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Diclo-XL 100

Active Ingredient:
diclofenac sodium
Company:  
Strides Pharma UK Ltd See contact details
ATC code: 
M01AB05
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About Medicine
{healthcare_pro_orange} This information is for use by healthcare professionals
Last updated on emc: 09 Dec 2022
1. Name of the medicinal product

Diclo-XL 100

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each tablet contains Diclofenac Sodium Ph. Eur. 100mg.

Excipient with known effect

Lactose 292.0mg

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

White, circular, biconvex, modified release tablets engraved with CX58 on one side.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

In the management of chronic conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults: The usual dosage is 100mg (one tablet) daily, taken whole with liquid, preferably with or after food.

Elderly: Although the pharmacokinetics of Diclo-XL 100 are not impaired to any clinically relevant extent in elderly patients, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be used with particular caution in such patients who generally are more prone to adverse reactions. If Diclo-XL 100 is considered necessary the lowest effective dose should be used in frail elderly patients or those with a low body weight (see section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use) for the shortest possible duration. The patient should be monitored regularly for GI bleeding during NSAID therapy.

Renal impairment: Diclofenac is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (see section 4.3). No specific studies have been carried out in patients with renal impairment, therefore, no specific dose adjustment recommendations can be made. Caution is advised when administering diclofenac to patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (see section 4.3 and 4.4).

Hepatic impairment: Diclofenac is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.3). No specific studies have been carried out in patients with hepatic impairment, therefore, no specific dose adjustment recommendations can be made. Caution is advised when administering diclofenac to patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (see section 4.3 and 4.4).

Paediatric population: Diclo-XL 100 tablets are not recommended for use in Children.

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use).

Method of administration

For oral use only.

4.3 Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to the active substance or any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

• Active, or gastric or intestinal ulcer, bleeding or perforation.

• Active, or history of recurrent peptic ulcer/haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

• History of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAID therapy.

• NSAIDs are contraindicated in patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. asthma, rhinitis, angioedema or urticaria) in response to ibuprofen, aspirin, or other non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs.

• Severe heart failure, hepatic failure and renal failure (see section 4.4).

• During the last trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.6).

• Established congestive heart failure (NYHA II-IV), ischemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and/or cerebrovascular disease.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

General:

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.2, and GI and cardiovascular risks below).

The concomitant use of Diclofenac with systemic NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors should be avoided due to the absence of any evidence demonstrating synergistic benefits and the potential for additive undesirable effects (see section 4.5).

Elderly:

Caution is indicated in the elderly on basic medical grounds. The elderly have an increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs, especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, which may be fatal (see section 4.2). It is recommended that the lowest effective dose be used in frail elderly patients or those with a low body weight (see section 4.2).

As with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including diclofenac, allergic reactions, including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, can also occur without earlier exposure to the drug (see section 4.8). Hypersensitivity reactions can also progress to Kounis syndrome, a serious allergic reaction that can result in myocardial infarction. Presenting symptoms of such reactions can include chest pain occurring in association with an allergic reaction to diclofenac.

Like other NSAIDs, diclofenac may mask the signs and symptoms of the infection due to its pharmacodynamic properties.

Respiratory disorders:

In patients with asthma, seasonal allergic rhinitis, swelling of the nasal mucosa (i.e. nasal polyps), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases or chronic infections of the respiratory tract (especially if linked to allergic rhinitis‐like symptoms), reactions on NSAIDs like asthma exacerbations (so called intolerance to analgesics/analgesics asthma), Quincke's oedema or urticaria are more frequent than in other patients. Therefore, special precaution is recommended in such patients (readiness for emergency). This is applicable as well for patients who are allergic to other substances, e.g. with skin reactions, pruritus or urticaria.

Like other drugs that inhibit prostaglandin synthetase activity, diclofenac sodium and other NSAIDs can precipitate bronchospasm if administered to patients suffering from, or with a previous history of bronchial asthma.

Renal effects:

As fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy, including diclofenac, particular caution is called for in patients with impaired cardiac or renal function, history of hypertension, the elderly, patients receiving concomitant treatment with diuretics or medicinal products that can significantly impact renal function, and those patients with substantial extracellular volume depletion from any cause, e.g. before or after major surgery (see section 4.3). Monitoring of renal function is recommended as a precautionary measure when using diclofenac in such cases. Discontinuation therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pre-treatment state.

Hepatic effects:

Close medical surveillance is required when prescribing diclofenac to patients with impairment of hepatic function as their condition may be exacerbated. As with other NSAIDs, including diclofenac, values of one or more liver enzymes may increase. During prolonged treatment with Diclofenac, regular monitoring of hepatic function is indicated as a precautionary measure. If abnormal liver function tests persist or worsen, clinical signs or symptoms consistent with liver disease develop or if other manifestations occur (eosinophilia, rash), diclofenac should be discontinued. Hepatitis may occur with diclofenac without prodromal symptoms. Caution is called for when using diclofenac in patients with hepatic porphyria, since it may trigger an attack.

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects:

Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy including diclofenac.

Clinical trial and epidemiological data consistently point towards increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke) associated with the use of diclofenac, particularly at high dose (l50mg daily) and in long term treatment.

Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure, established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with diclofenac after careful consideration.

Patients with significant risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking) should only be treated with diclofenac after careful consideration.

As the cardiovascular risks of diclofenac may increase with dose and duration of exposure, the shortest duration possible and the lowest effective daily dose should be used. The patient's need for symptomatic relief and response to therapy should be re-evaluated periodically.

Gastrointestinal effects:

Gastrointestinal bleeding (haematemesis, melaena), ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs including diclofenac and may occur at any time during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious gastrointestinal events. They generally have more serious consequences in the elderly. If gastrointestinal bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving diclofenac, the drug should be withdrawn.

As with all NSAIDs, including diclofenac, close medical surveillance is imperative and particular caution should be exercised when prescribing diclofenac in patients with symptoms indicative of gastrointestinal disorders, or with a history suggestive of gastric or intestinal ulceration, bleeding or perforation (see section 4.8). The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, and in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation (see section 4.3).

The elderly have increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs especially gastro intestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal (see section 4.2). To reduce the risk of gastrointestinal toxicity in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation, and in the elderly, the treatment should be initiated and maintained at the lowest effective dose.

These patients should commence treatment and be maintained on the lowest dose available. Combination therapy with protective agents (e.g. misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors) should be considered for these patients, and also for patients requiring concomitant use of medicinal products containing low dose aspirin or other drugs likely to increase gastrointestinal risk (see below and section 4.5).

Patients with a history of gastrointestinal toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially gastrointestinal bleeding), particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as systemic corticosteroids, anti-coagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin (see section 4.5).

Close medical surveillance and caution should be exercised in patients with ulcerative colitis, or with Crohn's disease as these conditions may be exacerbated (see section 4.8).

An increased risk of anastomotic dehiscence has been noted in patients receiving oral diclofenac for analgesia after colon resection surgery.

NSAIDs, including diclofenac, may be associated with increased risk of gastro-intestinal anastomotic leak. Close medical surveillance and caution are recommended when using diclofenac after gastro-intestinal surgery.

Haematological effects:

During prolonged treatment with diclofenac, as with other NSAIDs, monitoring of the blood count is recommended. Diclofenac may reversibly inhibit platelet aggregation (see section 4.5). Patients with defects of haemostasis, bleeding diathesis or haematological abnormalities should be carefully monitored.

SLE and mixed connective tissue disease:

In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders there may be an increased risk of aseptic meningitis (see section 4.8).

Skin effects:

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs, including diclofenac (see section 4.8). Patients appear to be at highest risk for these reactions early in the course of therapy: the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Diclofenac should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions or other signs of hypersensitivity.

Porphyria

Diclofenac should only be used with extreme caution in patients with porphyria where no suitable alternative is available.

Female fertility:

The use of diclofenac may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of diclofenac should be considered (see section 4.6).

Excipients

Contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

The following interactions include those observed with diclofenac gastro-resistant tablets and/or other pharmaceutical forms of diclofenac.

Diclofenac is bound practically completely to plasma albumin (99.7%) and consequently displacement reactions with high protein binding affinity must be borne in mind.

Care should be taken in patients treated with any of the following drugs as interactions have been reported in some patients.

Diuretics and antihypertensive agents: Like other NSAIDs, concomitant use of diclofenac with diuretics and antihypertensive agents (e.g. beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may cause a decrease in their antihypertensive effect via inhibition of vasodilatory prostaglandin synthesis.

Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution and patients, especially the elderly, should have their blood pressure periodically monitored. Patients should be adequately hydrated and consideration should be given to monitoring of renal function after initiation of concomitant therapy periodically thereafter, particularly for diuretics and ACE inhibitors due to the increased risk of nephrotoxicity.

Cardiac glycosides: Concomitant use of cardiac glycosides and NSAIDs in patients may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce GFR and increase plasma glycoside levels.

Digoxin: If used concomitantly, diclofenac may raise plasma concentrations of digoxin. Monitoring of the serum digoxin level is recommended.

Lithium: If used concomitantly, diclofenac may increase plasma concentrations of lithium. Monitoring of the serum lithium level is recommended.

Methotrexate: Diclofenac can inhibit the tubular renal clearance of methotrexate hereby increasing methotrexate levels. Caution is recommended when NSAIDs, including diclofenac, are administered less than 24 hours before treatment with methotrexate, since blood concentrations of methotrexate may rise and the toxicity of this substance be increase. Cases of serious toxicity have been reported when methotrexate and NSAIDs including diclofenac are given within 24 hours of each other. This interaction is mediated through accumulation of methotrexate resulting from impairment of renal excretion in the presence of the NSAID.

Ciclosporin: Diclofenac, like other NSAIDs may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity of ciclosporin due to the effect on renal prostaglandins. Therefore, it should be given at doses lower than those that would be used in patients not receiving ciclosporin.

Mifepristone: NSAIDs should not be used 8-12 days after mifepristone administration as NSAIDs can reduce the effect of mifepristone.

Other NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors and corticosteroids: Co-administration of diclofenac with other systemic NSAIDs or corticosteroids may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding or ulceration. Avoid concomitant use of two or more NSAIDs (including aspirin) as this may increase the risk of adverse effects (see section 4.4).

Anticoagulants and anti-platelet agents: Caution is recommended since concomitant administration could increase the risk of bleeding (see section 4.4). Although clinical investigations do not appear to indicate that diclofenac has an influence on the effect of anticoagulants, there are reports of an increased risk of haemorrhage in patients receiving diclofenac and anticoagulant concomitantly (see section 4.4). Therefore, to be certain that no change in anticoagulant dosage is required, close monitoring of such patients is required. As with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, diclofenac in a high dose can reversibly inhibit platelet aggregation.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Concomitant administration of SSRIs may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (see section 4.4).

Quinolone antibiotics: Convulsions may occur due to an interaction between quinolones and NSAIDs. This may occur in patients with or without a previous history of epilepsy or convulsions. Therefore, caution should be exercised when considering the use of a quinolone in patients who are already receiving an NSAID.

Tacrolimus: Possible increased risk of nephrotoxicity when NSAIDs are given with tacrolimus. This might be mediated through renal antiprostaglandin effects of both NSAID and calcineurin inhibitor.

Zidovudine: Increased risk of haematological toxicity when NSAIDs are given with zidovudine. There is evidence of an increased risk of haemarthroses and haematoma in HIV(+) haemophiliacs receiving concurrent treatment with zidovudine and ibuprofen.

Drugs known to cause hyperkalaemia: Concomitant treatment with potassium‐sparing diuretics, ciclosporin, tacrolimus or trimethoprim may be associated with increased serum potassium levels, which should therefore be monitored frequently.

Phenytoin: When using phenytoin concomitantly with diclofenac, monitoring of phenytoin plasma concentrations is recommended due to an expected increase in exposure to phenytoin.

Antidiabetics: Clinical studies have shown that diclofenac can be given together with oral antidiabetic agents without influencing their clinical effect. However, there have been isolated reports of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic effects necessitating changes in the dosage of the antidiabetic agents during treatment with diclofenac. For this reason, monitoring of the blood glucose level is recommended as a precautionary measure during concomitant therapy.

Colestipol and cholestyramine: These agents can induce a delay or decrease in absorption of diclofenac. Therefore, it is recommended to administer diclofenac at least one hour before or 4 to 6 hours after administration of colestipol/ cholestyramine.

Potent CYP2C9 inhibitors: Caution is recommended when co‐prescribing diclofenac with potent CYP2C9 inhibitors (such as voriconazole), which could result in a significant increase in peak plasma concentrations and exposure to diclofenac due to inhibition of diclofenac metabolism.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis may adversely affect the pregnancy and/or the embryo/foetal development. Data from epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of miscarriage and or cardiac malformation and gastroschisis after use of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in early pregnancy. The absolute risk for cardiovascular malformation was increased from less than 1% up to approximately 1.5%.

The risk is believed to increase with dose and duration of therapy. In animals, administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor has shown to result in increased pre‐and post‐implantation loss and embryo‐foetal lethality.

In addition, increased incidences of various malformations, including cardiovascular, have been reported in animals given a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor during organogenetic period.

Diclofenac should not be used during the first two trimesters of pregnancy or labour unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risk to the foetus.

If diclofenac is used by a woman attempting to conceive, or during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, the dose should be kept as low and duration of treatment as short as possible.

During the third trimester of pregnancy, all prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose the foetus to:

- cardiopulmonary toxicity (with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension)

- renal dysfunction, which may progress to renal failure with oligo-hydroamniosis

The mother and the neonate, at the end of the pregnancy, to:

- possible prolongation of bleeding time, an anti-aggregating effect which may occur even at very low doses

- inhibition of uterine contractions resulting in delayed or prolonged labour

Consequently, diclofenac is contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Breast-feeding

In the limited studies so far available, NSAIDs can appears in the breast milk in very low concentrations. NSAIDs should, if possible, be avoided in breastfeeding in order to avoid undesirable effects in the infant (see section 5.2).

Female fertility

As with other NSAIDs, the use of diclofenac may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who may have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of diclofenac should be considered (see section 4.4).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Patients who experience visual disturbances, dizziness, vertigo, somnolence, central nervous system disturbances, drowsiness or fatigue while taking NSAIDs should refrain from driving or operating machinery.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Adverse reactions are ranked under the heading of frequency, the most frequent first, using the following convention: very common: (>1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1000); very rare (<1/10,000); not known: cannot be estimated from the available data.

The following undesirable effects include those reported with other short-term or long-term use.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very rare

Thrombocytopenia, leucopoenia, anaemia (including haemolytic and aplastic anaemia), agranulocytosis.

Immune system disorders

Rare

Hypersensitivity, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions (including hypotension and shock).

Very rare

Angioneurotic oedema (including face oedema).

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare

Disorientation, depression, insomnia, nightmare, irritability, psychotic disorder.

Nervous system disorders

Common

Headache, dizziness.

Rare

Somnolence, tiredness.

Very rare

Paraesthesia, memory impairment, convulsion, anxiety, tremor, aseptic meningitis, taste disturbances, cerebrovascular accident.

Unknown

Confusion, hallucinations, disturbances of sensation, malaise.

Eye disorders

Very rare

Visual disturbance, vision blurred, diplopia.

Unknown

Optic neuritis.

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Common

Vertigo.

Very rare

Tinnitus, hearing impaired.

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon*

Palpitations, chest pain, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction.

Not known

Kounis syndrome

Vascular disorders

Very rare

Hypertension, hypotension, vasculitis.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Rare

Asthma (including dyspnoea).

Very rare

Pneumonitis.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, flatulence, anorexia.

Rare

Gastritis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, haematemesis, haemorrhagic diarrhoea, melaena, gastrointestinal ulcer with or without bleeding or perforation (sometimes fatal particularly in the elderly).

Very rare

Colitis (including haemorrhagic colitis and exacerbation of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease), constipation, stomatitis (including ulcerative stomatitis), glossitis, oesophageal disorder, diaphragm-like intestinal strictures, pancreatitis.

Unknown

Ischaemic colitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Common

Transaminases increased.

Rare

Hepatitis, jaundice, liver disorder.

Very rare

Fulminant hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic failure.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

Rash.

Rare

Urticaria.

Very rare

Bullous eruptions, eczema, erythema, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's syndrome), dermatitis exfoliative, loss of hair, photosensitivity reaction, purpura, allergic purpura, pruritus.

Renal and urinary disorders

Very rare

Acute renal failure, haematuria, proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis, renal papillary necrosis.

General disorders and administration site conditions

Rare

Oedema

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Very rare

Impotence.

*The frequency reflect data from long-term treatment with a high dose (150mg/day)

Clinical trial and epidemiological data consistently point towards an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke) associated with the use of diclofenac, particularly at high dose (150mg daily) and in long term treatment. (see section 4.3 and 4.4 for Contraindications and Special warnings and special precautions for use).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

a) Symptoms

There is no typical clinical picture resulting from diclofenac over dosage. Symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, rarely diarrhoea, disorientation, excitation, coma, drowsiness, dizziness, tinnitus, fainting and occasionally convulsions. In cases of significant poisoning acute renal failure and liver damage are possible.

B) Therapeutic measures

Management of acute poisoning with NSAIDs, including diclofenac, essentially consists of supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Supportive measures and symptomatic treatment should be given for complications such as hypotension, renal failure, convulsions, gastrointestinal disorder, and respiratory depression.

Special measures such as forced diuresis, dialysis or haemo-perfusion are probably of no help in eliminating NSAIDs, including diclofenac, due to high protein binding and extensive metabolism.

Activated charcoal may be considered after ingestion of potentially toxic overdose, and gastric decontamination (e.g vomiting, gastric lavage) should be considered within one hour of ingestion of a potentially life-threatening overdose.

Good urine output should be ensured.

Renal and liver function should be closely monitored.

Patients should be observed for at least four hours after ingestion of potentially toxic amounts.

Frequent or prolonged convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam.

Other measures may be indicated by the patient's clinical condition.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Acetic acid derivatives and related substances, ATC code: M01AB05.

Mechanism of action

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal agent with marked analgesic/anti-inflammatory properties. It is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, (cyclo-oxygenase). Diclofenac sodium in vitro does not suppress proteoglycan biosynthesis in cartilage at concentrations equivalent to the concentrations reached in human beings.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

After ingestion of the diclofenac slow release tablet, the active principle is slowly released into the gastrointestinal contents. Once released from the tablet, diclofenac is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract but is subject to first pass metabolism. Peak plasma concentrations occur about 6-8 hours after administration of the sustained release tablets when taken with a meal. Food and antacids decrease the rate but not the extent of absorption of diclofenac. The active substance is 99.7% bound to plasma proteins, mainly albumin. Diclofenac enters the synovial fluid and peak synovial fluid concentrations at steady state exceed plasma concentrations. Furthermore, elimination from the synovial fluid is slower than from plasma. Diclofenac and its metabolites cross the placenta and traces of diclofenac have been found in the milk of lactating woman. The half-life for the terminal elimination phase is 1-2 hours. Approximately 60% of the administered dose is excreted via the kidneys in the form of metabolites and less than 1% in unchanged form. About 30% of the dose is excreted via the bile in metabolised form. In patients with impaired renal function, accumulation of diclofenac sodium has not been reported. However, half-life of diclofenac may be prolonged in patients with severe renal treatment.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Multiple dose studies were performed in rats, dogs, and monkeys. At toxic doses there were gastro-intestinal ulcers and disorders in the blood picture in all species. Genetic toxicology studies with diclofenac sodium show that diclofenac is not a mutagen. Carcinogenicity studies have been conducted in mice and rats. No carcinogenic effect has been seen.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Lactose

Magnesium Stearate

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Type I USNF (Sterotex)

Povidone K30

Talc

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store between 15°C and 25°C in a dry place.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Blister packs (Aluminium/polyvinylchloride): 20,21,28,30 tablets

Polypropylene bottles with low-density polyethylene caps: 56,100,250 & 500 tablets

High-density polyethylene bottles with low-density polyethylene screw caps:

56,100,250 & 500 tablets

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Strides Pharma UK Ltd.

Unit 4, Metro Centre

Tolpits Lane

Watford Hertfordshire

WD18 9SS

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 13606/0144

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

24/02/2009

10. Date of revision of the text

17/12/2019

Strides Pharma UK Ltd
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