This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Ibuprofen 400mg Tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Active ingredient

Ibuprofen

mg/tablet

400mg

Each tablet contains 26.667mg lactose monohydrate.

For full list of excipients see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Tablet for oral use.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

For the relief of pain of non-serious arthritic conditions and for the relief of rheumatic or muscular pain, backache, neuralgia, headache including migraine headache, dental pain, dysmenorrhoea, feverishness and the symptoms of colds and influenza.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

For oral administration and short-term use only.

Adults, the elderly and children over 12 years:

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.4). The patient should consult a doctor if symptoms persist or worsen, or if the product is required for more than 10 days.

One tablet to be taken up to three times a day, as required.

Leave at least four hours between doses and do not take more than 3 tablets (1200mg) in any 24 hour period.

Adolescents (12-18 years old):

If this medicinal product is required for more than 3 days, or if symptoms worsen a doctor should be consulted.

Children under 12 years:

Not suitable for children under 12 years.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to ibuprofen or any of the excipients in the product.

Patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. asthma, rhinitis, angioedema or urticaria), in response to ibuprofen, aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Active or history of recurrent peptic ulcer/haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

History of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAIDs therapy.

Severe heart failure (NYHA Class IV), renal failure or hepatic failure (see section 4.4).

Last trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.6).

Children under 12 years.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see GI and cardiovascular risks below).

The elderly have an increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal.

Respiratory:

Bronchospasm may be precipitated in patients suffering from or with a previous history of bronchial asthma or allergic disease.

Other NSAIDs:

The use of ibuprofen with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors should be avoided (see section 4.5).

SLE and mixed connective tissue disease:

Systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease - increased risk of aseptic meningitis (see section 4.8)

Renal:

Renal impairment as renal function may further deteriorate (see sections 4.3 and 4.8)

There is a risk of renal impairment in dehydrated adolescents.

Hepatic:

Hepatic dysfunction (see sections 4.3 and 4.8)

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects:

Caution (discussion with doctor or pharmacist) is required prior to starting treatment in patients with a history of hypertension and/or heart failure as fluid retention, hypertension and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.

Clinical studies suggest that use of ibuprofen, particularly at a high dose (2400 mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke). Overall, epidemiological studies do not suggest that low dose ibuprofen (e.g. ≤ 1200 mg/day) is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction.

Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III), established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with ibuprofen after careful consideration and high doses (2400 mg/day) should be avoided.

Careful consideration should also be exercised before initiating long-term treatment of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking), particularly if high doses of ibuprofen (2400 mg/day) are required.

Impaired female fertility:

There is limited evidence that drugs which inhibit cyclo-oxygense/prostaglandin synthesis may cause impairment of female fertility by an effect on ovulation. This is reversible on withdrawal of treatment.

Gastrointestinal:

NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as these conditions may be exacerbated (see section 4.8).

GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at anytime during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events.

The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation (see section 4.3), and in the elderly. These patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available.

Patients with a history of GI toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding) particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin (see section 4.5).

When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving ibuprofen, the treatment should be withdrawn.

Dermatological:

Severe skin reactions

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, have been reported rarely in association with the use of NSAIDSs (see section 4.8). Patients appear to be at highest risk for these reactions early in the course of therapy: the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) has been reported in relation to ibuprofen-containing products. Ibuprofen should be discontinued at the first appearance of signs and symptoms of severe skin reactions, such as skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Exceptionally, varicella can be at the origin of serious cutaneous and soft tissue infectious complications. To date, the contributing role of NSAIDs in the worsening of these infections cannot be ruled out. Thus, it is advisable to avoid use of Ibuprofen in case of varicella (see section 4.8).

The label will include:

Read the enclosed leaflet before taking this product

Do not take if you:

• have (or have had two or more episodes of) a stomach ulcer, perforation or bleeding

• are allergic to ibuprofen or any other ingredient of the product, aspirin or other related painkillers

• are taking other NSAID painkillers, or aspirin with a daily dose above 75 mg

Speak to a pharmacist or your doctor before taking if you:

• have or have had asthma, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, a stroke, heart, liver, kidney or bowel problems

• are a smoker

• are pregnant

If symptoms persist or worsen, consult your doctor.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Ibuprofen should be avoided in combination with:

Acetylsalicylic acid: Unless low-dose aspirin (not above 75mg daily) has been advised by a doctor. Concomitant administration of ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects (see section 4.4).

Experimental data suggest that ibuprofen may competitively inhibit the effect of low dose acetylsalicylic acid on platelet aggregation when they are dosed concomitantly. Although there are uncertainties regarding extrapolation of these data to the clinical situation, the possibility that regular, long-term use of ibuprofen may reduce the cardioprotective effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid cannot be excluded. No clinically relevant effect is considered to be likely for occasional ibuprofen use (see section 5.1).

Other NSAIDS including cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors: Avoid concomitant use of two or more NSAIDs as this may increase the risk of adverse effects (see section 4.4).

Ibuprofen should be used with caution in combination with:

Anticoagulants: NSAIDS may enhance the effects of anti-coagulants, such as warfarin (see section 4.4).

Antihypertensives and diuretics: NSAIDs may diminish the effect of these drugs. Diuretics can increase the risk of nephrotoxicity of NSAIDs.

Corticosteroids: Increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding (see section 4.4).

Anti-platelet agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs):

Increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (see section 4.4)

Cardiac glycosides: NSAIDs may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce GFR and increase plasma glycoside levels.

Lithium: There is evidence for potential increases in plasma levels of lithium.

Methotrexate: There is a potential for an increase in plasma methotrexate.

Ciclosporin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity.

Mifepristone: NSAIDs should not be used for 8-12 days after mifepristone administration as NSAIDs can reduce the effect of mifepristone.

Tacrolimus: Possible increased risk of nephrotoxicity when NSAIDs are given with tacrolimus.

Zidovudine: Increased risk of haematological toxicity when NSAIDs are given with zidovudine. There is evidence of an increased risk of haemarthroses and haematoma in HIV(+) haemophiliacs receiving concurrent treatment with zidovudine and ibuprofen.

Quinolone antibiotics: Animal data indicate that NSAIDs can increase the risk of convulsions associated with quinolone antibiotics. Patients taking NSAIDs and quinolones may have an increased risk of developing convulsions.

4.6 Pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

Whilst no teratogenic effects have been demonstrated in animal experiments, the use of ibuprofen should, if possible, be avoided during the first 6 months of pregnancy.

During the 3rd trimester, ibuprofen is contraindicated as there is there is a risk of premature closure of the foetal ductus arteriosus with possible persistent pulmonary hypertension. The onset of labour may be delayed and the duration increased with an increased bleeding tendency in both mother and child (see section 4.3).

Lactation

In limited studies, ibuprofen appears in the breast milk in very low concentration and is unlikely to affect the breast-fed infant adversely.

See section 4.4 regarding female fertility.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

None expected at recommended doses and duration of therapy.

4.8 Undesirable effects

The following frequencies are taken as a basis when evaluating undesirable effects:

Very common:

Common:

Uncommon:

Rare:

Very rare:

Not known:

≥ 1/10

≥ 1/100 to < 1/10

≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100

≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000

> 1/10,000

cannot be estimated from the available data

Infections and infestations:

Very rare: Exacerbation of infection-related inflammations (e.g. development of necrotising fasciitis) coinciding with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been described. This is possibly associated with the mechanism of action of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. If signs of an infection occur or get worse during use of Ibuprofen the patient is therefore recommended to go to a doctor without delay. It is to be investigated whether there is an indication for anti-infective/antibiotic therapy.

Haematological:

Very rare: Haematopoietic disorders (anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, agranulocytosis). First signs are: fever, sore throat, superficial mouth ulcers, flu-like symptoms, severe exhaustion, unexplained bleeding and bruising.

Immune System:

Not known: In patients with existing auto-immune disorders (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease) during treatment with ibuprofen, single cases of symptoms of aseptic meningitis, such as stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation have been observed (see section 4.4).

Hypersensitivity reactions:

Uncommon: Hypersensitivity reactions with urticaria and pruritus.

Very rare: severe hypersensitivity reactions. Symptoms could be: facial, tongue and laryngeal swelling, dyspnoea, tachycardia, hypotension, (anaphylaxis, angioedema or severe shock).

Not known: Respiratory tract reactivity, e.g. asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm, dyspnoea. Exfoliative and bullous dermatoses (including epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme).

Nervous System:

Uncommon: Headache.

Very rare: Aseptic meningitis – single cases have been reported very rarely.

Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular:

Not known: Oedema, hypertension and cardiac failure have been reported in association with NSAID treatment.

Clinical studies suggest that use of ibuprofen (particularly at a high dose 2400 mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke), (see section 4.4).

Gastrointestinal:

The most commonly-observed adverse events are gastrointestinal in nature. Uncommon: abdominal pain, nausea, dyspepsia.

Rare: diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation and vomiting

Very rare: peptic ulcer, perforation or gastrointestinal haemorrhage, melaena, haematemesis, sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly. Ulcerative stomatitis, gastritis. Exacerbation of colitis and Crohn's disease (see section 4.4).

Hepatic:

Very rare: liver disorders.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:

Uncommon: Various skin rashes

Very rare: Severe forms of skin reactions such as bullous reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis can occur.

Not known: In exceptional cases, severe skin infections and soft-tissue complications may occur during a varicella infection (see also "Infections and infestations"). Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome).

Not known: Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP).

Renal:

Very rare: Acute renal failure, papillary necrosis, especially in long-term use, associated with increased serum urea and oedema.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme Website www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

In children ingestion of more than 400 mg/kg may cause symptoms. In adults the dose response effect is less clear cut. The half-life in overdose is 1.5-3 hours.

Symptoms

Most patients who have ingested clinically important amounts of NSAIDs will develop no more than nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, or more rarely diarrhoea. Tinnitus, headache and gastrointestinal bleeding are also possible. In more serious poisoning, toxicity is seen in the central nervous system, manifesting as drowsiness, occasionally excitation and disorientation or coma. Occasionally patients develop convulsions. In serious poisoning metabolic acidosis may occur and the prothrombin time/INR may be prolonged, probably due to interference with the actions of circulating clotting factors. Acute renal failure and liver damage may occur. Exacerbation of asthma is possible in asthmatics.

Management

Management should be symptomatic and supportive and include the maintenance of a clear airway and monitoring of cardiac and vital signs until stable. Consider oral administration of activated charcoal if the patient presents within 1 hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount. If frequent or prolonged, convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam or lorazepam. Give bronchodilators for asthma.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Ibuprofen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that has demonstrated its efficacy by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In humans ibuprofen reduces inflammatory pain, swellings and fever. Furthermore, ibuprofen reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation.

Experimental data suggest that ibuprofen may competitively inhibit the effect of low dose acetylsalicylic acid on platelet aggregation when they are dosed concomitantly. Some pharmacodynamics studies show that when a single dose of ibuprofen 400 mg was taken within 8 h before or within 30 min after immediate release acetylsalicylic acid dosing (81 mg), a decreased effect of acetylsalicylic acid on the formation of thromboxane or platelet aggregation occurred. Although there are uncertainties regarding extrapolation of this data to the clinical situation, the possibility that regular, long-term use of ibuprofen may reduce the cardioprotective effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid cannot be excluded. No clinically relevant effect is considered to be likely for occasional ibuprofen use (see section 4.5).

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Ibuprofen is rapidly absorbed following administration and is rapidly distributed throughout the whole body. The excretion is rapid and complete via the kidneys.

Maximum plasma concentrations are reached 45 minutes after ingestion if taken on an empty stomach. When taken with food, peak levels are observed after 1 to 2 hours. These times may vary with different dosage forms.

The half-life of ibuprofen is about 2 hours.

In limited studies, ibuprofen appears in the breast milk in very low concentrations.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

There are no preclinical data of relevance to the prescriber which are additional to that already included.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium laurilsulfate, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, talc, titanium dioxide (E171).

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

36 months – Aluminium blister (PVC/PVDC and Aluminium Foil)

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Blister pack: (Opaque PVC/PVDC and Aluminium Foil): Store below 25°C.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

The following container will be used:

6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20, 24, 25, 30, 32, 36, 48, 80, 84, 88, 96, 100 or 104 tablets in an aluminium blister pack formed from opaque PVC/PVDC and aluminium foil.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Not applicable.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

The Boots Company PLC

1 Thane Road West

Nottingham NG2 3AA

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 00014/0498

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

23 May 1996

10. Date of revision of the text

26th March 2020