- sevelamer hydrochloride
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Starting doseThe recommended starting dose of sevelamer hydrochloride is 2.4 g or 4.8 g per day based on clinical needs and serum phosphorus level. Renagel must be taken three times per day with meals.
|Serum phosphate level in patients not on phosphate binders||Starting dose of Renagel 800 mg tablets|
|1.76 2.42 mmol/L (5.5-7.5 mg/dl)||1 tablet, 3 times per day|
|> 2.42 mmol/L (>7.5 mg/dl)||2 tablets, 3 times per day|
Titration and maintenanceSerum phosphate levels should be closely monitored and the dose of sevelamer hydrochloride titrated by 0.8 g three times per day (2.4 g/day) increments with the goal of lowering serum phosphate to 1.76 mmol/L (5.5 mg/dl) or less. Serum phosphate should be tested every two to three weeks until a stable serum phosphate level is reached and on a regular basis thereafter.The dose range may vary between 1 and 5 tablets of 800 mg per meal. The average actual daily dose used in the chronic phase of a one year clinical study was 7 grams of sevelamer.
Paediatric populationThe safety and efficacy of this product have not been established in patients below the age of 18 years.
Renal impairmentThe safety and efficacy of this product have not been established in predialysis patients.
Method of administrationFor oral usePatients should take Renagel with meals and adhere to their prescribed diets. The tablets must be swallowed whole. Do not crush, chew or break into pieces prior to administration.
Intestinal obstruction and ileus/subileusIn very rare cases, intestinal obstruction and ileus/subileus have been observed in patients during treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride. Constipation may be a preceding symptom. Patients who are constipated should be monitored carefully while being treated with sevelamer hydrochloride. Renagel treatment should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe constipation or other severe gastrointestinal symptoms.
Fat-soluble vitaminsDepending on diet intake and the nature of end stage renal failure, dialysis patients may develop low vitamin A, D, E and K levels. It cannot be excluded that Renagel can bind fat-soluble vitamins contained in ingested food. Therefore, in patients not taking these vitamins, monitoring vitamin A, D and E levels and assessing vitamin K status through the measurement of thromboplastin time should be considered and the vitamins should be supplemented if necessary. Additional monitoring of vitamins and folic acid is recommended in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, since in the clinical study, vitamin A, D, E and K levels were not measured in these patients.
Folate deficiencyThere is at present insufficient data to exclude the possibility of folate deficiency during long term Renagel treatment.
Hypocalcaemia/hypercalcaemiaPatients with renal insufficiency may develop hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia. Renagel does not contain calcium. Serum calcium levels should be monitored as is done in normal follow-up of a dialysis patient. Elemental calcium should be given as a supplement in case of hypocalcaemia.
Metabolic acidosisPatients with chronic renal failure are predisposed to developing metabolic acidosis. Worsening of acidosis has been reported upon switching from other phosphate binders to sevelamer in a number of studies where lower bicarbonate levels in the sevelamer-treated patients compared to patients treated with calcium-based binders were observed. Closer monitoring of serum bicarbonate levels is therefore recommended.
PeritonitisPatients receiving dialysis are subject to certain risks for infection specific to the dialysis modality. Peritonitis is a known complication in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and in a clinical study with Renagel, a number of peritonitis cases were reported. Therefore, patients on PD should be closely monitored to ensure the reliable use of appropriate aseptic technique with the prompt recognition and management of any signs and symptoms associated with peritonitis.
Swallowing and choking difficultiesUncommon reports of difficulty swallowing the Renagel tablet have been reported. Many of these cases involved patients with co-morbid conditions including swallowing disorders or oesophageal abnormalities. Caution should be exercised when Renagel is used in patients with difficulty swallowing.
HypothyroidismCloser monitoring of patients with hypothyroidism co-administered with sevelamer hydrochloride and levothyroxine is recommended (see section 4.5).
Long term chronic treatmentAs data on the chronic use of sevelamer for over one year are not yet available, potential absorption and accumulation of sevelamer during long-term chronic treatment cannot be totally excluded (see section 5.2).
HyperparathyroidismRenagel alone is not indicated for the control of hyperparathyroidism. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism Renagel should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium supplements, 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to lower the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels.
Serum chlorideSerum chloride may increase during Renagel treatment as chloride may be exchanged for phosphorus in the intestinal lumen. Although no clinically significant serum chloride increase has been observed in the clinical studies, serum chloride should be monitored as is done in the routine follow-up of a dialysis patient. One gram of Renagel contains approximately 180 mg (5.1 mEq) chloride.
Inflammatory Gastrointestinal DisordersCases of serious inflammatory disorders of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (including serious complications such as bleeding, perforation, ulceration, necrosis, colitis, ...) associated with the presence of sevelamer crystals have been reported in literature. However, the causality of the sevelamer crystals in initiating such disorders has not been demonstrated. Sevelamer hydrochloride treatment should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe gastrointestinal symptoms.
DialysisInteraction studies have not been conducted in patients on dialysis.
CiprofloxacinIn interaction studies in healthy volunteers, sevelamer hydrochloride decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by approximately 50% when co-administered with Renagel in a single dose study. Consequently, Renagel should not be taken simultaneously with ciprofloxacin.
Anti-arrhythmics and anti-seizure medicinal productsPatients taking anti-arrhythmic medicinal products for the control of arrhythmias and anti-seizure medicinal products for the control of seizure disorders were excluded from clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when prescribing sevelamer hydrochloride to patients also taking these medicinal products.
LevothyroxineDuring post marketing experience, very rare cases of increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels have been reported in patients co-administered sevelamer hydrochloride and levothyroxine. Closer monitoring of TSH levels is therefore recommended in patients receiving both medicinal products.
Ciclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus in transplant patientsReduced levels of ciclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus have been reported in transplant patients when coadministered with sevelamer hydrochloride without any clinical consequences (i.e graft rejection). The possibility of an interaction cannot be excluded and a close monitoring of blood concentrations of mycophenolate mofetil, ciclosporin and tacrolimus should be considered during the use of combination and after its withdrawal.
Digoxin, warfarin, enalapril or metoprololIn interaction studies in healthy volunteers, Renagel had no effect on the bioavailability of digoxin, warfarin, enalapril or metoprolol.
Proton pump inhibitorsDuring post-marketing experience, very rare cases of increased phosphate levels have been reported in patients taking proton pump inhibitors co-administered with sevelamer hydrochloride.
BioavailabilityRenagel is not absorbed and may affect the bioavailability of other medicinal products. When administering any medicinal product where a reduction in the bioavailability could have a clinically significant effect on safety or efficacy, the medicinal product should be administered at least one hour before or three hours after Renagel, or the physician should consider monitoring blood levels.
PregnancyThe safety of sevelamer hydrochloride has not been established in pregnant women. In animal studies there was no evidence that sevelamer induced embryo-foetal toxicity. Renagel should only be given to pregnant women if clearly needed and after a careful risk/benefit analysis has been conducted for both the mother and the foetus (see section 5.3).
Breast-feedingThe safety of sevelamer hydrochloride has not been established in breast-feeding women. Renagel should only be given to breast-feeding women if clearly needed and after a careful risk/benefit analysis has been conducted for both the mother and the infant (see section 5.3).
FertilityThere are no data from the effect of sevelamer on fertility in humans. Studies in animals have shown that sevelamer did not impair fertility in male or female rats at exposures at a human equivalent dose 2 times the maximum clinical trial dose of 13 g/day, based on a comparison of relative body surface area.
Summary of the safety profileThe most frequently occurring (≥5% of patients) adverse reactions were all in the gastrointestinal disorders system organ class.
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsIn parallel design studies involving 244 haemodialysis patients with treatment duration of up to 54 weeks and 97 peritoneal dialysis patients with treatment duration of 12 weeks were conducted.Adverse reactions from these studies (299 patients), from uncontrolled clinical trials (384 patients), and that were spontaneously reported from post-marketing experience are listed by frequency in the table below. The reporting rate is classified as very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated form the available data).
|MedDRA System Organ Class||Very Common||Common||Uncommon||Very Rare||Not known|
|Immune system disorders||Hypersensitivity*|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders||Acidosis, increased serum chloride levels|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||Nausea, vomiting||Diarrhoea, dyspepsia, flatulence, upper abdominal pain, constipation||Abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, ileus/subileus, diverticulitis, intestinal perforation|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||Pruritus, rash|
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
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