This information is intended for use by health professionals
Oxycodone Hydrochloride 5mg/5ml Oral Solution
Each 5ml contains oxycodone hydrochloride 5 mg (equivalent to 4.5 mg of oxycodone base).
Excipients with known effect
Each 5ml of solution contains:
* 4.25 mg sodium
* 5mg sodium benzoate (E211)
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
A clear, colourless oral solution.
For the treatment of moderate to severe pain in patients with cancer and post-operative pain. For the treatment of severe pain requiring the use of a strong opioid.
Adults over 18 years:
Oxycodone solution should be taken at 4-6 hourly intervals. The dosage is dependent on the severity of the pain, and the patient's previous history of analgesic requirements.
Generally, the lowest effective dose for analgesia should be selected. Increasing severity of pain will require an increased dosage of Oxycodone solution. The correct dosage for any individual patient is that which controls the pain and is well tolerated throughout the dosing period. Patients should be titrated to pain relief unless unmanageable adverse drug reactions prevent this.
The usual starting dose for opioid naïve patients or patients presenting with severe pain uncontrolled by weaker opioids is 5 mg, 4-6 hourly. The dose should then be carefully titrated, as frequently as once a day if necessary, to achieve pain relief. The majority of patients will not require a daily dose greater than 400 mg. However, a few patients may require higher doses.
Prior to starting treatment with opioids, a discussion should be held with patients to put in place a strategy for ending treatment with oxycodone in order to minimise the risk of addiction and drug withdrawal syndrome (see section 4.4).
Conversion from oral morphine:
Patients receiving oral morphine before oxycodone therapy should have their daily dose based on the following ratio: 10 mg of oral oxycodone is equivalent to 20 mg of oral morphine. It must be emphasised that this is a guide to the dose of Oxycodone solution required. Inter-patient variability requires that each patient is carefully titrated to the appropriate dose.
Transferring patients between oral and parenteral oxycodone
The dose should be based on the following ratio: 2 mg of oral oxycodone is equivalent to 1 mg of parenteral oxycodone. It must be emphasised that this is a guide to the dose required. Inter-patient variability requires that each patient is carefully titrated to the appropriate dose.
A dose adjustment is not usually necessary in elderly patients.
Controlled pharmacokinetic studies in elderly patients (aged over 65 years) have shown that, compared with younger adults, the clearance of oxycodone is only slightly reduced. No untoward adverse drug reactions were seen based on age, therefore adult doses and dosage intervals are appropriate.
Patients with renal or hepatic impairment:
The plasma concentration in this patient population may be increased. The dose initiation should follow a conservative approach in these patients. The recommended adult starting dose should be reduced by 50% (for example a total daily dose of 10 mg orally in opioid naïve patients), and each patient should be titrated to adequate pain control according to their clinical situation.
Oxycodone solution should not be used in patients under 18 years.
Use in non-malignant pain:
Opioids are not first line therapy for chronic non-malignant pain, nor are they recommended as the only treatment. Types of chronic pain which have been shown to be alleviated by strong opioids include chronic osteoarthritic pain and intervertebral disc disease. The need for continued treatment in non-malignant pain should be assessed at regular intervals.
Method of administration:
Oxycodone is for oral use.
Duration of treatment:
Oxycodone should not be used for longer than necessary. In common with other strong opioids, the need for continued treatment should be assessed at regular intervals.
Discontinuation of treatment:
When a patient no longer requires therapy with oxycodone, it may be advisable to taper the dose gradually to prevent symptoms of withdrawal.
Hypersensitivity to oxycodone or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
Oxycodone must not be used in any situation where opioids are contraindicated: severe respiratory depression with hypoxia, paralytic ileus, acute abdomen, delayed gastric emptying, severe chronic obstructive lung disease, cor pulmonale, severe bronchial asthma, elevated carbon dioxide levels in the blood, moderate to severe hepatic impairment, chronic constipation.
Caution must be exercised when administering oxycodone to the debilitated elderly; opioid-dependent patients; patients with severely impaired pulmonary function, patients with impaired hepatic or renal function; patients with myxoedema, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, toxic psychosis, prostate hypertrophy, adrenocortical insufficiency, alcoholism, delirium tremens, diseases of the biliary tract, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disorders, hypotension, hypovolaemia, raised intracranial pressure, intracranial lesions or head injury (due to risk of increased intracranial pressure), reduced level of consciousness of uncertain origin, sleep apnoea or patients taking benzodiazepines, other CNS depressants (including alcohol) or MAO inhibitors (see section 4.5).
The primary risk of opioid excess is respiratory depression.
Opioids may cause sleep-related breathing disorders including central sleep apnoea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia. Opioid use may increase the risk of CSA in a dose-dependent manner in some patients. Opioids may also cause worsening of pre-existing sleep apnoea (see section 4.8). In patients who present with CSA, consider decreasing the total opioid dosage.
Concomitant use of oxycodone and sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs may result in sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death. Because of these risks, concomitant prescribing with these sedative medicines should be reserved for patients for whom alternative treatment options are not possible.
If a decision is made to prescribe oxycodone concomitantly with sedative medicines, the lowest effective dose should be used, and the duration of treatment should be as short as possible (see also general dose recommendation in section 4.2).
The patient should be followed closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In this respect, it is strongly recommended to inform patients and their caregivers to be aware of these symptoms (see section 4.5).
Oxycodone solution must be administered with caution in patients taking MAOIs or who have received MAOIs within the previous two weeks.
Oxycodone solution should not be used where there is a possibility of paralytic ileus occurring. Should paralytic ileus be suspected or occur during use, Oxycodone solution should be discontinued immediately.
Oxycodone solution should be used with caution pre-operatively and within the first 12- 24 hours post-operatively.
As with all opioid preparations, oxycodone products should be used with caution following abdominal surgery as opioids are known to impair intestinal motility and should not be used until the physician is assured of normal bowel function.
Patients about to undergo additional pain relieving procedures (e.g. surgery, plexus blockade) should not receive Oxycodone solution for 6 hours prior to the intervention. If further treatment with oxycodone is indicated then the dosage should be adjusted to the new post-operative requirement.
For appropriate patients who suffer with chronic non-malignant pain, opioids should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment programme involving other medications and treatment modalities. A crucial part of the assessment of a patient with chronic non-malignant pain is the patient's addiction and substance abuse history.
If opioid treatment is considered appropriate for the patient, then the main aim of treatment is not to minimise the dose of opioid but rather to achieve a dose which provides adequate pain relief with a minimum of side effects. There must be frequent contact between physician and patient so that dosage adjustments can be made. It is strongly recommended that the physician defines treatment outcomes in accordance with pain management guidelines. The physician and patient can then agree to discontinue treatment if these objectives are not met.
Drug dependence, tolerance and potential for abuse
For all patients, prolonged use of this product may lead to drug dependence (addiction), even at therapeutic doses. The risks are increased in individuals with current or past history of substance misuse disorder (including alcohol misuse) or mental health disorder (e.g. major depression).
Additional support and monitoring may be necessary when prescribing for patients at risk of opioid misuse.
A comprehensive patient history should be taken to document concomitant medications, including over-the-counter medicines and medicines obtained on-line, and past and present medical and psychiatric conditions.
Patients may find that treatment is less effective with chronic use and express a need to increase the dose to obtain the same level of pain control as initially experienced. Patients may also supplement their treatment with additional pain relievers. These could be signs that the patient is developing tolerance. The risks of developing tolerance should be explained to the patient.
Overuse or misuse may result in overdose and/or death. It is important that patients only use medicines that are prescribed for them at the dose they have been prescribed and do not give this medicine to anyone else.
Patients should be closely monitored for signs of misuse, abuse or addiction.
The clinical need for analgesic treatment should be reviewed regularly.
Drug withdrawal syndrome
Prior to starting treatment with any opioids, a discussion should be held with patients to put in place a withdrawal strategy for ending treatment with oxycodone.
Drug withdrawal syndrome may occur upon abrupt cessation of therapy or dose reduction. When a patient no longer requires therapy with oxycodone, it is advisable to taper the dose gradually to minimise symptoms of withdrawal. Tapering from a high dose may take weeks to months.
The opioid drug withdrawal syndrome is characterised by some or all of the following: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, mydriasis and palpitations. Other symptoms may also develop, including: irritability, agitation, anxiety, hyperkinesia, tremor, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, increased blood pressure, increased respiratory rate or heart rate.
If women take this drug during pregnancy there is a risk that their newborn infants will experience neonatal withdrawal syndrome.
Hyperalgesia may be diagnosed if the patient on long-term opioid therapy presents with increased pain. This might be qualitatively and anatomically distinct from pain related to disease progression or to breakthrough pain resulting from development of opioid tolerance. Pain associated with hyperalgesia tends to be more diffuse than the pre-existing pain and less defined in quality. Symptoms of hyperalgesia may resolve with a reduction of opioid dose.
Hyperalgesia that will not respond to a further dose increase of oxycodone may occur, particularly in high doses. An oxycodone dose reduction or change to an alternative opioid may be required.
Oxycodone has an abuse profile similar to other strong opioids. Oxycodone may be sought and abused by people with latent or manifest addiction disorders. There is potential for development of psychological dependence (addiction) to opioid analgesics, including oxycodone. Oxycodone should be used with particular care in patients with a history of alcohol and drug abuse.
As with other opioids, infants who are born to dependent mothers may exhibit withdrawal symptoms and may have respiratory depression at birth.
Abuse of oral dosage forms by parenteral administration can be expected to result in serious adverse events, such as local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, increased risk of endocarditis, and valvular heart injury, which may be fatal.
Concomitant use of alcohol and Oxycodone solution may increase the undesirable effects of Oxycodone solution; concomitant use should be avoided
This medicinal product contains 4.25mg sodium per 5ml, equivalent to 0.21% of the WHO recommended maximum daily intake of 2g sodium for an adult.
This medicinal product contains 1mg sodium benzoate in each ml. Sodium benzoate may increase jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) in newborn babies (up to 4 weeks old).
Opioids, such as oxycodone hydrochloride may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal or – gonadal axes. Some changes that can be seen include an increase in serum prolactin, and decreases in plasma cortisol and testosterone. Clinical symptoms may manifest from these hormonal changes.
The concomitant use of opioids with sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs increases the risk of sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death because of additive CNS depressant effect. The dosage and duration of concomitant use should be limited (see section 4.4).
Drugs which affect the CNS include, but are not limited to: other opioids, gabapentinoids such as pregabalin, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives (including benzodiazepines), antipsychotics, antidepressants, phenothiazines, anaesthetics, muscle relaxants, antihypertensives and alcohol.
Concomitant administration of oxycodone with serotonin agents, such as a Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitor (SSRI) or a Serotonin Norepinephrine Re-uptake Inhibitor (SNRI) may cause serotonin toxicity. The symptoms of serotonin toxicity may include mental-status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular abnormalities (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination, rigidity), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea). Oxycodone should be used with caution and the dosage may need to be reduced in patients using these medications.
Concomitant administration of oxycodone with anticholinergics or medicines with anticholinergic activity (e.g. tricyclic anti-depressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, muscle relaxants, anti-Parkinson drugs) may result in increased anticholinergic adverse effects. Oxycodone should be used with caution and the dosage may need to be reduced in patients using these medications.
MAO inhibitors are known to interact with narcotic analgesics. MAO-inhibitors cause CNS excitation or depression associated with hypertensive or hypotensive crisis (see section 4.4). Co-administration with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or within two weeks of discontinuation of their use should be avoided.
Alcohol may enhance the pharmacodynamics effects of Oxycodone, concomitant use should be avoided.
Oxycodone is metabolised mainly by CYP3A4, with a contribution from CYP2D6. The activities of these metabolic pathways may be inhibited or induced by various co-administered drugs or dietary elements. Oxycodone doses may need to be adjusted accordingly.
CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g. clarithromycin, erythromycin and telithromycin), azole-antifungals (e.g. ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g. boceprevir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir and saquinavir), cimetidine and grapefruit juice may cause a reduced clearance of oxycodone that could cause an increase of the plasma concentrations of oxycodone. Therefore the oxycodone dose may need to be adjusted accordingly.
Some specific examples are provided below:
• Itraconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, administered 200 mg orally for five days, increased the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 2.4 times higher (range 1.5 - 3.4).
• Voriconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, administered 200 mg twice-daily for four days (400 mg given as first two doses), increased the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 3.6 times higher (range 2.7 - 5.6).
• Telithromycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, administered 800 mg orally for four days, increased the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 1.8 times higher (range 1.3 – 2.3).
• Grapefruit Juice, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, administered as 200 ml three times a day for five days, increased the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 1.7 times higher (range 1.1 – 2.1).
CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin and St John´s Wort may induce the metabolism of oxycodone and cause an increased clearance of oxycodone that could cause a reduction of the plasma concentrations of oxycodone. The oxycodone dose may need to be adjusted accordingly.
Some specific examples are provided below:
• St Johns Wort, a CYP3A4 inducer, administered as 300 mg three times a day for fifteen days, reduced the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 50% lower (range 37-57%).
• Rifampicin, a CYP3A4 inducer, administered as 600 mg once-daily for seven days, reduced the AUC of oral oxycodone. On average, the AUC was approximately 86% lower
Drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 activity, such as paroxetine and quinidine, may cause decreased clearance of oxycodone which could lead to an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations. Concurrent administration of quinidine with a modified release oxycodone tablet resulted in an increase in oxycodone Cmax by 11%, AUC by 13%, and t½ elim. by 14%. Also an increase in noroxycodone level was observed, (Cmax by 50%; AUC by 85%, and t½ elim. by 42%). The pharmacodynamics effects of oxycodone were not altered.
Oxycodone solution is not recommended for use during pregnancy nor during labour. There are limited data from the use of oxycodone in pregnant women. Regular use in pregnancy may cause drug dependence in the foetus, leading to withdrawal symptoms in the neonate. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in pregnant women, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available. Infants born to mothers who have received opioids during the last 3 to 4 weeks before giving birth should be monitored for respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms may be observed in the newborn of mothers undergoing treatment with oxycodone.
Administration during labour may depress respiration in the neonate and an antidote for the child should be readily available.
Administration to nursing women is not recommended as oxycodone may be secreted in breast milk and may cause respiratory depression in the newborn. Oxycodone solution should, therefore, not be used in breastfeeding mothers.
Oxycodone may impair the ability to drive and use machines. Oxycodone may modify patients' reactions to a varying extent depending on the dosage and individual susceptibility. Therefore patients should not drive or operate machinery if affected.
This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient's ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road of Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:
• The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive
• Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you
• It is an offence to drive while you have this medicine in your body over a specified limit unless you have a defence (called the 'statutory defence').
• This defence applies when:
o The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical or dental problem and
o You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine.
• Please note that it is still an offence to drive if you are unfit because of the medicine (i.e. your ability to drive is being affected).
Details regarding a new driving offence concerning driving after drugs have been taken in the UK may be found here: https://www.gov.uk/drug-driving-law
Adverse drug reactions are typical of full opioid agonists. Tolerance and dependence may occur (see section 4.4). Constipation may be prevented with an appropriate laxative. If nausea and vomiting are troublesome, oxycodone may be combined with an anti-emetic.
The following frequency categories form the basis for classification of the undesirable effects:
≥ 1/100 to <1/10
≥ 1/1,000 to <1/100
≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000
Frequency not known
Cannot be estimated from the available data
Immune system disorders:
Frequency not known: anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactoid reaction.
Metabolism and nutrition disorders:
Common: decreased appetite.
Common: anxiety, confusional state, depression, insomnia, nervousness, abnormal thinking, abnormal dreams
Uncommon: agitation, affect lability, euphoric mood, hallucinations, decreased libido, disorientation, mood altered, restlessness, dysphoria
Frequency not known: aggression, drug dependence (see section 4.4).
Nervous system disorders:
Very common: somnolence, dizziness, headache.
Common: tremor, lethargy, sedation.
Uncommon: amnesia, convulsion, hypertonia, hypoaesthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, speech disorder, syncope, paraesthesia, dysgeusia, hypotonia.
Frequency not known: hyperalgesia, sleep apnoea syndrome.
Uncommon: visual impairment, miosis.
Ear and labyrinth disorders:
Uncommon: palpitations (in the context of withdrawal syndrome), supraventricular tachycardia.
Uncommon: vasodilatation, facial flushing.
Rare: hypotension, orthostatic hypotension.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:
Common: dyspnoea, bronchospasm, cough decreased.
Uncommon: respiratory depression, hiccups.
Very common: constipation, nausea, vomiting.
Common: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dry mouth, dyspepsia.
Uncommon: dysphagia, flatulence, eructation, ileus, gastritis.
Frequency not known: dental caries.
Uncommon: increased hepatic enzymes, biliary colic.
Frequency not known: cholestasis.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Very common: pruritus.
Common: rash, hyperhidrosis.
Uncommon: dry skin, exfoliative dermatitis.
Renal and urinary disorders:
Uncommon: urinary retention, ureteral spasm.
Reproductive system and breast disorders:
Uncommon: erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism.
Frequency not known: amenorrhoea.
General disorders and administration site conditions:
Common: asthenia, fatigue.
Uncommon: drug withdrawal syndrome, malaise, oedema, peripheral oedema, drug tolerance, thirst, pyrexia, chills.
Frequency not known: drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
Acute overdose with oxycodone can be manifested by miosis, respiratory depression, and hypotension. Circulatory failure and somnolence progressing to stupor or deepening coma, hypotonia, bradycardia, pulmonary oedema and death may occur in more severe cases.
Patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of overdose and to ensure that family and friends are also aware of these signs and to seek immediate medical help if they occur.
Treatment of oxycodone overdosage: Primary attention should be given to the establishment of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. The pure opioid antagonists such as naloxone are specific antidotes against symptoms from opioid overdose. Other supportive measures should be employed as needed.
In the case of massive overdosage, administer naloxone intravenously (0.4 to 2 mg for an adult and 0.01 mg/kg body weight for children), if the patient is in a coma or respiratory depression is present. Repeat the dose at 2 minute intervals if there is no response. If repeated doses are required then an infusion of 60% of the initial dose per hour is a useful starting point. A solution of 10 mg made up in 50 ml dextrose will produce 200 micrograms/ml for infusion using an IV pump (dose adjusted to the clinical response). Infusions are not a substitute for frequent review of the patient's clinical state. Intramuscular naloxone is an alternative in the event IV access is not possible. As the duration of action of naloxone is relatively short, the patient must be carefully monitored until spontaneous respiration is reliably established. Naloxone is a competitive antagonist and large doses (4 mg) may be required in seriously poisoned patients.
For less severe overdosage, administer naloxone 0.2 mg intravenously followed by increments of 0.1 mg every 2 minutes if required.
Naloxone should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to oxycodone overdosage. Naloxone should be administered cautiously to persons who are known, or suspected, to be physically dependent on oxycodone. In such cases, an abrupt or complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate pain and an acute withdrawal syndrome.
• Consider activated charcoal (50 g for adults, 10 -15 g for children), if a substantial amount has been ingested within 1 hour, provided the airway can be protected.
• Gastric contents may need to be emptied as this can be useful in removing unabsorbed drug.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Natural opium alkaloids
ATC code: N02A A05
Oxycodone is a full opioid agonist with no antagonist properties. It has an affinity for kappa, mu and delta opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Oxycodone is similar to morphine in its action. The therapeutic effect is mainly analgesic, anxiolytic, antitussive and sedative.
Opioids may induce spasm of the sphincter of Oddi
See section 4.4.
Other pharmacological effects
In vitro and animal studies indicate various effects of natural opioids, such as morphine, on components of the immune system; the clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Whether oxycodone, a semisynthetic opioid, has immunological effects similar to morphine is unknown.
Mean peak plasma concentrations of approximately 20 ng/ml were achieved within 1.5 hours of administration, median tmax values from both strengths of liquid being less than one hour.
A pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers has demonstrated that, following administration of a single 10 mg dose, Oxycodone solution 5mg/5ml and Oxycodone solution10mg/ml provided an equivalent rate and extent of absorption of oxycodone.
Compared with morphine, which has an absolute bioavailability of approximately 30%, oxycodone has a high absolute bioavailability of up to 87% following oral administration. Oxycodone has an elimination half life of approximately 3-4 hours and is metabolised principally to noroxycodone and oxymorphone. Oxymorphone has some analgesic activity but is present in the plasma at low concentrations and is not considered to contribute to oxycodone's pharmacological effect.
Following absorption, oxycodone is distributed throughout the entire body. Approximately 45% is bound to plasma protein.
Oxycodone is metabolised in the liver via CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 to noroxycodone, oxymorphone and noroxymorphone, which are subsequently glucuronidated. Noroxycodone and noroxymorphone are the major circulating metabolites. Noroxycodone is a weak mu opioid agonist. Noroxymorphone is a potent mu opioid agonist; however, it does not cross the blood-brain barrier to a significant extent. Oxymorphone is a potent mu opioid agonist but is present at very low concentrations following oxycodone administration. None of these metabolites are thought to contribute significantly to the analgesic effect of oxycodone.
Oxycodone has an elimination half life of approximately 3-4 hours. The active drug and its metabolites are excreted in urine.
Studies involving controlled release oxycodone have demonstrated that the oral bioavailability of oxycodone is only slightly increased (16%) in the elderly. In patients with renal and hepatic impairment, the bioavailability of oxycodone was increased by 60% and 90% respectively, and a reduced initial dose is recommended in these groups.
Reproductive and Development Toxicology
Oxycodone had no effect on fertility or early embryonic development in male and female rats at doses as high as 8 mg/kg/d. Also, oxycodone did not induce any deformities in rats at doses as high as 8 mg/kg/d or in rabbits at doses as high as 125 mg/kg/d. Dose-related increases in developmental variations (increased incidences of extra (27) presacral vertebrae and extra pairs of ribs) were observed in rabbits when the data for individual foetuses were analysed. However, when the same data were analysed using litters as opposed to individual foetuses, there was no dose-related increase in developmental variations although the incidence of extra presacral vertebrae remained significantly higher in the 125 mg/kg/d group compared to the control group. Since this dose level was associated with severe pharmacotoxic effects in the pregnant animals, the foetal findings may have been a secondary consequence of severe maternal toxicity.
In a prenatal and postnatal development study in rats, maternal body weight and food intake parameters were reduced for doses ≥ 2 mg/kg/d compared to the control group. Body weights were lower in the F1 generation from maternal rats in the 6 mg/kg/d dosing group. There were no effects on physical, reflexological, or sensory developmental parameters or on behavioural and reproductive indices in the F1 pups (the NOEL for F1 pups was 2 mg/kg/d based on body weight effects seen at 6 mg/kg/d). There were no effects on the F2 generation at any dose in the study.
The results of in-vitro and in-vivo studies indicate that the genotoxic risk of oxycodone to humans is minimal or absent at the systemic oxycodone concentrations that are achieved therapeutically.
Oxycodone was not genotoxic in a bacterial mutagenicity assay or in an in-vivo micronucleus assay in the mouse. Oxycodone produced a positive response in the in-vitro mouse lymphoma assay in the presence of rat liver S9 metabolic activation at dose levels greater than 25 μg/ml. Two in-vitro chromosomal aberrations assays with human lymphocytes were conducted. In the first assay, oxycodone was negative without metabolic activation but was positive with S9 metabolic activation at the 24 hour time point but not at other time points or at 48 hour after exposure. In the second assay, oxycodone did not show any clastogenicity either with or without metabolic activation at any concentration or time point.
Oxycodone was not mutagenic in the following assays: Ames Salmonella and E. Coli test with and without metabolic activation at doses of up to 5000 μg, chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes (in the absence of metabolic activation and with activation after 48 hours of exposure) at doses of up to 1500 μg/ml, and in the in vivo bone marrow micronucleus assay in mice (at plasma levels of up to 48 μg/ml). Mutagenic results occurred in the presence of metabolic activation in the human chromosomal aberration test (at greater than or equal to 1250 μg/ml) at 24 but not 48 hours of exposure and in the mouse lymphoma assay at doses of 50 μg/ml or greater with metabolic activation and at 400 μg/ml or greater without metabolic activation. The data from these tests indicate that the genotoxic risk to humans may be considered low.
Carcinogenicity was evaluated in a 2-year oral gavage study conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Oxycodone did not increase the incidence of tumours in male and female rats at doses up to 6 mg/kg/day. The doses were limited by opioid-related pharmacological effects of oxycodone.
Citric acid monohydrate
Sodium benzoate (E211)
Hypromellose (methocel-E15 premium LV)
Unopened: 3 years.
After first opening: 1 month.
Do not store above 25°C.
Store in the original package in order to protect from light.
Oxycodone solution is supplied in 250 ml amber soda glass (type III) bottles, fitted with 28 mm white child resistant tamper evident caps with expanded polyethylene (EPE) liners, contained in outer cardboard cartons.
No special requirements.
Wockhardt UK Ltd
Ash Road North
Date of first authorisation: 25/05/2011