- gentamicin sulfate
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Gentamicin Intrathecal 5 mg/ml Solution for Injection
Each ampoule (1 ml) contains Gentamicin Sulphate Ph. Eur. equivalent to 5 mg Gentamicin base.
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. It is usually active against most strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp. (indole positive and indole negative), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococci, Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp. and Providencia spp.
Gentamicin Intrathecal Injection is indicated as a supplement to systemic therapy in bacterial meningitis, ventriculitis and other bacterial infections of the central nervous system.
Consideration should be given to official local guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.
Bacterial meningitis and ventriculitis:
The starting dose of Gentamicin Intrathecal Injection for both children and adults is 1 mg daily, intrathecally or intraventricularly, together with 1 mg/kg every eight hours intramuscularly.
The MIC of the infecting organism in the C.S.F. should be assessed and, if necessary, the intrathecal/intraventricular dose increased to 5 mg daily, whilst keeping the intramuscular dose at 1 mg/kg eight-hourly.Treatment should be continued for at least 7 days but longer if necessary.Periodic serum and C.S.F. gentamicin assays should be carried out to ensure that adequate antibiotic levels are maintained and that serum and C.S.F. levels do not exceed 10 mg/l.
Method of administration
Intrathecal or intraventricular.
• Known hypersensitivity to the active substance (gentamicin), other aminoglycosides or any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
• Myasthenia gravis and related conditions (evidence exists that gentamicin may cause neuromuscular blockade).
Ototoxicity has been recorded following the use of gentamicin. Groups at special risk include patients with impaired renal function and possibly the elderly. Consequently, renal, auditory and vestibular functions should be monitored in these patients and serum levels determined so as to avoid peak concentrations above 10 mg/l and troughs above 2 mg/l. As there is some evidence that risk of both ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity is related to the level of total exposure, duration of therapy should be the shortest possible compatible with clinical recovery. In some patients with impaired renal function there has been a transient rise in blood-urea-nitrogen which has usually reverted to normal during or following cessation of therapy. It is important to adjust the frequency of dosage according to the degree of renal function.
Concurrent administration of gentamicin and other potentially ototoxic or nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided. Potent diuretics such as etacrynic acid and furosemide are believed to enhance the risk of ototoxicity whilst amphotericin B, cisplatin and ciclosporin are potential enhancers of nephrotoxicity.
Any potential nephrotoxicity of cephalosporins, and in particular cephaloridine, may also be increased in the presence of gentamicin. Consequently, if this combination is used monitoring of kidney function is advised.Neuromuscular blockade and respiratory paralysis have been reported from administration of aminoglycosides to patients who have received curare-type muscle relaxants during anaesthesia.
There are no proven cases of intrauterine damage caused by gentamicin. However, in common with most drugs known to cross the placenta, usage in pregnancy should only be considered in life threatening situations where expected benefits outweigh possible risks.
In the absence of gastro-intestinal inflammation, the amount of gentamicin ingested from the milk is unlikely to result in significant blood levels in breast-fed infants.
Side-effects include vestibular damage or hearing loss, particularly after exposure to ototoxic drugs or in the presence of renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity (usually reversible) and occasionally acute renal failure, anaemia, blood dycrasias, purpura, stomatitis, convulsions and effects on liver function occur occasionally.
Rarely hypomagnesia on prolonged therapy and antibiotic–associated colitis have been reported.
Nausea, vomiting and rash have also been reported.
Immune system disorders:
Not known: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis/anaphylactic reaction (including anaphylactic shock)
Nervous system disorders:
Central neurotoxicity, including encephalopathy, confusion, lethargy, mental depression and hallucinations, has been reported in association with gentamicin therapy but this is extremely rare.
Not known: peripheral neuropathy
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis will aid the removal from blood but the former is probably more efficient. Calcium salts given intravenously have been used to counter the neuromuscular blockade caused by gentamicin.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antibacterials for systemic use, ATC Code: J01GB03
Gentamicin is a mixture of antibiotic substances produced by the growth of micromonospora purpurea. It is bactericidal with greater antibacterial activity than streptomycin, neomycin or kanamycin.
Gentamicin exerts a number of effects on cells of susceptible bacteria. It affects the integrity of the plasma membrane and the metabolism of RNA, but its most important effects is inhibition of protein synthesis at the level of the 30s ribosomal subunit.
Gentamicin is not readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract. Gentamicin is 70 – 85% bound to plasma albumin following administration and is excreted 90% unchanged in urine. The half-life for its elimination in normal patients is 2 – 3 hours.
• Effective plasma concentration is 4 – 8 µg/ml.
• The volume of distribution (vd) is 0.3 l/kg.
• The elimination rate constant is:
1. 0.02 hr-1 for anuric patients*
2. 0.30 hr-1 normal
*Therefore in those with anuria care must be exercised following the usual initial dose, any subsequent administration being reduced in-line with plasma concentrations of gentamicin.
Sodium Chloride BP
Water for Injections BP
In general, gentamicin injection should not be mixed. In particular the following are incompatible in mixed solution with gentamicin injection:
- sodium bicarbonate
*Dilution in the body will obviate the danger of physical and chemical incompatibility and enable gentamicin to be given concurrently with the drugs listed above either as a bolus injection into the drip tubing, with adequate flushing, or at separate sites. In the case of carbenicillin, administration should only be at a separate site.
*Carbon dioxide may be liberated on addition of the two solutions. Normally this will dissolve in the solution but under some circumstances small bubbles may form.
Store in a cold place.
Gentamicin Intrathecal Injection is supplied in 1 ml neutral glass ampoules in packs of 5.
Zentiva Pharma UK Limited
One Onslow Street
Zentiva, One Onslow Street, Guildford, Surrey, GU1 4YS, UK