This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Metformin 850mg tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

One film-coated tablet contains:

Metformin hydrochloride 850 mg

3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablets

White coloured, film-coated, round, biconvex tablets embossed '850' on one side (without break score).

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

-Non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM, type II) and, in particular, in obese patients, when adequate dietary treatment has failed.

-Metformin 500mg tablets can be given alone as initial therapy, or can be administered in combination with sulphonylureas after careful assessment of the contra-indications.

• In adults, Metformin may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other oral antidiabetic agents or with insulin.

• In children from 10 years of age and adolescents, Metformin may be used as monotherapy or in combination with insulin.

A reduction of diabetic complications has been shown in overweight type 2 diabetic adult patients treated with metformin as first-line therapy after diet failure (see section 5.1).

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults with normal renal function (GFR≥ 90 mL/min)

Monotherapy and combination with other oral antidiabetic agents

The usual starting dose is 500 mg or 850 mg metformin hydrochloride 2 or 3 times daily given during or after meals.

After 10 to 15 days the dose should be adjusted on the basis of blood glucose measurements. A slow increase of dose may improve gastrointestinal tolerability.

The maximum recommended dose of metformin hydrochloride is 3gm daily, take as 3 divided doses.

If transfer from another oral antidiabetic agent is intended: discontinue the other agent and initiate metformin at the dose indicated above.

Combination with insulin:

Metformin and insulin may be used in combination therapy to achieve better blood glucose control. Metformin hydrochloride is given at the usual starting dose of 500 mg or 850 mg 2 or 3 times daily, while insulin dosage is adjusted on the basis of blood glucose measurements.

Elderly:

Due to the potential for decreased renal function in elderly subjects, the metformin dosage should be adjusted based on renal function. Regular assessment of renal function is necessary (see section 4.4).

Patients with renal impairment

A GFR should be assessed before initiation of treatment with metformin containing products and at least annually thereafter. In patients at an increased risk of further progression of renal impairment and in the elderly, renal function should be assessed more frequently, e.g. every 3-6 months.

GFR mL/min

Total maximum daily dose (to be divided into 2-3 daily doses)

Additional considerations

60-89

3000 mg

Dose reduction may be considered in relation to declining renal function.

45-59

2000 mg

Factors that may increase the risk of lactic acidosis (see section 4.4) should be reviewed before considering initiation of metformin.

The starting dose is at most half of the maximum dose.

30-44

1000 mg

<30

-

Metformin is contraindicated.

Paediatric population

Monotherapy and combination with insulin

• Metformin can be used in children from 10 years of age and adolescents.

• The usual starting dose is 500 mg or 850 mg metformin hydrochloride once daily, given during or after meals.

After 10 to 15 days the dose should be adjusted on the basis of blood glucose measurements. A slow increase of dose may improve gastrointestinal tolerability. The maximum recommended dose of metformin hydrochloride is 2 g daily, taken as 2 or 3 divided doses.

Method of administration

For oral administration.

4.3 Contraindications

− Hypersensitivity to metformin or any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

− Diabetic pre-coma

− Severe renal failure (GFR < 30 mL/min)

− Any type of acute metabolic acidosis (such as lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis).

− Acute conditions with the potential to alter renal function such as: dehydration, severe infection, shock.

− Disease which may cause tissue hypoxia (especially acute disease, or worsening of chronic disease) such as; decompensated heart failure, respiratory failure, recent myocardial infarction, shock.

− Hepatic insufficiency, acute alcohol intoxication, alcoholism.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Lactic acidosis:

Lactic acidosis, a very rare but serious metabolic complication, most often occurs at acute worsening of renal function or cardiorespiratory illness or sepsis. Metformin accumulation occurs at acute worsening of renal function and increases the risk of lactic acidosis.

In case of dehydration (severe diarrhoea or vomiting, fever or reduced fluid intake), metformin should be temporarily discontinued and contact with a health care professional is recommended.

Medicinal products that can acutely impair renal function (such as antihypertensives, diuretics and NSAIDs) should be initiated with caution in metformin-treated patients. Other risk factors for lactic acidosis are excessive alcohol intake, hepatic insufficiency, inadequately controlled diabetes, ketosis, prolonged fasting and any conditions associated with hypoxia, as well as concomitant use of medicinal products that may cause lactic acidosis (see sections 4.3 and 4.5).

Patients and/or care-givers should be informed of the risk of lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is characterised by acidotic dyspnoea, abdominal pain, muscle cramps, asthenia and hypothermia followed by coma. In case of suspected symptoms, the patient should stop taking metformin and seek immediate medical attention. Diagnostic laboratory findings are decreased blood pH (< 7.35), increased plasma lactate levels (>5 mmol/L) and an increased anion gap and lactate/pyruvate ratio

Surgery:

Metformin must be discontinued at the time of surgery under general, spinal or epidural anesthesia. Therapy may be restarted no earlier than 48 hours following surgery or resumption of oral nutrition and provided that renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be stable.

Renal function:

GFR should be assessed before treatment initiation and regularly thereafter, see section 4.2. Metformin is contraindicated in patients with GFR <30 mL/min and should be temporarily discontinued in the presence of conditions that alter enal function, see section 4.3.

Cardiac function

Patients with heart failure are more at risk of hypoxia and renal insufficiency. In patients with stable chronic heart failure, metformin may be used with a regular monitoring of cardiac and renal function.

For patients with acute and unstable heart failure, metformin is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

Administration of iodinated contrast agent:

Intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents may lead to contrast induced nephropathy, resulting in metformin accumulation and an increased risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin should be discontinued prior to or at the time of the imaging procedure and not restarted until at least 48 hours after, provided that renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be stable, see sections 4.2 and 4.5.

Paediatric population

The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus should be confirmed before treatment with metformin is initiated. No effect of metformin and puberty has been detected during controlled clinical studies of one-year duratation but no long-term data on these specific points are available. Therefore, a careful follow-up of the effect of metformin on these parameters in metformin-treated children, especially pre-pubescent children, is recommended.

Children aged between 10 and 12 years

Only 15 subjects aged between 10 and 12 years were included in the controlled clinical studies conducted in children and adolescents. Although efficacy and safety of metformin in these children did not differ from efficacy and safety in older children and adolescents, particular caution is recommended when prescribing to children aged between 10 and 12 years.

Other precautions

Metformin alone does not cause hypoglycaemia, but caution is advised when it is used in combination with insulin or other oral antidiabetics (e.g. sulfonylureas or meglitinides).

All patients should continue their diet with a regular distribution of carbohydrate intake during the day. Overweight patients should continue their energy-restricted diet.

The usual laboratory tests for diabetes monitoring should be performed regularly.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Concomitant use not recommended

Alcohol

• Alcohol intoxication is associated with an increased risk of lactic acidosis, particularly in cases of fasting, malnutrition or hepatic impairment.

Iodinated contrast agents:

Metformin must be discontinued prior to or at the time of the imaging procedure and not restarted until at least 48 hours after, provided that renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be stable, see sections 4.2 and 4.4.

Combinations requiring precautions for use

Some medicinal products can adversely affect renal function which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, e.g. NSAIDs, including selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX) II inhibitors, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and diuretics, especially loop diuretics. When starting or using such products in combination with metformin, close monitoring of renal function is necessary.

Medicinal products with intrinsic hyperglycaemic activity (e.g glucocorticoids (systemic and local routes)

More frequent blood glucose monitoring may be required, especially at the beginning of treatment. If necessary, adjust the metformin dosage during therapy with the respective medicinal product and upon its discontinuation.

Organic cation transporters (OCT)

Metformin is a substrate of both transporters OCT1 and OCT2.

Co-administration of metformin with

• Inhibitors of OCT1 (such as verapamil) may reduce efficacy of metformin.

• Inducers of OCT1 (such as rifampicin) may increase gastrointestinal absorption and efficacy of metformin.

• Inhibitors of OCT2 (such as cimetidine, dolutegravir, ranolazine, trimethoprime, vandetanib, isavuconazole) may decrease the renal elimination of metformin and thus lead to an increase in metformin plasma concentration.

• Inhibitors of both OCT1 and OCT2 (such as crizotinib, olaparib) may alter efficacy and renal elimination of metformin.

Caution is therefore advised, especially in patients with renal impairment, when these drugs are co-administered with metformin, as metformin plasma concentration may increase. If needed, dose adjustment of metformin may be considered as OCT inhibitors/inducers may alter the efficacy of metformin.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

Uncontrolled diabetes during pregnancy (gestational or permanent) is associated with increased risk of congenital abnormalities and perinatal mortality.

A limited amount of data from the use of metformin in pregnant women does not indicate an increased risk of congenital abnormalities. Animal studies do not indicate harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonic or foetal development, parturition or postnatal development (see section 5.3).

When the patient plans to become pregnant and during pregnancy, it is recommended that diabetes is not treated with metformin but insulin be used to maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible, to reduce the risk of malformation of the foetus.

Breast-feeding

Metformin is excreted into human breast milk. No adverse effects were observed in breastfed newborns/infants. However, as only limited data are available, breast-feeding is not recommended during metformin treatment. A decision on whether to discontinue breast-feeding should be made, taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding and the potential risk to adverse effects on the child.

Fertility

Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately three times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparisons.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

When used as monotherapy metformin does not cause hypoglycaemia and influence the ability to drive or operate machinery. In cases of combined therapy with sulphonylureas or other drugs (insulin or meglitinides), with blood glucose lowering effects, hypoglycaemia may occur and, hence, such combinations may produce minor or moderate adverse effects. Patients undergoing such combination therapy should be warned about the possible adverse effects of hypoglycaemia.

4.8 Undesirable effects

During treatment initiation, the most common adverse reactions are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and loss of appetite which resolve spontaneously in most cases. To prevent them, it is recommended to take Metformin in 2 or 3 daily doses and to increase slowly the doses.

The following adverse reactions may occur under treatment with metformin. Frequencies are defined as follows: very common: ≥1/10; common >1/100, <1/10; uncommon >1/1,000, <1/100; rare >1/10,000, <1/1,000; very rare <1/10,000.

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Nervous System Disorders:

Common: Taste disturbance

Immune System Disorders:

Very rare: Hypersensitivity (including hypersensitivity reactions of the skin).

Metabolism & Nutrition Disorders:

Very rare: megaloblastic anaemia due to decreased absorption of Vitamin B12 or folic acid (see Section 4.4); Lactic acidosis (symptoms include gastrointestinal disorders, muscle pains, muscle spasms, fatigue, dyspnoea, hyperthermia, hyperventilation, decrease of blood pH, increase of lactate value, clouding of consciousness and coma).

On suspicion of lactic acidosis, metformin therapy must be immediately stopped and the patient must be treated at once as an emergency in hospital.

Gastro-intestinal disorders:

Very common: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, anorexia and metallic taste and loss of appetite. These undesirable effects occur most frequently during initiation of therapy and resolve spontaneously in most cases. To prevent them, it is recommended that metformin be taken in 2 or 3 daily doses during or after meals. A slow increase of the dose may also improve gastrointestinal tolerability.

Hepatobiliary disorders:

Very Rare: liver function test abnormal; hepatitis resolving upon discontinuation of Metformin

Skin & Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:

Very rare: erythema, pruritus, urticaria

Paediatric population:

In published and post marketing data and in controlled clinical studies in a limited paediatric population aged 10 to 16 years treated during 1 year, adverse event reporting was similar in nature and severity to that reported in adults.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

Hypoglycaemia has not been seen with metformin hydrochloride doses of up to 85 g, although lactic acidosis has occurred in such circumstances. High overdose of metformin or concomitant risks may lead to lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency and must be treated in hospital. The most effective method to remove lactate and metformin is haemodialysis

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Metformin is a biguanide oral antihyperglycaemic agent (ATC Code A10B A02) and reduces elevated blood glucose levels only in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), but does not increase insulin secretion and does not cause hypoglycaemia or increased weight gain. Its mode of action is multifactorial and not yet completely understood. However, the augmentation of glucose uptake into peripheral tissues may influence glucose utilisation. Furthermore, the effects of metformin include reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis and delayed intestinal glucose absorption which may explain the blood glucose-lowering effect. The efficacy of metformin is dependent on a minimum concentration of insulin. A slight influence of the insulin secretion by metformin is possible but a clinical relevance is not very likely. Metformin seems to potentiate insulin action by enhancing insulin binding to its receptors and by facilitating steps in the post-receptor pathways of insulin-action. Apart from the glucose-lowering effect, metformin reduces the serum triglyceride level and possesses antithrombotic properties.

Metformin stimulates intracellular glycogen synthesis by acting on glycogen synthase.

Metformin increases the transport capacity of all types of membrane glucose transporters (GLUTs) known to date.

Pharmacodynamic effects

In clinical studies, use of metformin was associated with either a stable body weight or modest weight loss.

In humans, independently of its action on glycaemia, metformin has favourable effects on lipid metabolism. This has been shown at therapeutic doses in controlled, medium-term or long-term clinical studies: metformin reduces total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Clinical efficacy

The prospective randomised study (UKPDS) has established the long-term benefit of intensive blood glucose control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes.

Analysis of the results for overweight patients treated with metformin after failure of diet alone showed:

• a significant reduction of the absolute risk of any diabetes-related complication in the metformin group (29.8 events/1000 patient-years) versus diet alone (43.3 events/1000 patient-years), p=0.0023, and versus the combined sulfonylurea and insulin monotherapy groups (40.1 events/1000 patient-years), p=0.0034;

• a significant reduction of the absolute risk of diabetes-related mortality: metformin 7.5 events/1000 patient-years, diet alone 12.7 events/1000 patient-years, p=0.017;

• a significant reduction of the absolute risk of overall mortality: metformin 13.5 events/1000 patient-years versus diet alone 20.6 events/1000 patient-years (p=0.011), and versus the combined sulfonylurea and insulin monotherapy groups 18.9 events/1000 patient-years (p=0.021);

• a significant reduction in the absolute risk of myocardial infarction: metformin 11 events/1000 patient-years, diet alone 18 events/1000 patient-years (p=0.01).

Benefit regarding clinical outcome has not been shown for metformin used as second-line therapy, in combination with a sulfonylurea.

In type 1 diabetes, the combination of metformin and insulin has been used in selected patients, but the clinical benefit of this combination has not been formally established.

Paediatric population

Controlled clinical studies in a limited paediatric population aged 10-16 years treated during 1 year demonstrated a similar response in glycaemic control to that seen in adults.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

After oral administration metformin is incompletely absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract. The oral bioavailability of usual doses is 50 - 60 %. The maximum plasma concentration is achieved after about 2 hours. Gastrointestinal absorption is complete within 6 hours of ingestion. The volume of distribution lies between 63 and 276 litres. Metformin is rapidly distributed but a slow transfer to a deep compartment seems to occur. Metformin does not bind to plasma proteins but accumulates in the salivary glands, duodenum, kidneys and liver. No metabolites or conjugates of metformin have been identified. Metformin is completely eliminated by renal excretion and the mean plasma elimination half-life ranges between 1.5 and 4.5 hours. A quantitatively minor terminal elimination phase, probably out of the deep compartment, with a longer mean half-life ranging from 8.9 to 19 hours, has been observed. The renal clearance of metformin ranges between 350 and 550 ml/min and correlates with the creatinine clearance, indicating that metformin is excreted by active tubular secretion. In patients with impaired renal function accumulation of metformin is probable.

Characteristics in specific groups of patients

Renal impairment

The available data in subjects with moderate renal insufficiency are scarce and no reliable estimation of the systemic exposure to metformin in this subgroup as compared to subjects with normal renal function could be made. Therefore, the dose adaptation should be made upon clinical efficacy/tolerability considerations (see section 4.2).

Paediatric population

Single dose study: After single doses of metformin hydrochloride 500 mg paediatric patients have shown similar pharmacokinetic profile to that observed in healthy adults.

Multiple dose study: Data are restricted to one study. After repeated doses of 500 mg twice daily for 7 days in paediatric patients the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUC0-t) were reduced by approximately 33% and 40%, respectively compared to diabetic adults who received repeated doses of 500 mg twice daily for 14 days. As the dose is individually titrated based on glycaemic control, this is of limited clinical relevance.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Preclinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies on safety, pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential and reproductive toxicity.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Core

- Sodium starch glycollate

- Maize starch

- Povidone

- Colloidal anhydrous silica

- Magnesium stearate

Film-coating

- Hypromellose

- Titanium dioxide E 171

- Propylene glycol

- Macrogol 6000

- Purified talc

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Blister pack of 28, 42, 56 or 84 film-coated tablets (not all pack sizes may be marketed)

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Special Concept Development (UK) Ltd

Units 1-7 Colonial Way

Watford

Hertfordshire

WD24 4YR

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 36722/0031

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

4 January 2001

10. Date of revision of the text

14/06/2018