- cyclophosphamide monohydrate
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
PosologyDosage must be individualized. Doses and duration of treatment and/or treatment intervals depend on the therapeutic indication, the scheme of a combination therapy, the patient's general state of health and organ function, and the results of laboratory monitoring (in particular, blood cell monitoring).A guide to the dosage regimens used for most indications is given below.This treatment should be continued until a clear remission or improvement is seen or be interrupted when the extent of leucopenia becomes unacceptable.
|Conventional:||80-300 mg/m2 daily as a single i.v. dose or daily divided oral doses. 300-600 mg/m2 as a single i.v. dose weekly.|
|High dose:||600 - 1500 mg/m2 as a single i.v. dose or short infusion given at 10-20 day intervals.|
Patients with Hepatic ImpairmentSevere hepatic impairment may be associated with decreased activation of cyclophosphamide. This may alter the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide treatment and should be considered when selecting the dose and interpreting response to the dose selected.
Patients with Renal ImpairmentIn patients with renal impairment, particularly in patients with severe renal impairment, decreased renal excretion may result in increased plasma levels of cyclophosphamide and its metabolites. This may result in increased toxicity and should be considered when determining the dosage in such patients.Cyclophosphamide and its metabolites are dialyzable, although there may be differences in clearance depending upon the dialysis system being used. In patients requiring dialysis, use of a consistent interval between cyclophosphamide administration and dialysis should be considered. See Section 4.4.
ElderlyIn elderly patients, monitoring for toxicities and the need for dose adjustment should reflect the higher frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, cardiac, or other organ function, and concomitant diseases or other drug therapy in this population.
ChildrenNo specific information. Children have received Cyclophosphamide. No adverse reactions specific to this group have been reported.
Method of AdministrationCyclophosphamide is inert until activated by enzymes in the liver. However, as with all cytotoxics, it is suggested that reconstitution should be performed by trained personnel, in a designated area.Those handling the preparation should wear protective gloves. Care should be taken to avoid splashing material into the eyes. The material should not be handled by women who are pregnant or who are breast-feeding.
Intravenous administrationIntravenous administration preferably should be conducted as an infusion, usually given directly into the tubing of a fast running i.v. infusion with the patient supine. Care should be taken that extravasation does not take place, however, should it occur, no specific measures need be taken.Duration of the infusion also should be appropriate for the volume and type of carrier fluid to be infused. If injected directly, cyclophosphamide for parenteral administration should be reconstituted with physiological saline (0.9% sodium chloride), see section 6.6. The pH of an aqueous solution is between 4 and 6. Cyclophosphamide, reconstituted in water, is hypotonic and should not be injected directly. For infusion, cyclophosphamide should be reconstituted by adding sterile water and infused in the recommended intravenous solutions.Before parenteral administration, the substance must be completely dissolved.Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Oral administrationFor oral use, an elixir may be prepared by dissolving the dry powder in Aromatic Elixir USP.
Anaphylactic Reactions, Cross-sensitivity with Other Alkylating AgentsAnaphylactic reactions including those with fatal outcomes have been reported in association with cyclophosphamide.Possible cross-sensitivity with other alkylating agents has been reported.
Myelosuppression, Immunosuppression, InfectionsTreatment with cyclophosphamide may cause myelosuppression and significant suppression of immune responses.Cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression can cause leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia (associated with a higher risk of bleeding events), and anaemia.Severe immunosuppression has lead to serious, sometimes fatal, infections. Sepsis and septic shock have also been reported. Infections reported with cyclophosphamide include pneumonias, as well as other bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal, and parasitic infections.Latent infections can be reactivated. Reactivation has been reported for various bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal, and parasitic infections.Infections must be treated appropriately.Antimicrobial prophylaxis may be indicated in certain cases of neutropenia at the discretion of the managing physician.In case of neutropenic fever, antibiotics and/or antimycotics must be given.Cyclophosphamide should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with severe impairment of bone marrow function and in patients with severe immunosuppression.Unless essential, cyclophosphamide should not be administered to patients with a leukocyte count below 2500 cells/microlitre (cells/ mm3 and/or a platelet count below 50,000 cells/microlitre (cells/mm3).Cyclophosphamide treatment may not be indicated, or should be interrupted, or the dose reduced, in patients who have or who develop a serious infection.In principle, the fall in the peripheral blood cell and thrombocyte count and the time taken to recover may increase with increasing doses of cyclophosphamide.The nadirs of the reduction in leukocyte count and thrombocyte count are usually reached in weeks 1 and 2 of treatment. The bone marrow recovers relatively quickly, and the levels of peripheral blood cell counts normalize, as a rule, after approximately 20 days.Severe myelosuppression must be expected particularly in patients pretreated with and/or receiving concomitant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.Close haematological monitoring is required for all patients during treatment.
Urinary Tract and Renal ToxicityHemorrhagic cystitis, pyelitis, ureteritis, and haematuria have been reported with cyclophosphamide therapy. Bladder ulceration/necrosis, fibrosis/contracture and secondary cancer may develop.Urotoxicity may mandate interruption of treatment.Cystectomy may become necessary due to fibrosis, bleeding, or secondary malignancy.Cases of urotoxicity with fatal outcomes have been reported.Urotoxicity can occur with short-term and long-term use of cyclophosphamide. Hemorrhagic cystitis after single doses of cyclophosphamide has been reported.Past or concomitant radiation or busulfan treatment may increase the risk for cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.Cystitis is, in general, initially abacterial. Secondary bacterial colonization may follow.Before starting treatment, it is necessary to exclude or correct any urinary tract obstructions. See Section 4.3.Urinary sediment should be checked regularly for the presence of erythrocytes and other signs of uro/nephrotoxicity.Cyclophosphamide should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active urinary tract infections.Adequate treatment with mesna and/or strong hydration to force dieresis can markedly reduce the frequency and severity of bladder toxicity. It is important to ensure that patients empty the bladder at regular intervals.Hematuria usually resolves in a few days after cyclophosphamide treatment is stopped, but it may persist.It is usually necessary to discontinue cyclophosphamide therapy in instances of severe hemorrhagic cystitis.Cyclophosphamide has also been associated with nephrotoxicity, including renal tubular necrosis.Hyponatremia associated with increased total body water, acute water intoxication, and a syndrome resembling SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone) have been reported in association with cyclophosphamide administration. Fatal outcomes have been reported.Cardiotoxicity, Use in Patients with Cardiac DiseaseMyocarditis and myopericarditis, which may be accompanied by significant pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade, have been reported with cyclophosphamide therapy and have led to severe, sometimes fatal congestive heart failure.Histopathologic examination has primarily shown hemorrhagic myocarditis. Haemopericardium has occurred secondary to hemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis.Acute cardiac toxicity has been reported with a single dose of less than 2mg/kg cyclophosphamide.Following exposure to treatment regimens that included cyclophosphamide, supraventricular arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation and flutter) as well as ventricular arrhythmias (including severe QT prolongation associated with ventricular tachyarrhythmia) have been reported in patients with and without other signs of cardiotoxicity.The risk of cyclophosphamide cardiotoxicity may be increased for example, following high doses of cyclophosphamide, in patients with advanced age, and in patients with previous radiation treatment of the cardiac region and/or previous or concomitant treatment with other cardiotoxic agents. See Section 4.5.Particular caution is necessary in patients with risk factors for cardiotoxicity and in patients with pre-existing cardiac disease.
Pulmonary ToxicityPneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been reported during and following treatment with cyclophosphamide. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and other forms of pulmonary toxicity have also been reported.Pulmonary toxicity leading to respiratory failure has been reported.While the incidence of cyclophosphamide-associated pulmonary toxicity is low, prognosis for affected patients is poor.Late onset of pneumonitis (greater than 6 months after start of cyclophosphamide) appears to be associated with a particularly high mortality. Pneumonitis may develop even years after treatment with cyclophosphamide.Acute pulmonary toxicity has been reported after a single cyclophosphamide dose.
Secondary MalignanciesAs with all cytotoxic therapy, treatment with cyclophosphamide involves the risk of secondary tumours and their precursors as late sequelae.The risk of urinary tract cancer as well as the risk of myelodysplastic alterations, partly progressing to acute leukemias, is increased. Other malignancies reported after use of cyclophosphamide or regimens with cyclophosphamide include lymphoma, thyroid cancer, and sarcomas.In some cases, the second malignancy developed several years after cyclophosphamide treatment had been discontinued. Malignancy has also been reported after in utero exposure.
Veno-occlusive Liver DiseaseVeno-occlusive liver disease (VOLD) has been reported in patients receiving cyclophosphamide.A cytoreductive regimen in preparation for bone marrow transplantation that consists of cyclophosphamide in combination with whole-body irradiation, busulfan, or other agents has been identified (see Section 4.5) as a major risk factor for the development of VOLD. After cytoreductive therapy, the clinical syndrome typically develops 1 to 2 weeks after transplantation and is characterized by sudden weight gain, painful hepatomegaly, ascites, and hyperbilirubinemia/jaundice.However, VOLD has also been reported to develop gradually in patients receiving long-term low-dose immunosuppressive doses of cyclophosphamide.As a complication of VOLD, hepatorenal syndrome and multiorgan failure may develop. Fatal outcome of cyclophosphamide-associated VOLD has been reported.Risk factors predisposing a patient to the development of VOLD with high-dose cytoreductive therapy include: preexisting disturbances of hepatic function, previous radiation therapy of the abdomen, and a low performance score.
GenotoxicityCyclophosphamide is genotoxic and mutagenic, both in somatic and in male and female germ cells. Therefore, women should not become pregnant and men should not father a child during therapy with cyclophosphamide. Both women and men should wait at least 6 to 12 months after stopping Cyclophosphamide before attempting to conceive or father a child.Animal data indicate that exposure of oocytes during follicular development may result in a decreased rate of implantations and viable pregnancies, and in an increased risk of malformations. This effect should be considered in case of intended fertilization or pregnancy after discontinuation of cyclophosphamide therapy. The exact duration of follicular development in humans is not known, but may be longer than 12 months.Sexually active women and men should use effective methods of contraception during these periods of time. Fertility, see section 4.6.
Impairment of Wound HealingCyclophosphamide may interfere with normal wound healing.
AlopeciaAlopecia has been reported and may occur more commonly with increasing doses.Alopecia may progress to baldness.The hair can be expected to grow back after treatment with the drug or even during continued drug treatment, though it may be different in texture or colour.
Nausea and VomitingAdministration of cyclophosphamide may cause nausea and vomiting.Current guidelines on the use of antiemetics for prevention and amelioration of nausea and vomiting should be considered.Alcohol consumption may increase cyclophosphamide-induced vomiting and nausea.
StomatitisAdministration of cyclophosphamide may cause stomatitis (oral mucositis).Current guidelines on measures for prevention and amelioration of stomatitis should be considered.
Paravenous AdministrationThe cytostatic effect of cyclophosphamide occurs after its activation, which takes place mainly in the liver. Therefore, the risk of tissue injury from accidental paravenous administration is low.In case of accidental paravenous administration of cyclophosphamide, the infusion should be stopped immediately, the extravascular cyclophosphamide solution should be aspirated with the cannula in place, and other measures should be instituted as appropriate.
Use in Patients with Renal ImpairmentIn patients with renal impairment, particularly in patients with severe renal impairment, decreased renal excretion may result in increased plasma levels of cyclophosphamide and its metabolites. This may result in increased toxicity and should be considered when determining the dosage in such patients. See Section 4.2.
Use in Patients with Hepatic ImpairmentSevere hepatic impairment may be associated with decreased activation of cyclophosphamide. This may alter the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide treatment and should be considered when selecting the dose and interpreting response to the dose selected.
Use in Adrenalectomized PatientsPatients with adrenal insufficiency may require an increase in corticoid substitution dose when exposed to stress from toxicity due to cytostatics, including cyclophosphamide.
Interactions Affecting the Pharmacokinetics of Cyclophosphamide and its Metabolites• Reduced activation of cyclophosphamide may alter the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide treatment. Substances that delay activation of cyclophosphamide include: Aprepitant Bupropion Busulfan: Cyclophosphamide clearance has been reported to be reduced and half-life prolonged in patients who receive high-dose cyclophosphamide less than 24 hours after high-dose busulfan. Ciprofloxacin: When given prior to the treatment with cyclophosphamide (used for conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation), ciprofloxacin has been reported to result in a relapse of the underlying disease. Chloramphenicol Fluconazole Itraconazole Prasugrel Sulfonamides Thiotepa: A strong inhibition of cyclophosphamide bioactivation by thiotepa in high-dose chemotherapy regimens has been reported when thiotepa was administered 1 hour prior to cyclophosphamide.• An increase of the concentration of cytotoxic metabolites may occur with: Allopurinol Chloral hydrate Cimetidine Disulfiram Glyceraldehyde Inducers of human hepatic and extrahepatic microsomal enzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450 enzymes): The potential for hepatic and extrahepatic microsomal enzyme induction must be considered in case of prior or concomitant treatment with substances known to induce an increased activity of such enzymes such as rifampin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin, St. John's wort, and corticosteroids. Protease inhibitors: Concomitant use of protease inhibitors may increase the concentration of cytotoxic metabolites. Use of protease inhibitor-based regimens was found to be associated with a higher incidence of infections and neutropenia in patients receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (CDE) than use of an NNRTI-based regimen.• OndansetronThere have been reports of a pharmacokinetic interaction between ondansetron and high-dose cyclophosphamide resulting in decreased cyclophosphamide AUC.
Pharmacodynamic Interactions and Interactions of Unknown Mechanism Affecting the Use of CyclophosphamideCombined or sequential use of cyclophosphamide and other agents with similar toxicities can cause combined (increased) toxic effects.• Increased hematotoxicity and/or immunosuppression may result from a combined effect of cyclophosphamide and, for example ACE inhibitors: ACE inhibitors can cause leukopenia. Natalizumab Paclitaxel: Increased hematotoxicity has been reported when cyclophosphamide was administered after paclitaxel infusion. Thiazide diuretics Zidovudine Clozapine• Increased cardiotoxicity may result from a combined effect of cyclophosphamide and, for example Anthracyclines Cytarabine Pentostatin Radiation therapy of the cardiac region Trastuzumab• Increased pulmonary toxicity may result from a combined effect of cyclophosphamide and, for example Amiodarone G-CSF, GM-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor): Reports suggest an increased risk of pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy that includes cyclophosphamide and G-CSF or GMCSF.• Increased nephrotoxicity may result from a combined effect of cyclophosphamide and, for example Amphotericin B Indomethacin: Acute water intoxication has been reported with concomitant use of indomethacin.• Increase in other toxicities Azathioprine: Increased risk of hepatotoxicity (liver necrosis) Busulfan: Increased incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease and mucositis has been reported. Protease inhibitors: Increased incidence of mucositis.
Other interactions• AlcoholA reduced antitumor activity was observed in tumor-bearing animals during ethanol (alcohol) consumption and concomitant oral low-dose cyclophosphamide medication.In some patients, alcohol may increase cyclophosphamide-induced vomiting and nausea.• EtanerceptIn patients with Wegener's granulomatosis, the addition of etanercept to standard treatment, including cyclophosphamide, was associated with a higher incidence of non-cutaneous solid malignancies.• MetronidazoleAcute encephalopathy has been reported in a patient receiving cyclophosphamide and metronidazole. Causal association is unclear.In an animal study, the combination of cyclophosphamide with metronidazole was associated with increased cyclophosphamide toxicity.• TamoxifenConcomitant use of tamoxifen and chemotherapy may increase the risk of thromboembolic complications.
Interactions Affecting the Pharmacokinetics and/or Actions of Other Drugs• Bupropion Cyclophosphamide metabolism by CYP2B6 may inhibit bupropion metabolism.• CoumarinsBoth increased and decreased warfarin effect have been reported in patients receiving warfarin and cyclophosphamide.• CyclosporineLower serum concentrations of cyclosporine have been observed in patients receiving a combination of cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine than in patients receiving only cyclosporine. This interaction may result in an increased incidence of graft-versus-host disease.• Depolarizing muscle relaxantsCyclophosphamide treatment causes a marked and persistent inhibition of cholinesterase activity. Prolonged apnea may occur with concurrent depolarizing muscle relaxants (e.g., succinylcholine). If a patient has been treated with cyclophosphamide within 10 days of general anesthesia, the anesthesiologist should be alerted.• Digoxin, β-acetyldigoxinCytotoxic treatment has been reported to impair intestinal absorption of digoxin and β-acetyldigoxin tablets.• VaccinesThe immunosuppressive effects of cyclophosphamide can be expected to reduce the response to vaccination. Use of live vaccines may lead to vaccine-induced infection.• VerapamilCytotoxic treatment has been reported to impair intestinal absorption of orally administered verapamil
PregnancyCyclophosphamide is contraindicated in pregnancy (see section 4.3). Cyclophosphamide crosses the placental barrier. Treatment with cyclophosphamide has a genotoxic effect and may cause foetal damage when administered to pregnant women. Both women and men should wait at least 6 to 12 months after stopping Cyclophosphamide before attempting to conceive or father a child.• Malformations have been reported in children born to mothers treated with cyclophosphamide during the first trimester of pregnancy. However, there are also reports of children without malformations born to women exposed during the first trimester.• Exposure to cyclophosphamide in utero may cause miscarriage, foetal growth retardation, and foetotoxic effects manifesting in the newborn, including leukopenia, anaemia, pancytopenia, severe bone marrow hypoplasia, and gastroenteritis.• Animal data suggest that an increased risk of failed pregnancy and malformations may persist after discontinuation of cyclophosphamide as long as oocytes/follicles exist that were exposed to cyclophosphamide during any of their maturation phases. See Section 4.4, Genotoxicity. • If cyclophosphamide is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug or after treatment (see Section 4.4, Genotoxicity), the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a foetus.
BreastfeedingCyclophosphamide is passed into the breast milk. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, low hemoglobin, and diarrhoea have been reported in children breast fed by women treated with cyclophosphamide. Women must not breastfeed during treatment with cyclophosphamide.
FertilityCyclophosphamide interferes with oogenesis and spermatogenesis. It may cause sterility in both sexes.Development of sterility appears to depend on the dose of cyclophosphamide, duration of therapy, and the state of gonadal function at the time of treatment.Cyclophosphamide-induced sterility may be irreversible in some patients.Sexually active women and men should use effective methods of contraception during these periods of time. • Female patientsAmenorrhea, transient or permanent, associated with decreased oestrogen and increased gonadotrophin secretion develops in a significant proportion of women treated with cyclophosphamide.For older women, in particular, amenorrhea may be permanent.Oligomenorrhea has also been reported in association with cyclophosphamide treatment.Girls treated with cyclophosphamide during prepubescence generally develop secondary sexual characteristics normally and have regular menses.Girls treated with cyclophosphamide during prepubescence subsequently have conceived.Girls treated with cyclophosphamide who have retained ovarian function after completing treatment are at increased risk of developing premature menopause (cessation of menses before age of 40 years).• Male patientsMen treated with cyclophosphamide may develop oligospermia or azoospermia, which are normally associated with increased gonadotrophin but normal testosterone secretion.Sexual potency and libido generally are unimpaired in these patients.Boys treated with cyclophosphamide during prepubescence may develop secondary sexual characteristics normally, but may have oligospermia or azoospermia.Some degree of testicular atrophy may occur.Cyclophosphamide-induced azoospermia is reversible in some patients, though the reversibility may not occur for several years after cessation of therapy.
|System Organ Class||Preferred term||Frequency|
|Infections and infestations||Infections1 Pneumonia2 Sepsis1 Septic shock||Common Uncommon Uncommon Not Known|
|Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl cycts and polyps)||Acute leukemia3 Myelodysplastic syndrome Secondary tumours Bladder cancer Tumour lysis syndrome||Rare Rare Rare Rare Not known|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders||Myelosuppression 4 Haemolytic uraemic syndrome Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC ) Lymphopenia||Very common Very common Very rare Not known|
|Immune system disorders||Immunosuppression Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid reaction Hypersensitivity reaction||Very common Very rare Uncommon|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders||Anorexia Dehydration Hyponatraemia Fluid retention Blood glucose changes (increase or decrease)||Uncommon Rare Very rare Very rare Not known|
|Psychic disorders||Confusion||Very rare|
|Nervous system disorders||Dizziness Convulsion Neurotoxicity5 Encephalopathy||Rare Very rare Unknown Unknown|
|Eye disorders||Conjunctivitis Eye Oedema Visual impairment Lacrimation increased||Very Rare Very Rare Rare Not known|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders||Deafness Tinnitus||Not known Not known|
|Cardiac disorders||Ventricular fibrillation Ventricular tachycardia Cardiogenic shock Pericardial effusion Myocardial infarction Cardiac failure Cardiomyopathy Myocarditis Pericarditis Electrocardiogram QT prolonged Arrhythmias6||Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known|
|Vascular disorders||Flushing Pulmonary embolism Venous thrombosis Vasculitis Peripheral ischaemia||Uncommon Not known Not known Not known Not known|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders||Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Interstitial Lung Diseases7 Pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary oedema Bronchospasm Dyspnea Hypoxia Cough Nasal congestion Rhinorrhea Oropharyngeal pain||Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||Enterocolitis haemorrhagic Acute pancreatitis Mucosal ulceration Stomatitis Diarrhoea Vomiting Constipation Nausea Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage Colitis Enteritis Cecitis Abdominal pain Parotid gland inflammation||Very rare Very rare Very rare Very rare Very rare Very rare Very rare Very rare Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown|
|Hepatobiliary disorders||Hepatic function abnormal Veno-occlusive disorder Hepatitis Cholestasis Hepatotoxicity8||Common Not known Not known Not known Not known|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||Alopecia Rash Dermatitis Discoloration of the palms, fingernails, soles Toxic epidermal necrolysis Stevens Johnson syndrome Erythema multiforme Palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia Radiation recall dermatitis Erythema in irradiated area Pruritus (including inflammatory itching) Erythema Urticaria Blisters Facial swelling Hyperhidrosis||Very common Rare Rare Rare Very rare Very rare Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders||Rhabdomyolysis Scleroderma Muscle spasms Myalgia Arthralgia||Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known|
|Renal and urinary disorders||Cystitis Microhematuria Haemorrhagic cystitis Macrohematuria Suburethral bleeding Oedema of the bladder wall Interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and sclerosis of bladder Renal failure Blood creatinine increased Renal tubular necrosis Renal tubular disorder Nephropathy toxic Hemorrhagic ureteritis Cystitis ulcerative Bladder contracture Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Atypical urinary bladder epithelial cells Blood urea nitrogen increased||Very common Very common Common Common Very rare Very rare Very rare Very rare Very rare Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown|
|Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions||Premature labour||Not known|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders||Impairment of spermatogenesis Ovulation disorder Amenorrhoea9 Azoospermia9 Oligospermia9 Infertility Ovarian Failure Oligomenorrhoea, Testicular atrophy Blood oestrogen decreased Blood gonadotrophin increased||Common Uncommon Rare Rare Rare Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown|
|Congenital, familial and genetic disorders||Intra-uterine death Fetal malformation Fetal growth retardation Fetal toxicity (including myelosuppression/gastroenteritis)||Not known Not known Not known Not known|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||Fever Asthenia Mucosal inflammation Chest pain Headache Injection/infusion site reactions10 Multiorgan failure Oedema Influenza-like illness General physical deterioration||Very common Common Common Rare Very Rare Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known|
|Investigations||Blood lactate hydrogenase increased C-reactive protein increased||Not known Not known|
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:MaltaADR reportingWebsite: www.medicines authority.gov.mt/adrportalUKYellow card schemeWebsite: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
After reconstitution for intravenous administrationChemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated (in aqueous, sodium chloride, and glucose solutions) for 48 hours at 2 - 8°C.From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2 - 8°C, unless reconstitution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.
After reconstitution in Aromatic Elixir USP for oral administrationAt a concentration of 2 mg cyclophosphamide per ml in Aromatic Elixir USP, chemical and physical stability has been demonstrated for 14 days at 2 - 8°C.
For intravenous administrationPrior to administration the contents of a vial should be dissolved in 50 ml physiological saline (0.9% w/v sodium chloride) by introducing the saline into the vial and shaking vigorously until the powder is completely dissolved. Reconstitution results in a clear solution with a pH of between 4 and 6.Cyclophosphamide Injection is compatible with the following infusion solutions: sodium chloride solution, glucose solution, sodium chloride and glucose solution, sodium chloride and potassium chloride solution, and potassium chloride and glucose solution.
For oral administrationCyclophosphamide Injection may be dissolved in Aromatic Elixir USP.
General instructionsIf vials are stored above the recommended temperature this can cause degradation of the active ingredient, identifiable by a yellow melted appearance to the vial contents. Vials containing melted material should not be used.Cyclophosphamide is a cytotoxic agent. The handling and preparation of cyclophosphamide should always be in accordance with current guidelines on safe handling of cytotoxic agents. The material should not be handled by women who are pregnant or who are breast-feeding.Adequate care and precautions should be taken in the disposal of empty vials and items (syringes, needles, etc) used in reconstitution and administration.