- human albumin
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Human Albumin Grifols 50 g/l, solution for infusion.
Human Albumin Grifols 50 g/l is a solution containing 50 g/l of total protein of which at least 95% is human albumin.
A vial of 100 ml contains 5 g of human albumin.
A vial of 250 ml contains 12.5 g of human albumin.
A vial of 500 ml contains 25 g of human albumin.
Human Albumin Grifols 50 g/l is mildly hypooncotic to normal plasma.
The solution contains between 130 - 160 mmol/l of sodium and not more than 2 mmol/l of potassium.
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
Solution for infusion.
A clear, slightly viscous liquid; it is almost colourless, yellow, amber or green.
Restoration and maintenance of circulating blood volume where volume deficiency has been demonstrated, and use of a colloid is appropriate.
The choice of albumin rather than artificial colloid will depend on the clinical situation of the individual patient, based on official recommendations.
The concentration of the albumin preparation, dosage and the infusion-rate should be adjusted to the patient's individual requirements.
The dose required depends on the size of the patient, the severity of trauma or illness and on continuing fluid and protein losses. Measures of adequacy of circulating volume and not plasma albumin levels should be used to determine the dose required.
If human albumin is to be administered, haemodynamic performance should be monitored regularly; this may include:
- arterial blood pressure and pulse rate
- central venous pressure
- pulmonary artery wedge pressure
- urine output
Method of administration
Human albumin can be directly administered by the intravenous route.
The infusion rate should be adjusted according to the individual circumstances and the indication.
In plasma exchange the infusion-rate should be adjusted to the rate of removal.
For further details, see section 6.6.
Hypersensitivity to albumin preparations or to any of the excipients.
See special warnings about excipients, section 4.4.
Suspicion of allergic or anaphylactic type reactions requires immediate discontinuation of the injection. In case of shock, standard medical treatment for shock should be implemented.
Albumin should be used with caution in conditions where hypervolaemia and its consequences or haemodilution could represent a special risk for the patient. Examples of such conditions are:
- Decompensated cardiac insufficiency
- Oesophageal varices
- Pulmonary oedema
- Haemorrhagic diathesis
- Severe anaemia
- Renal and post-renal anuria
When albumin is given, the electrolyte status of the patient should be monitored (see section 4.2) and appropriate steps taken to restore or maintain the electrolyte balance.
If comparatively large volumes are to be replaced, controls of coagulation and haematocrit are necessary. Care must be taken to ensure adequate substitution of other blood constituents (coagulation factors, electrolytes, platelets and erythrocytes).
Hypervolaemia may occur if the dosage and rate of infusion are not adjusted to the patients circulatory situation. At the first clinical signs of cardiovascular overload (headache, dyspnoea, jugular vein congestion), or increased blood pressure, raised venous pressure and pulmonary oedema, the infusion is to be stopped immediately.
Standard measures to prevent infections resulting from the use of medicinal products prepared from human blood or plasma include selection of donors, screening of individual donations and plasma pools for specific markers of infection and the inclusion of effective manufacturing steps for the inactivation/removal of viruses. Despite this, when medicinal products prepared from human blood or plasma are administered, the possibility of transmitting infective agents cannot be totally excluded. This also applies to unknown or emerging viruses and other pathogens.
There are no reports of virus transmissions with albumin manufactured to European Pharmacopoeia specifications by established processes.
It is strongly recommended that every time that Human Albumin Grifols 50 g/l is administered to a patient, the name and batch number of the product are recorded in order to maintain a link between the patient and the batch of the product.
Special warning about excipients:
This medicinal product contains 14.5 mmol (333.5 mg) sodium per vial of 100 ml, 36.3 mmol (833.8 mg) sodium per vial of 250 ml and 72.5 mmol (1667.5 mg) sodium per vial of 500 ml. To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
This medicinal product contains potassium, less than 1 mmol (39 mg) per vial.
No specific interactions of human albumin with other medicinal products are known.
The safety of Human Albumin Grifols 50 g/l for use in human pregnancy has not been established in controlled clinical trials. However, clinical experience with albumin suggests that no harmful effects on the course of pregnancy, or on the foetus and the neonate are to be expected.
No animal reproduction studies have been conducted with Human Albumin Grifols 50 g/l.
Experimental animal studies are insufficient to assess the safety with respect to reproduction, development of the embryo or foetus, the course of gestation and peri- and postnatal development.
However, human albumin is a normal constituent of human blood.
No effects on ability to drive and use machines have been observed.
Mild reactions such as flush, urticaria, fever, and nausea occur rarely. These reactions normally disappear rapidly when the infusion rate is slowed down or the infusion is stopped. Very rarely, severe reactions such as shock may occur. In these cases, the infusion should be stopped and an appropriate treatment should be initiated.
For safety with respect to transmissible agents, see 4.4.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme, Website: https://yellowcard.mhra.gov.uk.
Hypervolaemia may occur if the dosage and rate of infusion are too high. At the first clinical signs of cardiovascular overload (headache, dyspnoea, jugular vein congestion), or increased blood pressure, raised central venous pressure and pulmonary oedema, the infusion should be stopped immediately and the patient's haemodynamic parameters carefully monitored.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: plasma substitutes and plasma protein fractions, ATC code: B05AA01.
Human albumin accounts quantitatively for more than half of the total protein in the plasma and represents about 10% of the protein synthesis activity of the liver.
Physico-chemical data: Human albumin Grifols 50 g/l is mildly hypooncotic to normal plasma.
The most important physiological function of albumin results from its contribution to oncotic pressure of the blood and transport function. Albumin stabilises circulating blood volume and is a carrier of hormones, enzymes, medicinal products and toxins.
Under normal conditions, the total exchangeable albumin pool is 4-5 g/kg body weight, of which 40-45% is present intravascularly and 55-60% in the extravascular space. Increased capillary permeability will alter albumin kinetics and abnormal distribution may occur in conditions such as severe burns or septic shock.
Under normal conditions, the average half-life of albumin is about 19 days. The balance between synthesis and breakdown is normally achieved by feedback regulation. Elimination is predominantly intracellular and due to lysosome proteases.
In healthy subjects, less than 10% of infused albumin leaves the intravascular compartment during the first 2 hours following infusion. There is considerable individual variation in the effect on plasma volume. In some patients the plasma volume can remain increased for some hours. However, in critically ill patients, albumin can leak out of the vascular space in substantial amounts at an unpredictable rate.
Human albumin is a normal constituent of human plasma and acts like physiological albumin.
In animals, single dose toxicity testing is of little relevance and does not permit the evaluation of toxic or lethal doses or of a dose-effect relationship. Repeated dose toxicity testing is impracticable due to the development of antibodies to heterologous protein in animal models.
To date, human albumin has not been reported to be associated with embryo-foetal toxicity, oncogenic or mutagenic potential.
No signs of acute toxicity have been described in animal models.
Each ml contains:
Sodium chloride (q.s. sodium ion)
Water for injections
Human albumin must not be mixed with other medicinal products (except those mentioned in section 6.6), whole blood and packed red cells.
Do not store above 25 °C. Do not freeze.
Keep the vial in the outer carton in order to protect from light.
Human Albumin Grifols 50 g/l is supplied in type II glass bottles containing 100 ml, 250 ml or 500 ml of human albumin.
The solution can be directly administered by the intravenous route.
Albumin solutions must not be diluted with water for injections as this may cause haemolysis in recipients.
If large volumes are administered, the product should be warmed to room or body temperature before use.
The solution should be clear or slightly opalescent. Do not use solutions which are cloudy or have deposits. This may indicate that the protein is unstable or that the solution has become contaminated.
Once the container has been opened, the contents should be used immediately.
Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Instituto Grifols, S.A.
Can Guasch, 2 - Parets del Vallès
08150 Barcelona – SPAIN
Date of first authorisation: 6 January 2000
Date of renewal: 10 June 2005
30 April 2016