- risedronate sodium
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Older peopleNo dosage adjustment is necessary. (see section 5.2).This has also been shown in the very elderly, 75 years old and above postmenopausal population.
Renal ImpairmentNo dosage adjustment is required for those patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. The use of risedronate sodium is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance lower than 30ml/min) (see sections 4.3 and 5.2).
Hepatic impairmentNo studies have been performed to assess safety or efficacy of risedronate sodium in this population. Risedronate sodium is not metabolised via the liver, therefore dosage adjustment is unlikely to be needed in patients with hepatic impairment.Paediatric populationRisedronate sodium is not recommended for use in children below age 18 due to insufficient data on safety and efficacy (also see section 5.1).
Osteonecrosis of the jawOsteonecrosis of the jaw, generally associated with tooth extraction and/or local infection (including osteomyelitis) has been reported in patients with cancer receiving treatment regimens including primarily intravenously administered bisphophonates. Many of these patients were also receiving chemotherapy and corticosteroids. Osteonecrosis of the jaw has also been reported in patients with osteoporosis receiving oral bisphosphonates. A dental examination with appropriate preventive dentistry should be considered prior to treatment with bisphosphonates in patients with concomitant risk factors (e.g. cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, corticosteroids, poor oral hygiene). While on treatment, these patients should avoid invasive dental procedures if possible. For patients who develop osteonecrosis of the jaw while on bisphosphonate therapy, dental surgery may exacerbate the condition. For patients requiring dental procedures, there are no data available to suggest whether discontinuation of bisphosphonate treatment reduces the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. Clinical judgment of the treating physician should guide the management plan of each patient based on individual benefit /risk assessment.
Osteonecrosis of the external auditory canalOsteonecrosis of the external auditory canal has been reported with bisphosphonates, mainly in association with long-term therapy. Possible risk factors for osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal include steroid use and chemotherapy and/or local risk factors such as infection or trauma. The possibility of osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal should be considered in patients receiving bisphosphonates who present with ear symptoms including chronic ear infections.This medicine contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Nervous system disordersCommon: headache (1.8% vs. 1.4%)
Eye disordersUncommon: iritis*
Gastrointestinal disordersCommon: constipation (5.0% vs. 4.8%), dyspepsia (4.5% vs. 4.1%), nausea (4.3% vs. 4.0%), abdominal pain (3.5% vs. 3.3%), diarrhoea (3.0% vs. 2.7%) Uncommon: gastritis (0.9% vs. 0.7%), oesophagitis (0.9% vs. 0.9%), dysphagia (0.4% vs. 0.2%), duodenitis (0.2% vs. 0.1), oesophageal ulcer (0.2% vs. 0.2%) Rare: glossitis (<0.1% vs. 0.1%), oesophageal stricture (<0.1% vs. 0.0%)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissues disordersCommon: musculoskeletal pain (2.1% vs. 1.9%)
InvestigationsRare: abnormal liver function tests*
Laboratory findingsEarly, transient, asymptomatic and mild decreases in serum calcium and phosphate levels have been observed in some patients. * No relevant incidences from Phase III osteoporosis studies; frequency based on adverse event/laboratory/rechallenge findings in earlier clinical trials. In a one-year, double-blind, multicentre study comparing risedronate sodium 5 mg daily (n= 480) and risedronate sodium 35 mg weekly (n=485) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, the overall safety and tolerability profiles were similar. The following additional adverse experiences considered possibly or probably drug related by investigators have been reported (incidence greater in risedronate sodium 35 mg than in risedronate sodium 5 mg group): gastrointestinal disorder (1.6% vs. 1.0%) and pain (1.2% vs. 0.8%). In a 2-year study in men with osteoporosis, the overall safety and tolerability were similar between the treatment and the placebo groups. Adverse experiences were consistent with those previously observed in women.The following additional adverse reactions have been reported during post-marketing use (frequency unknown):
Immune system disordersanaphylactic reaction
Eye disordersiritis, uveitis
Hepatobiliary disordersserious hepatic disorders. In most of the reported cases the patients were also treated with other products known to cause hepatic disorders.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disordershypersensitivity and skin reactions, including angioedema, generalised rash, urticaria and bullous skin reactions, some severe including isolated reports of Stevens Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis..hair lossMuskuloskeletal and connective tissues disorders osteonecrosis of the jaw atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures (bisphosphonate class adverse reaction) (frequency rare)osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal (bisphosphonate class adverse reaction; frequency very rare)Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
Treatment of Postmenopausal OsteoporosisA number of risk factors are associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis including low bone mass, low bone mineral density, early menopause, a history of smoking and a family history of osteoporosis. The clinical consequence of osteoporosis is fractures. The risk of fractures is increased with the number of risk factors.Based on effects on mean change in lumbar spine BMD, risedronate sodium 35 mg once weekly (n=485) was shown to be equivalent to risedronate sodium 5 mg daily (n=480) in a one-year, double-blind, multicentre study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.The clinical programme for risedronate sodium administered once daily studied the effect of risedronate sodium on the risk of hip and vertebral fractures and contained early and late postmenopausal women with and without fracture. Daily doses of 2.5 mg and 5 mg were studied and all groups, including the control groups, received calcium and vitamin D (if baseline levels were low). The absolute and relative risk of new vertebral and hip fractures were estimated by use of a time-to-first event analysis. Two placebo-controlled trials (n=3.661) enrolled postmenopausal women under 85 years with vertebral fractures at baseline. Risedronate sodium 5 mg daily given for 3 years reduced the risk of new vertebral fractures relative to the control group. In women with respectively at least 2 or at least 1 vertebral fractures, the relative risk reduction was 49% and 41% respectively (incidence of new vertebral fractures with risedronate sodium 18.1% and 11.3%, with placebo 29.0% and 16.3%, respectively). The effect of treatment was seen as early as the end of the first year of treatment. Benefits were also demonstrated in women with multiple fractures at baseline. Risedronate sodium 5 mg daily also reduced the yearly height loss compared to the control group. Two further placebo controlled trials enrolled postmenopausal women above 70 years with or without vertebral fractures at baseline. Women 70-79 years were enrolled with femoral neck BMD T-score <-3 SD (manufacturer's range, i.e. -2.5 SD using NHANES III) and at least one additional risk factor. Women >80 years could be enrolled on the basis of at least one non-skeletal risk factor for hip fracture or low bone mineral density at the femoral neck. Statistical significance of the efficacy of risedronate sodium versus placebo is only reached when the two treatment groups 2.5 mg and 5 mg are pooled. The following results are only based on a-posteriori analysis of subgroups defined by clinical practise and current definitions of osteoporosis: - In the subgroup of patients with femoral neck BMD T-score <-2.5SD (NHANES III) and at least one vertebral fracture at baseline, risedronate sodium given for 3 years reduced the risk of hip fractures by 46% relative to the control group (incidence of hip fractures in combined risedronate sodium 2.5 and 5 mg groups 3.8%, placebo 7.4%); - Data suggest that a more limited protection than this may be observed in the very elderly (>80 years). This may be due to the increasing importance of non-skeletal factors for hip fracture with increasing age. In these trials, data analysed as a secondary endpoint indicated a decrease in the risk of new vertebral fractures in patients with low femoral neck BMD without vertebral fracture and in patients with low femoral neck BMD with or without vertebral fracture. Risedronate sodium 5 mg daily given for 3 years increased bone mineral density (BMD) relative to control at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and wrist and maintained bone density at the mid-shaft radius. In a one-year follow-up off therapy after three years treatment with risedronate sodium 5 mg daily there was rapid reversibility of the suppressing effect of risedronate sodium on bone turnover rate. Bone biopsy samples from postmenopausal women treated with risedronate sodium 5 mg daily for 2 to 3 years, showed an expected moderate decrease in bone turnover. Bone formed during risedronate sodium treatment was of normal lamellar structure and bone mineralisation. These data together with the decreased incidence of osteoporosis related fractures at vertebral sites in women with osteoporosis appear to indicate no detrimental effect on bone quality. Endoscopic findings from a number of patients with a number of moderate to severe gastrointestinal complaints in both risedronate sodium and control patients indicated no evidence of treatment related gastric, duodenal or oesophageal ulcers in either group, although duodenitis was uncommonly observed in the risedronate sodium group.
Treatment of Osteoporosis in MenRisedronate sodium 35mg once a week demonstrated efficacy in men with osteoporosis (age range 36 to 84 years) in a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 284 patients (risedronate sodium 35mg n = 191). All patients received supplemental calcium and vitamin D. Increases in BMD were observed as early as 6 months following initiation of risedronate sodium treatment. Risedronate sodium 35mg once a week produced mean increases in BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip compared to placebo after 2 years of treatment. Antifracture efficacy was not demonstrated in this study. The bone effect (BMD increase and BTM decrease) of risedronate sodium is similar in males and females.
Paediatric populationThe safety and efficacy of risedronate sodium has been investigated in a 3 year study (a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, parallel group study of one-year duration followed by 2 years of open-label treatment) in paediatric patients aged 4 to less than 16 years with mild to moderate osteogenesis imperfecta. In this study, patients weighing 10-30 kg received risedronate 2.5 mg daily and patients weighing more than 30 kg received risedronate 5 mg daily.After completion of its one-year randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled phase, a statistically significant increase in lumbar spine BMD in the risedronate group versus placebo group was demonstrated ; however an increased number of patients with at least 1 new morphometric (identified by x-ray) vertebral fracture was found in the risedronate group compared to placebo. During the one year double blind period, the percentage of patients who reported clinical fractures was 30.9% in the risedronate group and 49.0% in the placebo group.In the open label period when all patients received risedronate(month 12 to month 36), clinical fractures were reported by 65.3% of patients initially randomized to the placebo group and by 52.9% of patients initially randomized to the risedronate group. Overall, results do not support the use of risedronate sodium in paediatric patients with mild to moderate osteogenesis imperfecta.
AbsorptionAbsorption after an oral dose is relatively rapid (tmax ~1 hour) and is independent of dose over the range studied (single dose study, 2.5 to 30 mg; multiple dose studies, 2.5 to 5 mg daily and up to 50 mg dosed weekly). Mean oral bioavailability of the tablet is 0.63% and is decreased when risedronate sodium is administered with food. Bioavailability was similar in men and women.
DistributionThe mean steady state volume of distribution is 6.3 l/kg in humans. Plasma protein binding is about 24%.
MetabolismThere is no evidence of systemic metabolism of risedronate sodium.
EliminationApproximately half of the absorbed dose is excreted in urine within 24 hours, and 85% of an intravenous dose is recovered in the urine after 28 days. Mean renal clearance is 105 ml/min and mean total clearance is 122 ml/min, with the difference probably attributed to clearance due to adsorption to bone. The renal clearance is not concentration dependent, and there is a linear relationship between renal clearance and creatinine clearance. Unabsorbed risedronate sodium is eliminated unchanged in faeces. After oral administration the concentration-time profile shows three elimination phases with a terminal half-life of 480 hours.
Older peopleNo dosage adjustment is necessary. Bioavailability, distribution and elimination were similar in elderly (> 60 years of age) compared to younger subjects.
Renal insufficiencyAs compared to persons with normal renal function, the renal clearance of risedronate sodium was decreased by about 70% in patients with a creatinine clearance of approximately 30ml/min.
Acetyl salicylic acid/NSAID usersAmong regular acetyl salicylic acid or NSAID users (3 or more days per week) the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse events in risedronate sodium treated patients was similar to that in control patients.
Tablet corecrospovidonelactose-monohydratemagnesium stearatemicrocrystalline cellulose
Film coatinghypromellosemacrogol 400titanium dioxide (E171)ferric oxide, yellow (E172)ferric oxide, red (E172)
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