- glucose monohydrate
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Glucose Intravenous Infusion BP 20% w/v.
For the full list of excipients, see Section 6.1.
The product is a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution for intravenous infusion to humans.
Glucose 20% w/v has an osmolarity of 1110 mOsmol/L.
Glucose Intravenous Infusion BP 20% w/v provides temporary relief from the symptoms of increased intracranial pressure and hypoglycaemic coma and is indicated for the supplementation of energy in parenteral nutrition.
The dosage and rate of administration of Glucose 20% w/v are determined by several factors including the indication for use and the patient's age, weight and clinical condition.
Method of administration
Glucose 20% w/v is for administration by intravenous infusion following appropriate dilution or incorporation in to a parenteral nutrition admixture. If undiluted it is intended for infusion through a central venous catheter.
Administration of hyperosmolar solutions may cause venous irritation and phlebitis.
The osmolarity of a final admixed infusion solution must be taken into account when peripheral administration is considered.
The infusion rate and volume depends on the age, weight, clinical and metabolic conditions of the patient, as well as concomitant therapy.
A gradual increase of flow rate should be considered when starting administration of glucose-containing products.
To reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia after discontinuation, a gradual decrease in flow rate before stopping the infusion should be considered.
Electrolyte supplementation may be indicated according to the clinical needs of the patient.
As indicated on an individual basis, vitamins and trace elements and other components (including amino acids and lipids) can be added to the parenteral regimen to meet nutrient needs and prevent deficiencies and complications from developing.
Dilute Glucose 20% w/v before use to a concentration which will, when administered with an amino acid (nitrogen) source, result in an appropriate calorie to gram of nitrogen ratio and which has an osmolarity consistent with the route of administration.
When Glucose Intravenous Infusion BP 20% w/v is used in conjunction with amino acids, the rate of administration of glucose should not exceed 1g/kg/hour for optimal protein anabolism.
Use in Paediatric Patients
The infusion rate and volume depends on the age, weight, clinical and metabolic conditions of the patient, concomitant therapy and should be determined by the consulting physician experienced in paediatric intravenous fluid therapy (see section 4.4).
Contra-indicated in patients with:
• Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1. See sections 4.4 and 4.8 for corn allergies
• Clinically significant hyperglycaemia
The solution should not be infused into peripheral veins.
Prolonged intravenous infusion of this solution may cause thrombophlebitis extending from the site of infusion.
Dilution and other effects on serum electrolytes
Depending on the volume and rate of infusion and depending on a patient's underlying clinical condition and capability to metabolize glucose, intravenous administration of glucose can cause:
• Hyperosmolality, osmotic diuresis and dehydration
• Electrolyte disturbances such as:
- hyponatraemia (see below),
- overhydration/hypervolemia and, for example, congested states, including pulmonary congestion and oedema.
The above effects do not only result from the administration of electrolyte-free fluid but also from glucose administration.
Hyponatraemia can develop into acute hyponatraemic encephalopathy characterized by headache, nausea, seizures, lethargy, coma, cerebral oedema, and death.
Children, the elderly, women, postoperative patients, patients with hypoxia and patients with central nervous system disease or psychogenic polydipsia are at particular risk for this complication.
Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations may be necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient or the rate of administration warrants such evaluation.
Particular caution is advised in patients at increased risk of water and electrolyte disturbances that could be aggravated by increased free water load, hyperglycaemia or possibly required insulin administration (see below).
As with the intravenous administration of nutrients (e.g., glucose, amino acids and lipids) in general, metabolic complications may occur if the nutrient intake is not adapted to the patient's requirements, or the metabolic capacity of any given dietary component is not accurately assessed. Adverse metabolic effects may arise from administration of inadequate or excessive nutrients or from inappropriate composition of an admixture for a particular patient's needs.
Rapid administration of glucose solutions may produce substantial hyperglycaemia and a hyperosmolar syndrome.
To reduce the risk of hyperglycaemia-associated complications, the infusion rate must be adjusted and/or insulin administered.
Intravenous glucose should be administered with caution in patients with, for example:
- impaired glucose tolerance (such as in patients with renal failure or diabetes mellitus, or in the presence of sepsis, trauma, or shock),
- severe malnutrition (risk of precipitating a refeeding syndrome),
- thiamine deficiency, e.g., in patients with chronic alcoholism (risk of severe lactic acidosis due to impaired oxidative metabolisation of pyruvate),
- water and electrolyte disturbances that could be aggravated by increased glucose and/or free water load (see above).
- patients with ischemic stroke or severe traumatic brain injury.
- avoid infusion within the first 24 hours following head trauma. Monitor blood glucose closely as early hyperglycaemia has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
- newborns (see below).
Effects on Insulin Secretion
Prolonged intravenous administration of glucose and associated hyperglycaemia may result in decreased rates of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
Hypersensitivity/infusion reactions, including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, have been reported (see section 4.8).
Solutions containing glucose should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with known allergy to corn or corn products.
The infusion must be stopped immediately if any signs or symptoms of a suspected hypersensitivity reaction develop. Appropriate therapeutic countermeasures must be instituted as clinically indicated.
Solutions containing glucose should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with known allergy to corn or corn products.
Refeeding severely undernourished patients may result in the refeeding syndrome that is characterized by the shift of potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium intracellularly as the patient becomes anabolic. Thiamine deficiency and fluid retention may also develop. Careful monitoring and slowly increasing nutrient intakes while avoiding overfeeding can prevent these complications.
Hepatobiliary disorders including cholestasis, hepatic steatosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis, possibly leading to hepatic failure, as well as cholecystitis and cholelithiasis are known to develop in some patients on parenteral nutrition. The etiology of these disorders is thought to be multifactorial and may differ between patients. Patients developing abnormal laboratory parameters or other signs of hepatobiliary disorders should be assessed early by a clinician knowledgeable in liver diseases in order to identify possible causative and contributory factors, and possible therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.
Catheter infection and sepsis
Infection and sepsis may occur as a result of the use of intravenous catheters to administer parenteral formulations, poor maintenance of catheters or contaminated solutions.
Immunosuppression and other factors such as hyperglycaemia, malnutrition and/or their underlying disease state may predispose patients to infectious complications.
Careful symptomatic and laboratory monitoring for fever/chills, leukocytosis, technical complications with the access device, and hyperglycaemia can help recognize early infections.
The occurrence of septic complications can be decreased with heightened emphasis on aseptic technique in catheter placement, maintenance, as well as aseptic technique in nutritional formula preparation.
Pulmonary vascular precipitates have been reported in patients receiving parenteral nutrition. In some cases, fatal outcomes have occurred. Excessive addition of calcium and phosphate increases the risk of the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates. Precipitates have been reported even in the absence of phosphate salt in the solution.
In addition to inspection of the solution, the infusion set and catheter should also periodically be checked for precipitates.
If signs of pulmonary distress occur, the infusion should be stopped and medical evaluation initiated.
This solution in two or three litre presentations are bulk source containers for pharmacy use and should not be used for direct intravenous infusion.
The infusion rate and volume depends on the age, weight, clinical and metabolic conditions of the patient, concomitant therapy, and should be determined by a consulting physician experienced in paediatric intravenous fluid therapy.
In order to avoid potentially fatal over infusion of intravenous fluids to the neonate, special attention needs to be paid to the method of administration. When using a syringe pump to administer intravenous fluids or medicines to neonates, a bag of fluid should not be left connected to the syringe.
When using an infusion pump all clamps on the intravenous administration set must be closed before removing the administration set from the pump, or switching the pump off. This is required regardless of whether the administration set has an anti-free flow device.
The intravenous infusion device and administration equipment must be frequently monitored.
Paediatric glycaemia related issues
Newborns – especially those born premature and with low birth weight - are at increased risk of developing hypo- or hyperglycaemia and therefore need close monitoring during treatment with intravenous glucose solutions to ensure adequate glycaemic control in order to avoid potential long term adverse effects.
Hypoglycaemia in the newborn can cause prolonged seizures, coma and brain damage. Hyperglycaemia has been associated with intraventricular haemorrhage, late onset bacterial and fungal infection, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitits, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, prolonged length of hospital stay, and death.
Paediatric hyponatraemia-related issues
Children (including neonates and older children) are at increased risk of developing hypoosmotic hyponatraemia as well as for developing hyponatraemic encephalopathy.
Plasma electrolyte concentrations should be closely monitored in the paediatric population.
Rapid correction of hypoosmotic hyponatraemia is potentially dangerous (risk of serious neurologic complications). Dosage, rate, and duration of administration should be determined by a physician experienced in paediatric intravenous fluid therapy.
When selecting the type of infusion solution and the volume/rate of infusion for a geriatric patient, consider that geriatric patients are generally more likely to have cardiac, renal, hepatic impairment, and other diseases or concomitant drug therapy.
Glucose solution (an aqueous, i.e., electrolyte-free glucose solution) should not be administered through the same equipment as whole blood, as haemolysis and pseudoagglutination can occur.
Both the glycaemic effects of intravenous glucose and its effects on water and electrolyte balance should be taken into account when using intravenous glucose in patients treated with other substances that affect glycaemic control, or fluid and/or electrolyte balance.
Intrapartum maternal intravenous glucose infusion may result in foetal insulin production, with an associated risk of foetal hyperglycaemia and metabolic acidosis as well as rebound hypoglycaemia in the neonate.
Glucose solution can be used during pregnancy. However, caution should be exercised when glucose solution is used intrapartum.
There are no adequate data of the effect of Glucose on fertility.
There are no adequate data of using Glucose solution during lactation. Glucose solutions have been used during lactation.
There is no information on the effects of intravenous glucose on the ability to operate a vehicle or other heavy machinery.
The following adverse reactions have been reported in the post-marketing experience, listed by MedDRA System Organ Class (SOC), then, where feasible, by Preferred Term in order of severity.
System Organ Class
Adverse reaction (MedDRA term)
Immune system disorders
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
General disorders and administration site conditions
Infection at site of injection
Infusion site reactions including,
• Infusion site phlebitis
• Infusion site erythema
* Cannot be estimated from the available data** Potential manifestation in patients with allergy to corn, see section 4.4.
Other adverse reactions reported with glucose injection/infusions include:
• Hyponatraemia, which may be symptomatic
• Infusion site thrombophlebitis (associated with hyperosmolar solutions)
• Adverse reactions reported when glucose is used with parenteral nutrition:
˗ Hepatic failure, Hepatic cirrhosis, Hepatic fibrosis, Cholestasis, Hepatic steatosis, Blood bilirubin increased, Hepatic enzyme increased, Cholecystitis, Cholelithiasis
˗ Pulmonary vascular precipitates
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme.Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
Prolonged administration or rapid infusion of large volumes of the product may cause hyperosmolarity and hyponatraemia, dehydration, hyperglycaemia, hyperglucosuria, osmotic diuresis (due to hyperglycaemia) and water intoxication and oedema. Severe hyperglycaemia and hyponatraemia may be fatal (see sections 4.4 and 4.8).
In case of suspected overdose, treatment must be stopped immediately. Management of overdose is symptomatic and supportive, with appropriate monitoring.'
Hydrochloric AcidWater for Injections
The solution should not be used in conjunction with additives incompatible with glucose, see section 6.6..
Unopened: 18 months
It is recommended that the product is used immediately after removal from the overpouch. From a microbiological point of view, any admixture should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2 to 8°C. Preparation of the admixture should take place under controlled and validated aseptic conditions.
Do not store above 25°C.
For further information, see section 6.3.
The product is a clear, colourless solution in a plastic Viaflex® container. The plastic is a PVC designated PL-146. The containers are sealed in a plastic overpouch.
The container is sealed with a closure made either from PL-146 or from blue-coloured plasticised PVC designated PL-141.
The solutions are supplied in 500ml, 1000ml, 2000ml and 3000ml fill volumes.
Addition to parenteral nutrition admixtures must take place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.
The product should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration after admixing and prior to administration. Do not administer unless the solution is clear and the seal is intact.
Check compatibility with other admixture components before use.
Additives known or determined to be incompatible with glucose as a diluent should not be used. The instructions for use of the medication to be added, including information on storage, must be consulted.
Before adding a substance or medication, verify that it is soluble and/or stable in water and that the pH range of the glucose solution is appropriate.
Mix the solution thoroughly when additives have been introduced.
Use of an in-line filter is recommended during administration of all parenteral solutions where possible.
Single use only.
Do not store partially used bags.
Discard any unused portion, waste materials and all associated devices.
Risk of Air Embolism
Do not use plastic containers in series connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from the primary container before the administration of the fluid from the secondary container is completed.
Pressurizing intravenous solutions contained in flexible plastic containers to increase flow rates can result in air embolism if the residual air in the container is not fully evacuated prior to administration.
Use of a vented intravenous administration set with the vent in the open position could result in air embolism. Vented intravenous administration sets with the vent in the open position should not be used with flexible plastic containers.
Baxter Healthcare Ltd.,Caxton Way,Thetford,Norfolk,IP24 3SE
Date of First Authorisation: 1st December 1997Renewal of Authorisation: 26 January 2007