole prolonged-release tablets.
The dose of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets should be based on the total daily dose of ropinirole film-coated (immediate- release) tablets that the patient was taking. The recommended dose for switching from ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablets to ropinirole prolonged-release tablets are provided in the following table.
Ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablets
Total daily dose (mg)
Ropinirole prolonged-release tablets
Total daily dose (mg)
0.75 - 2.25
3 - 4.5
7.5 - 9
15 - 18
After switching to Repinex XL prolonged-release tablets, the dose may be adjusted depending on the therapeutic response (see “Initial titration” and “Therapeutic regimen” above).
In patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance between 30 and 50 ml/min) no change in the clearance of ropinirole was observed, indicating that no dose adjustment is necessary in this population.
A study into the use of ropinirole in patients with end stage renal disease (patients on haemodialysis) has shown that a dose adjustment in these patients is required as follows:
The recommended initial dose of Repinex XL is 2 mg once daily. Further dose escalations should be based on tolerability and efficacy. The recommended maximum dose is 18 mg/day in patients receiving regular haemodialysis. Supplemental doses after haemodialysis are not required (see section 5.2).
The use of ropinirole in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 ml/min) without regular haemodialysis has not been studied.
The clearance of ropinirole is decreased by approximately 15% in patients aged 65 years or above. Although a dose adjustment is not required, ropinirole dose should be individually titrated, with careful monitoring of tolerability, to the optimal clinical response. In patients aged 75 years and above, slower titration during treatment initiation may be considered.
Repinex XL prolonged-release tablets are not recommended for use in children below 18 years of age due to a lack of data on safety and efficacy.
- Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
- Severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min) without regular haemodialysis.
- Hepatic impairment.
Somnolence and episodes of sudden sleep onset
Ropinirole has been associated with somnolence and episodes of sudden sleep onset, particularly in patients with Parkinson's disease. Sudden onset of sleep during daily activities, in some cases without awareness or warning signs, has been reported (see section 4.8). Patients must be informed of this and advised to exercise caution while driving or operating machines during treatment with ropinirole. Patients who have experienced somnolence and/or an episode of sudden sleep onset must refrain from driving or operating machines. Furthermore, a reduction of dose or termination of therapy may be considered.
Psychiatric or psychotic disorders
Patients with major psychiatric or psychotic disorders, or a history of these disorders should only be treated with dopamine agonists if the potential benefits outweigh the risks.
Impulse control disorders
Patients should be regularly monitored for the development of impulse control disorders. Patients and carers should be made aware that behavioural symptoms of impulse control disorders including pathological gambling, increased libido, hypersexuality, compulsive spending or buying, binge eating and compulsive eating can occur in patients treated with dopamine agonists, including ropinirole. Dose reduction/tapered discontinuation should be considered if such symptoms develop.
Patients should be regularly monitored for the development of mania. Patients and carers should be made aware that symptoms of mania can occur with or without the symptoms of impulse control disorders in patients treated with Repinex XL tablets. Dose reduction/tapered discontinuation should be considered if such symptoms develop.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Symptoms suggestive of neuroleptic malignant syndrome have been reported with abrupt withdrawal of dopaminergic therapy. Therefore, it is recommended to taper treatment (see section 4.2).
Rapid gastrointestinal transit
Repinex XL tablets are designed to release the active substance over a 24 hr period. If rapid gastrointestinal transit occurs, there may be risk of incomplete release of the active substance and of the active substance residue being passed in the stool.
Due to the risk of hypotension, blood pressure monitoring is recommended, particularly at the start of treatment, in patients with severe cardiovascular disease (in particular coronary insufficiency).
Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS)
DAWS has been reported with dopamine agonists, including ropinirole (see section 4.8). To discontinue treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease, ropinirole should be tapered off (see section 4.2). Limited data suggests that patients with impulse control disorders and those receiving high daily dose and/or high cumulative doses of dopamine agonists may be at higher risk for developing DAWS. Withdrawal symptoms may include apathy, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sweating and pain and do not respond to levodopa. Prior to tapering off and discontinuing ropinirole, patients should be informed about potential withdrawal symptoms. Patients should be closely monitored during tapering and discontinuation. In case of severe and/or persistent withdrawal symptoms, temporary re-administration of ropinirole at the lowest effective dose may be considered.
Hallucinations are known as an adverse reaction of treatment with dopamine agonists and levodopa. Patients should be informed that hallucinations can occur.
Repinex XL 4 mg
Repinex XL contains sunset yellow (E110), which may cause allergic reactions.
This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per prolonged-release tablet, that is to say essentially 'sodium-free'.
There is no pharmacokinetic interaction between ropinirole and levodopa or domperidone which would necessitate dose adjustment of these medicinal products.
Neuroleptics and other centrally active dopamine antagonists, such as sulpiride or metoclopramide, may diminish the effectiveness of ropinirole and therefore, concomitant use of these medicinal products should be avoided.
Increased plasma concentrations of ropinirole have been observed in patients treated with high doses of oestrogens. In patients already receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT), ropinirole treatment may be initiated in the normal manner. However, it may be necessary to adjust the ropinirole dose, in accordance with clinical response, if HRT is stopped or introduced during treatment with ropinirole.
Ropinirole is principally metabolised by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP1A2. A pharmacokinetic study (with a ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablet dose of 2 mg, three times a day) in Parkinson's disease patients, revealed that ciprofloxacin increased the Cmax and AUC of ropinirole by 60% and 84%, respectively, with a potential risk of adverse events. Hence, in patients already receiving ropinirole, the dose of ropinirole may need to be adjusted when medicinal products known to inhibit CYP1A2, e.g. ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, or fluvoxamine, are introduced or withdrawn.
A pharmacokinetic interaction study in patients with Parkinson's disease between ropinirole (with a ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablet dose of 2 mg, three times a day) and theophylline, a substrate of CYP1A2, revealed no change in the pharmacokinetics of either ropinirole or theophylline.
Smoking is known to induce CYP1A2 metabolism, therefore if patients stop or start smoking during treatment with ropinirole, adjustment of dose may be required.
In patients receiving the combination of vitamin K antagonists and ropinirole, cases of unbalanced INR have been reported. Increased clinical and biological surveillance (INR) is warranted.
There are no adequate data from the use of ropinirole in pregnant women, ropinirole concentrations may gradually increase during pregnancy (see section 5.2).
Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). As the potential risk for humans is unknown, it is recommended that ropinirole is not used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risk to the foetus.
Ropinirole-related material was shown to transfer into the milk of lactating rats. It is unknown whether ropinirole and its metabolites are excreted in human milk. A risk to the suckling child cannot be excluded.
Ropinirole should not be used in nursing mothers as it may inhibit lactation.
There are no data on the effects of ropinirole on human fertility. In female fertility studies in rats, effects were seen on implantation but no effects were seen on male fertility (see section 5.3).
Patients being treated with ropinirole and presenting with hallucinations, somnolence and/or sudden sleep episodes must be informed to refrain from driving or engaging in activities where impaired alertness may put themselves or others at risk of serious injury or death (e.g. using machines) until such recurrent episodes and somnolence have resolved (see also section 4.4).
Adverse events reported are listed below by system organ class and frequency. It is noted if these undesirable effects were reported in clinical trials as monotherapy or adjunct therapy to levodopa.
Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
The following adverse events have been reported in either Parkinson's disease clinical trials with ropinirole prolonged-release or film-coated (immediate-release) tablets at doses up to 24 mg/day, or from post-marketing reports:
In adjunct therapy
Immune system disorders
Hypersensitivity reactions (including urticaria, angioedema, rash, pruritus).
Psychotic reactions (other than hallucinations) including delirium, delusion, paranoia.
Impulse control disorders: pathological gambling, increased libido, hypersexuality, compulsive spending or buying, binge eating and compulsive eating can occur in patients treated with dopamine agonists including Repinex XL (see section 4.4.).
Mania (see section 4.4)
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome
Nervous system disorders
Dizziness (including vertigo), sudden onset of sleep
excessive daytime somnolence
Postural hypotension, hypotension
Postural hypotension, hypotension
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Vomiting, abdominal pain
Hepatic reactions, mainly increased liver enzymes
Reproductive system and breast disorders
Spontaneous penile erection
General disorders and administration site conditions
Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (including apathy, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sweating and pain)****
*Aggression has been associated with psychotic reactions as well as compulsive symptoms.
** Somnolence has been reported very commonly in the adjunct therapy immediate- release clinical trials, and commonly in the adjunct therapy prolonged-release clinical trials.
*** In patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, dyskinesias can occur during the initial titration of ropinirole. In clinical trials it was shown that a reduction of the levodopa dose may ameliorate dyskinesia (see section 4.2).
****Nausea has been reported very commonly in the adjunct therapy immediate- release clinical trials, and commonly in the adjunct therapy prolonged-release clinical trials.
***** Non-motor adverse effects may occur when tapering or discontinuing dopamine agonists including ropinirole (see section 4.4).
Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome
Non-motor adverse reactions may occur when tapering or discontinuing dopamine agonists, including ropinirole (see section 4.4).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme (www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store).
The symptoms of ropinirole overdose are related to its dopaminergic activity. These symptoms may be alleviated by appropriate treatment with dopamine antagonists such as neuroleptics or metoclopramide.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Dopamine agonists, ATC code: N04BC04
Mechanism of action
Ropinirole is a non-ergoline D2/D3 dopamine agonist that alleviates this deficiency by stimulating striatal dopamine receptors.
Ropinirole alleviates the dopamine deficiency which characterises Parkinson's disease by stimulating striatal dopamine receptors.
Ropinirole acts in the hypothalamus and pituitary to inhibit the secretion of prolactin.
A 36-week, double-blind, three-period crossover study, in monotherapy, conducted in 161 patients with early phase Parkinson's disease demonstrated that ropinirole prolonged-release tablets were non-inferior to film-coated (immediate-release) tablets on the primary endpoint, the treatment difference in change from baseline in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score (a 3-point non-inferiority margin on the UPDRS motor score was defined). The adjusted mean difference between ropinirole prolonged-release tablets and film-coated (immediate-release) tablets at study endpoint was -0.7 points (95% CI: [-1.51, 0.10], p=0.0842).
Following the overnight switch to a similar dose of the alternative tablet formulation, there was no difference in the adverse event profile and less than 3% of patients required a dose adjustment (all dose adjustments were increases by one dose level. No patients required a dose decrease).
A 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in patients with Parkinson's disease who were not optimally controlled on levodopa demonstrated a clinically relevant and statistically significant superiority over placebo on the primary endpoint in a change from baseline in awake time “off” (adjusted mean treatment difference -1.7 hours (95% CI: [-2.34, -1.09], p<0.0001). This was supported by secondary efficacy parameters of change from baseline in total awake time “on” (+1.7 hours (95% CI: [1.06, 2.33], p<0.0001) and total awake time “on” without troublesome dyskinesias (+1.5 hours (95% CI: [0.85, 2.13], p<0.0001). Importantly, there was no indication of an increase from baseline in awake time “on” with troublesome dyskinesias, either from diary card data or from the UPDRS items.
Study of the effect of ropinirole on cardiac repolarisation
A thorough QT study conducted in male and female healthy volunteers who received doses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg of ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablets once daily showed a maximum increase of the QT interval duration at the 1 mg dose of 3.46 milliseconds (point estimate) as compared to placebo. The upper bound of the one sided 95% confidence interval for the largest mean effect was less than 7.5 milliseconds. The effect of ropinirole at higher doses has not been systematically evaluated.
The available clinical data from a thorough QT study do not indicate a risk of QT prolongation at doses of ropinirole up to 4 mg/day. A risk of QT prolongation cannot be excluded as a thorough QT study at doses up to 24 mg/day has not been conducted.
Bioavailability of ropinirole is approximately 50% (36–57%). Following oral administration of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets plasma concentrations of ropinirole increase slowly, with a median time to Cmax of between 6 and 10 hours.
In a steady-state study in 25 Parkinson's disease patients receiving 12 mg of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets once daily, a high fat meal increased the systemic exposure to ropinirole as shown by an average 20% increase in AUC (90% CI: [1.12, 1.28]) and an average 44% increase in Cmax (90% CI: [1.34, 1.56]). Tmax was delayed by 3.0 hours. However, these changes are unlikely to be clinically relevant (e.g. increased incidence of adverse events).
The systemic exposure to ropinirole is comparable for ropinirole prolonged-release tablets and ropinirole film-coated (immediate-release) tablets based on the same daily dose.
Plasma protein binding of ropinirole is low (10–40%). Consistent with its high lipophilicity, ropinirole exhibits a large volume of distribution (approximately 7 L/kg).
Ropinirole is primarily cleared by CYP1A2 metabolism and its metabolites are mainly excreted in the urine. The major metabolite is at least 100 times less potent than ropinirole in animal models of dopaminergic function.
Ropinirole is cleared from the systemic circulation with an average elimination half-life of about six hours. The increase in systemic exposure (Cmax and AUC) to ropinirole is approximately proportional over the therapeutic dose range. No change in the oral clearance of ropinirole is observed following single and repeated oral administration. Wide inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters has been observed. Following steady-state administration of ropinirole prolonged-release tablets, the inter-individual variability for Cmax was between 30% and 55% and for AUC was between 40% and 70%.
There was no change observed in the pharmacokinetics of ropinirole in Parkinson's disease patients with mild to moderate renal impairment.
In patients with end stage renal disease receiving regular haemodialysis, oral clearance of ropinirole is reduced by approximately 30%. Oral clearance of the metabolites SKF-104557 and SKF-89124 were also reduced by approximately 80% and 60%, respectively. Therefore, the recommended maximum dose is limited to 18 mg/day in these patients with Parkinson's disease.
Physiological changes in pregnancy (including decreased CYP1A2 activity) are predicted to gradually lead to an increased maternal systemic exposure of ropinirole (see also section 4.6).
In fertility studies in female rats, effects were seen on implantation due to the prolactin-lowering effect of ropinirole. It should be noted that prolactin is not essential for implantation in humans.
Administration of ropinirole to pregnant rats at maternally toxic doses resulted in decreased foetal body weight at 60 mg/kg/day (approximately twice the highest AUC at the Maximum Recommended Human Dose (MRHD)), increased foetal death at 90 mg/kg/day (mean AUC in rats is approximately 3 times the highest AUC at the MRHD) and digit malformations at 150 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the highest AUC at the MRHD). There were no teratogenic effects in the rat at 120 mg/kg/day (approximately 4 times the highest AUC at the MRHD) and no indication of an effect during organogenesis in the rabbit when given alone at 20 mg/kg (9.5 times the mean human Cmax at the MRHD). However, ropinirole at 10 mg/kg (4.8 times the mean human Cmax at the MRHD) administered to rabbits in combination with oral L-dopa produced a higher incidence and severity of digit malformations than L-dopa alone.
The toxicology profile is principally determined by the pharmacological activity of ropinirole: behavioural changes, hypoprolactinaemia, decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, ptosis and salivation. In the albino rat only, retinal degeneration was observed in a long-term study at the highest dose (50 mg/kg/day) and was probably associated with an increased exposure to light.
Genotoxicity was not observed in the usual battery of in vitro and in vivo tests.
From two-year studies conducted in the mouse and rat at doses up to 50 mg/kg/day there was no evidence of any carcinogenic effect in the mouse. In the rat, the only ropinirole-related lesions were Leydig cell hyperplasia and testicular adenoma resulting from the hypoprolactinaemic effect of ropinirole. These lesions are considered to be a species specific phenomenon and do not constitute a hazard with regard to the clinical use of ropinirole.
In vitro studies have shown that ropinirole inhibits hERG-mediated currents. The IC50 is 5-fold higher than the expected maximum plasma concentration in patients treated at the highest recommended dose (24 mg/day), see section 5.1.
Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Type B
Sodium lauryl sulfate (E487)
4 mg Tablet coat:
Titanium dioxide (E171)
Indigo carmine aluminium lake (E132)
Sunset yellow aluminium lake (E110)
HDPE bottle: Shelf life after first opening is 60 days.
Do not store above 25 °C.
Repinex XL is supplied in white opaque PVC/PCTFE-Aluminium foil blisters and white opaque HDPE bottles with white cylindrical caps of polypropylene with three breakpoints on the tamper-evident ring and aperture of desiccant insert.
Blister: 7, 21, 28, 30, 42, 84, 90, 100 prolonged-release tablets
Bottle: 7, 21, 28, 30, 42, 84, 90, 100 prolonged-release tablets
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
No special requirements for disposal.
Aspire Pharma Ltd
Unit 4 Rotherbrook Court