This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Tolterodine Tartrate 2 mg film-coated tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each film-coated tablet contains tolterodine tartrate 2 mg corresponding to 1.37 mg tolterodine, respectively.

Excipients:

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablets.

White or almost white, round and biconvex film-coated tablets.

The tablet is engraved with “2” on one side.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Symptomatic treatment of urge incontinence and/or increased urinary frequency and urgency as may occur in patients with overactive bladder syndrome.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

The film-coated tablet should be swallowed whole with a sufficient amount of fluid.

Adults (including elderly):

The recommended dose is 2 mg twice daily. In case of troublesome side effects the dose may be reduced from 2 mg to 1 mg twice daily.

Reduced renal function and hepatic insufficiency:

The recommended dose for patients with impaired liver function or severely impaired renal function (GFR ≤30 ml/min) is 1 mg twice daily (see section 4.4 and 5.2).

The effect of treatment should be re-evaluated after 2–3 months (see section 5.1).

Paediatric patients:

Efficacy of Tolterodine tartrate has not been demonstrated in children (see section 5.1). Therefore, Tolterodine tartrate is not recommended for children.

4.3 Contraindications

Tolterodine tartrate is contraindicated in patients with

• known hypersensitivity to tolterodine tartrate or to any of the excipients

• urinary retention

• uncontrolled narrow angle glaucoma

• Myasthenia gravis

• severe ulcerative colitis

• toxic megacolon

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Tolterodine tartrate shall be used with caution in patients with

• significant bladder outlet obstruction at risk of urinary retention

• gastrointestinal obstructive disorders, e.g. pyloric stenosis

• renal impairment (see section 4.2 and 5.2)

• hepatic disease (see section 4.2 and 5.2)

• autonomic neuropathy

• Hiatus hernia

• risk of decreased gastrointestinal motility

Multiple oral total daily doses of immediate release 4 mg (therapeutic) and 8 mg (supratherapeutic) tolterodine have been shown to prolong the QTc interval (see section 5.1). The clinical relevance of these findings is unclear and will depend on individual patient risk factors and susceptibilities present.

Tolterodine tartrate should be used with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation including:

• congenital or documented acquired QT prolongation

• electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia

• bradycardia

• relevant pre-existing cardiac diseases (i.e. cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischaemia, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure)

• concomitant administration of drugs known to prolong QT interval including class IA (e.g. quinidine, procainamide) and class III (e.g. amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmics

This especially holds true when taking potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (see section 5.1).

Concomitant treatment with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided (see section 4.5, Interactions).

As with all treatment for symptoms of urgency and urge incontinence, organic reasons for urge and frequency should be considered before treatment.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Concomitant systemic medication with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g. erythromycin and clarithromycin), antifungol agents (e.g. ketoconazole and itraconazole) and HIV-protease inhibitors is not recommended due to increase serum concentrations of tolterodine in poor CYP2D6 metabolisers with (subsequent) risk of overdosage (see section 4.4).

Concomitant medication with other drugs that possess antimuscarinic properties may result in m ore pronounced therapeutic effect and side-effect. Conversely, the therapeutic effect of tolterodine may be reduced by concomitant administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonists.

The effect of prokinetics like metoclopramide and cisapride may be decreased by tolterodine.

Concomitant treatment with fluoxetine (a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor) does not result in a clinically significant interaction since tolterodine and its CYP2D6-dependent metabolite, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine are equipotent.

Drug interaction studies have shown no interactions with warfarin or combined oral contraceptives (ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel).

A clinical study has indicated that tolterodine is not a metabolic inhibitor of CYP2D6, 2C19, 2C9, 3A4 or 1A2. Therefore an increase of plasma levels of drugs metabolised by these isoenzymes is not expected when dosed in combination with tolterodine.

4.6 Pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy:

There are no adequate data from the use of tolterodine in pregnant women.

Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown

Consequently, Tolterodine tartrate is not recommended during pregnancy

Lactation:

No data concerning the excretion of tolterodine into human milk are available. Tolterodine tartrate should be avoided during lactation.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Since this drug may cause accommodation disturbances and influence reaction time, the ability to drive and use machines may be negatively affected.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Due to the pharmacological effect of tolterodine it may cause mild to moderate antimuscarinic effects, like dryness of the mouth, dyspepsia and dry eyes.

The table below reflects the data obtained with tolterodine in clinical trials and from postmarketing experience. The most commonly reported adverse reaction was dry mouth, which occurred in 35% of patients treated with tolterodine tablets and in 10% of placebo treated patients. Headaches were also reported very commonly and occurred in 10.1% of patients treated with tolterodine tablets and in 7.4% of placebo treated patients.

The adverse reactions considered at least possibly related to treatment are listed below by body system organ class and absolute frequency. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥1/10); common (>1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (>1/1000 to <1/100); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Infections and infestations

Common: Bronchitis.

Immune system disorders

Uncommon: Hypersensitivity not otherwise specified.

Not known: Anaphylactoid reactions.

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon: Nervousness.

Not known: Hallucinations,confusion, disorientation.

Nervous system disorders

Very common: Headaches.

Common: Dizziness, somnolence, paresthesia.

Uncommon: Memory impairment.

Eye disorders

Common: Dry eyes, abnormal vision, including abnormal accommodation.

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Common: Vertigo.

Cardiac disorders

Common: Palpitations

Uncommon: Tachycardia, cardiac failure, arrhythmia

Vascular disorders

Not known: Flushing.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common: Dry mouth.

Common: Dyspepsia, constipation, abdominal pain, flatulence, vomiting, diarrhoea.

Uncommon: Gastroesophageal reflux.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common: Dry skin.

Not known: Angioedema.

Renal and urinary disorders

Common: Dysuria, urinary retention.

General disorders

Common: Fatigue, chest pain, peripheral oedema.

Investigations

Common: Increased weight.

Cases of aggravation of symptoms of dementia (e.g. confusion, disorientation, delusion) have been reported after tolterodine therapy was initiated in patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of dementia.

Paediatric patients:

In two paediatric phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies conducted over 12 weeks where a total of 710 paediatric patients were recruited, the proportion of patients with urinary tract infections, diarrhoea and abnormal behaviour was higher in patients treated with tolterodine than placebo (urinary tract infection: tolterodine 6.8 %, placebo 3.6 %; diarrhoea: tolterodine 3.3 %, placebo 0.9 %; abnormal behaviour: tolterodine 1.6 %, placebo 0.4 %) (see section 5.1).

4.9 Overdose

The highest dose given to human volunteers of tolterodine tartrate is 12.8 mg as single dose. The most severe adverse events observed were accommodation disturbances and micturition difficulties.

In the event of tolterodine overdose, treat with gastric lavage and give activated charcoal.

Treat symptoms as follows:

• Severe central anticholinergic effects (e.g. hallucinations, severe excitation): treat with physostigmine.

• Convulsions or pronounced excitation: treat with benzodiazepines.

• Respiratory insufficiency: treat with artificial respiration.

• Tachycardia: treat with beta-blockers.

• Urinary retention: treat with catheterization.

• Mydriasis: treat with pilocarpine eye drops and/or place patient in dark room.

An increase in QT interval was observed at a total daily dose of 8 mg immediate release tolterodine (twice the recommended daily dose of the immediate release formulation and equivalent to three times the peak exposure of the prolonged release capsule formulation) administered over four days. In the event of tolterodine overdose, standard supportive measures for managing QT prolongation should be adopted.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Urinary antispasmodics

ATC code: G04B D07

Toterodine is a competitive, specific muscarinic receptor antagonist with a selectivity for the urinary bladder over salivary glands in vivo. One of the tolterodine metabolites (5-hydroxymethyl derivative) exhibits a pharmacological profile similar to that of the present compound. In extensive metabolisers this metabolite contributes significantly to the therapeutic effect (see 5.2).

Effect of the treatment can be expected within 4 weeks.

Effect of treatment with tolterodine 2 mg twice daily after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, compared to placebo (pooled data). Absolute change and percentage change relative to baseline:

Variable

4-week studies

12-week studies

Tolterodine2 mg

2 times daily

Placebo

Statistical significance vs. placebo

Tolterodine 2 mg

2 times daily

Placebo

Statistical significance vs. placebo

Number of micturitions per 24 hours

–1.6

(–14 %)

n=392

–0.9

(–8 %)

n=189

p≤0.05

–2.3

(–20 %)

n=354

–1.4

(–12 %)

n=176

p≤0.01

Number of incontinence episodes per 24 hours

–1.3

(–38 %)

n=288

–1.0

(–26 %)

n=151

not significant

–1.6

(–47 %)

n=299

–1.1

(–32 %)

n=145

p≤0.05

Mean volume voided per micturition (ml)

+25

(+17 %)

n=385

+12

(+8 %)

n=185

p≤0.001

+35

(+22 %)

n=354

+10

(+6 %)

n=176

P≤0.001

Number of patients with no or minimal bladder problems after treatment (%)

16 %

n=394

7 %

n=190

p≤0.01

19 %

n=356

15 %

n=177

not significant

The effect of tolterodine was evaluated in patients, examined with urodynamic assessment at baseline and, depending on the urodynamic result, they were allocated to a urodynamic positive (motor urgency) or a urodynamic negative (sensory urgency) group. Within each group, the patients were randomised to receive either tolterodine or placebo. The study could not provide convincing evidence that tolterodine had effects over placebo in patients with sensory urgency.

The clinical effects of tolterodine on QT interval were studied in ECGs obtained from over 600 treated patients, including the elderly and patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The changes in QT intervals did not significantly differ between placebo and treatment groups.

The effect of tolterodine on QT prolongation was investigated further in 48 healthy male and female volunteers aged 18–55 years. Subjects were administered 2 mg and 4 mg tolterodine twice daily as the immediate release formulations. The results (Fridericia corrected) at peak tolterodine concentration (1 hour) showed mean QTc interval increases of 5.0 and 11.8 msec for tolterodine doses of 2 mg twice daily and 4 mg twice daily, respectively and 19.3 msec for moxifloxacin (400 mg) which was used as an active internal control. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model estimated that QTc interval increase in poor metabolisers (devoid of CYP2D6) treated with tolterodine 2 mg twice daily are comparable to those observed in extensive metabolisers receiving 4 mg twice daily. At both doses of tolterodine, no subject, irrespective of their metabolic profile, exceeded 500 msec for absolute QTcF or 60 msec for change from baseline that are considered thresholds of particular concern.

Paediatric patients

Efficacy in the paediatric population has not been demonstrated. Two paediatric phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind 12 week studies were conducted using tolterodine extended release capsules. A total of 710 paediatric patients (486 on tolterodine and 224 on placebo) aged 5–10 years with urinary frequency and urge urinary incontinence were studied. No significant difference between the two groups was observed in either study with regard to change from baseline in total number of incontinence episodes/week (see section 4.8).

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Tolterodine is rapidly absorbed. Both tolterodine and the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite reach maximum serum concentrations 1–3 hours after dose. The half-life for tolterodine given as the tablet is 2–3 hours in extensive and about 10 hours in poor metabolisers (devoid of CYP2D6). Steady state concentrations are reached within 2 days after administration of the tablets.

Food does not influence the exposure to the unbound tolterodine and the active 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite in extensive metabolisers, although the tolterodine levels increase when taken with food. Clinically relevant changes are likewise not expected in poor metabolisers.

Absorption

After oral administration tolterodine is subject to CYP2D6 catalysed first-pass metabolism in the liver, resulting in the formation of the 5-hydroxymethyl derivative, a major pharmacologically equipotent metabolite.

The absolute bioavailability of tolterodine is 17 % in extensive metabolisers, the majority of the patients, and 65 % in poor matabolisers (devoid of CYP2D6).

Distribution

Tolterodine and the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite bind primarily to orosomucoid. The unbound fractions are 3.7 % and 36 %, respectively. The volume of distribution of tolterodine is 113 L.

Elimination

Tolterodine is extensively metabolised by the liver following oral dosing. The primary metabolic route is mediated by the polymorphic enzyme CYP2D6 and leads to the formation of the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite. Further metabolism leads to formation of the 5-carboxylic acid and N-dealkylated 5-carboxylic acid metabolites, which account for 51 % and 29 % of the metabolites recovered in the urine, respectively. A subset (about 7 %) of the population is devoid of CYP2D6 activity. The identified pathway of metabolism for these individuals (poor metabolisers) is dealkylation via CYP3A4 to N-dealkylated tolterodine, which does not contribute to the clinical effect. The remainder of the population is referred to as extensive metabolisers. The systemic clearance of tolterodine in extensive metabolisers is about 30 l/h. In poor metabolisers the reduced clearance leads to significant higher serum concentrations of tolterodine (about 7-fold) and negligible concentrations of the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite are observed.

The 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite is pharmacologically active and equipotent with tolterodine. Because of the differences in the protein-binding characteristics of tolterodine and the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite, the exposure (AUC) of unbound tolterodine in poor metabolisers is similar to the combined exposure of unbound tolterodine and the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite in patients with CYP2D6 activity given the same dosage regimen. The safety, tolerability and clinical response are similar irrespective of phenotype.

The excretion of radioactivity after administration of [14C]-tolterodine is about 77 % in urine and 17 % in faeces. Less than 1 % of the dose is recovered as unchanged drug, and about 4 % as the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite. The carboxylated metabolite and the corresponding dealkylated metabolite account for about 51 % and 29 % of the urinary recovery, respectively.

The pharmacokinetics is linear in the therapeutic dosage range.

Impaired liver function

About 2-fold higher exposure of unbound tolterodine and the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite is found in subjects with liver cirrhosis (see section 4.2 and 4.4)

Impaired renal function

The mean exposure of unbound tolterodine and its 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite is doubled in patients with severe renal impairment (inulin clearance GFR ≤30 ml/min). The plasma levels of other metabolites were markedly (up to 12-fold) increased in these patients. The clinical relevance of the increased exposure of these metabolites is unknown. There is no data in mild to moderate renal impairment (see section 4.2 and 4.4).

Paediatric patients

The exposure of the active moiety per mg dose is similar in adults and adolescents. The mean exposure of the active moiety per mg dose is approximately 2-fold higher in children between 5–10 years than in adults (see section 4.2 and 5.1).

5.3 Preclinical safety data

In toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and safety pharmacology studies no clinically relevant effects have been observed, except those related to the pharmacological effect of the drug.

Reproduction studies have been performed in mice and rabbits.

In mice, there was no effect of tolterodine on fertility or reproductive function. Tolterodine produced embryo death and malformations at plasma exposures (Cmax or AUC) 20 or 7 times higher than those seen in treated humans.

In rabbits, no malformative effect was seen, but the studies were conducted at 20 or 3 times higher plasma exposure (Cmax or AUC) than those expected in treated humans.

Tolterodine, as well as its active human metabolites prolong action potential duration (90 % repolarisation) in canine purkinje fibres (14–75 times therapeutic level) and block the K+-current in cloned human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels (0.5–26.1 times therapeutic levels). In dogs prolongation of the QT interval has been observed after application of tolterodine and its human metabolites (3.1–61.0 times therapeutic levels). The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Tablet core:

Calcium hydrogen phosphate, anhydrous

Cellulose, microcrystalline

Sodium starch glycolate (Type A)

Silica, colloidal anhydrous

Magnesium stearate

Film coating:

Hypromellose

Titanium dioxide E171

Cellulose, microcrystalline

Stearic acid

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable

6.3 Shelf life

30 months

6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Tablets are packed in either blister package made of Al/PVC and Al/PVC/PVDC or plastic containers and closures made of HDPE.

Pack sizes:

Tolterodine tartrate 2 mg tablets are available in blisters of 7, 14, 28, 30, 50, 56, 60, 84, 98 and 100 film-coated tablets and in bottles of 60 and 500 film-coated tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Sandoz Ltd

Frimley Business Park,

Frimley,

Camberley,

Surrey,

GU16 7SR.

United Kingdom

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 04416/0860

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation: 10 March 2009

Date of latest renewal: 22 June 2011

10. Date of revision of the text

21/12/2018