Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine because it contains important information for you.
Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.
If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours.
If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet (see section 4).
What is in this leaflet
1. What risperidone is and what it is used for
2. What you need to know before you take risperidone
3. How to take risperidone
4. Possible side effects
5. How to store risperidone
6. Contents of the pack and other information
1. WHAT RISPERIDONE IS AND WHAT IT IS USED FOR
Risperidone 0.25 mg film-coated tablets (risperidone) belongs to a group of medicines called ‘antipsychotics’ and is used to treat the following:
Schizophrenia, where you may see, hear or feel things that are not there, believe things that are not true or feel unusually suspicious, or confused
Mania, where you may feel very excited, elated, agitated, enthusiastic or hyperactive. Mania occurs in an illness called “bipolar disorder”
Short-term treatment (up to 6 weeks) of long-term aggression in people with Alzheimer’s dementia, who harm themselves or others. Alternative (non-drug) treatments should have been used previously
Short-term treatment (up to 6 weeks) of long-term aggression in intellectually disabled children (at least 5 years of age) and adolescents with conduct disorder.
Risperidone can help alleviate the symptoms of your disease and stop your symptoms from coming back.
2. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU TAKE RISPERIDONE
Do not take risperidone
If you are allergic (hypersensitive) to risperidone or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6).
If you are not sure if the above applies to you, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before using risperidone.
Warnings and precautions
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking risperidone if:
You have a heart problem. Examples include an irregular heart rhythm or if you are prone to low blood pressure or if you are using medicines for your blood pressure.
Risperidone may cause low blood pressure. Your dose may need to be adjusted
You know of any factors which would favour you having a stroke, such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disorder or blood vessel problems in the brain
You have ever experienced involuntary movements of the tongue, mouth and face
You have ever had a condition whose symptoms include high temperature, muscle stiffness, sweating or a lowered level of consciousness (also known as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome)
You have Parkinson’s disease or dementia
You know that you have had low levels of white blood cells in the past (which may or may not have been caused by other medicines)
You are diabetic
You have epilepsy
You are a man and you have ever had a prolonged or painful erection
You have problems controlling your body temperature or overheating
You have kidney problems
You have liver problems
You have an abnormally high level of the hormone prolactin in your blood or if you have a possible prolactin-dependent tumour.
You or someone else in your family has a history of blood clots, as antipsychotics have been associated with formation of blood clots.
If you are not sure if any of the above applies to you, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before using risperidone.
As dangerously low numbers of a certain type of white blood cell needed to fight infection in your blood has been seen very rarely with patients taking risperidone, your doctor may check your white blood cell counts.
Risperidone may cause you to gain weight. Significant weight gain may adversely affect your health. Your doctor should regularly measure your body weight.
As diabetes mellitus or worsening of pre-existing diabetes mellitus have been seen with patients taking risperidone, your doctor should check for signs of high blood sugar. In patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus blood glucose should be monitored regularly.
Risperidone commonly raises levels of a hormone called “prolactin”. This may cause side effects such as menstrual disorders or fertility problems in women, breast swelling in men (see Possible side effects). If such side effects occur, evaluation of the prolactin level in the blood is recommended.
During an operation on the eye for cloudiness of the lens (cataract), the pupil (the black circle in the middle of your eye) may not increase in size as needed. Also, the iris (the coloured part of the eye) may become floppy during surgery and that may lead to eye damage. If you are planning to have an operation on your eye, make sure you tell your eye doctor that you are taking this medicine.
Elderly people with dementia
In elderly patients with dementia, there is an increased risk of stroke. You should not take risperidone if you have dementia caused by stroke.
During treatment with risperidone you should frequently see your doctor.
Medical treatment should be sought straight away if you or your caregiver notice a sudden change in your mental state or sudden weakness or numbness of your face, arms or legs, especially on one side, or slurred speech, even for a short period of time. These may be signs of a stroke.
Children and adolescents
Before treatment is started for conduct disorder, other causes of aggressive behaviour should have been ruled out.
If during treatment with risperidone tiredness occurs, a change in the time of administration might improve attention difficulties.
Before treatment is started your, or your child’s body weight may be measured and it may be regularly monitored during treatment.
A small and inconclusive study has reported an increase in height in children who took risperidone, but whether this is an effect of the drug or due to some other reason is not known.
Other medicines and risperidone
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines.
It is especially important to talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any of the following:
Medicines that work on your brain to help you calm down (benzodiazepines) or some medicines for pain (opiates), medicines for allergies (some antihistamines), as risperidone may increase the sedative effect of all of these
Medicines that may change the electrical activity of your heart, such as medicines for malaria, heart rhythm problems, allergies (antihistamines), some antidepressants or other medicines for mental problems
Medicines that cause a slow heart beat
Medicines that cause low blood potassium (such as certain diuretics)
Medicines to treat raised blood pressure. Risperidone can lower blood pressure
Medicines for Parkinson’s disease (such as levodopa)
Medicines that increase the activity of the central nervous system (psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate)
Water tablets (diuretics) used for heart problems or swelling of parts of your body due to a build-up of too much fluid (such as furosemide or chlorothiazide). Risperidone taken by itself or with furosemide, may have an increased risk of stroke or death in elderly people with dementia.
The following medicines may reduce the effect of risperidone:
Rifampicin (a medicine for treating some infections)
Carbamazepine, phenytoin (medicines for epilepsy)
If you start or stop taking these medicines you may need a different dose of risperidone.
The following medicines may increase the effect of risperidone:
Quinidine (used for certain types of heart disease)
Antidepressants such as paroxetine, fluoxetine, tricyclic antidepressants
Medicines known as beta-blockers (used to treat high blood pressure)
Phenothiazines (such as medicines used to treat psychosis or to calm down)
Cimetidine, ranitidine (blockers of the acidity of the stomach)
Itraconazole and ketoconazole (medicines for treating fungal infections)
Certain medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, such as ritonavir
Verapamil, a medicine used to treat high blood pressure and/or abnormal heart rhythm
Sertraline and fluvoxamine, medicines used to treat depression and other psychiatric disorders.
If you start or stop taking such medicines you may need a different dose of risperidone.
If you are not sure if any of the above applies to you, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before using risperidone.
Risperidone with food, drink and alcohol
You can take this medicine with or without food. You should avoid drinking alcohol when taking risperidone.
Pregnancy, breast-feeding and fertility
If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice before taking this medicine. Your doctor will decide if you can take it.
The following symptoms may occur in new-born babies, of mothers that have used risperidone in the last trimester (last three months of their pregnancy): shaking, muscle stiffness, and/or weakness, sleepiness, agitation, breathing problems, and difficulty in feeding. If your baby develops any of these symptoms you may need to contact your doctor.
Risperidone can raise your levels of a hormone called “prolactin” that may impact fertility (see Possible side effects).
Driving and using machines
Dizziness, tiredness, and vision problems may occur during treatment with risperidone. Do not drive or use any tools or machines without talking to your doctor first.
Risperidone film-coated tablets contain lactose
The film-coated tablets contain lactose, a type of sugar. If you have been told by your doctor that you have intolerance to some sugars, contact your doctor before taking this medicinal product.
3. HOW TO TAKE RISPERIDONE
Always take this medicine exactly as your doctor has told you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure.
The recommended dose is as follows:
For the treatment of schizophrenia
The usual starting dose is 2 mg per day, this may be increased to 4 mg per day on the second day
Your dose may then be adjusted by your doctor depending on how you respond to the treatment
Most people feel better with daily doses of 4 to 6 mg
This total daily dose can be divided into either one or two doses a day. Your doctor will tell you which is the best for you.
Your starting dose will normally be 0.5 mg twice a day
Your dose may then be gradually increased by your doctor to 1 mg to 2 mg twice a day
Your doctor will tell you which is the best for you.
For the treatment of mania
Your starting dose will usually be 2 mg once a day
Your dose may then be gradually adjusted by your doctor depending on how you respond to the treatment
Most people feel better with doses of 1 to 6 mg once a day
Your starting dose will usually be 0.5 mg twice a day
Your dose may then be gradually adjusted by your doctor to 1 mg to 2 mg twice a day depending on how much you respond to the treatment.
For the treatment of long-standing aggression in people with Alzheimer’s dementia
Adults (including elderly people)
Your starting dose will normally be 0.25mg (of an oral solution) twice a day
Your dose may then be gradually adjusted by your doctor depending on how you respond to the treatment
Most people feel better with 0.5 mg twice a day. Some patients may need 1 mg twice a day
Treatment duration in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia should be not more than 6 weeks.
Use in children and adolescents
Children and adolescents under 18 years old should not be treated with risperidone for schizophrenia or mania.
For the treatment of conduct disorder
The dose will depend on your child’s weight:
For children who weigh less than 50 kg
The starting dose will normally be 0.25 mg (of an oral solution) once a day
The dose may be increased every other day in steps of 0.25 mg per day.
The usual maintenance dose is 0.25 mg to 0.75 mg (of an oral solution) once a day.
For children who weigh 50 kg or more
The starting dose will normally be 0.5 mg once a day
The dose may be increased every other day in steps of 0.5 mg per day.
The usual maintenance dose is 0.5 mg to 1.5 mg once a day.
Treatment duration in patients with conduct disorder should be not more than 6 weeks.
Children under 5 years old should not be treated with risperidone for conduct disorder.
People with kidney or liver problems
Regardless of the disease to be treated, all starting doses and following doses of risperidone should be halved. Dose increases should be slower in these patients.
Risperidone should be used with caution in this patient group.
Method of administration
For oral use
You should swallow your tablet with a drink of water
If you take more risperidone than you should
See a doctor right away. Take the medicine pack with you
In case of overdose you may feel sleepy or tired, or have abnormal body movements, problems standing and walking, feel dizzy due to low blood pressure, or have abnormal heartbeats or fits.
If you forget to take risperidone
If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue as usual. If you miss two or more doses, contact your doctor
Do not take a double dose (two doses at the same time) to make up for a forgotten dose.
If you stop taking risperidone
You should not stop taking this medicine unless told to do so by your doctor. Your symptoms may return. If your doctor decides to stop this medicine, your dose may be decreased gradually over a few days.
If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
4. POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS
Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them.
Tell your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following uncommon side effects (may affect up to 1 in 100 people):
Dementia and experience a sudden change in your mental state or sudden weakness or numbness of your face, arms or legs, especially on one side, or slurred speech, even for a short period of time. These may be signs of a stroke
Tardive dyskinesia (twitching or jerking movements that you cannot control in your face, tongue, or other parts of your body). Tell your doctor immediately if you experience involuntary rhythmic movements of the tongue, mouth and face as withdrawal of risperidone may be needed
Tell your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following rare side effects (may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people):
Blood clots in the veins, especially in the legs (symptoms include swelling, pain and redness in the leg), which may travel through blood vessels to the lungs causing chest pain and difficulty breathing. If you notice any of these symptoms seek medical advice immediately
Fever, muscle stiffness, sweating or a lowered level of consciousness (a disorder called “Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome”). Immediate medical treatment may be needed
You are a man and experience a prolonged or painful erection. This is called priapism. Immediate medical treatment may be needed
A severe allergic reaction characterised by fever, swollen mouth, face, lip or tongue, shortness of breath, itching, skin rash or drop in blood pressure.
Other side effects include:
Very common side effects (may affect more than 1 in 10 people):
Difficulty falling or staying asleep
Parkinsonism: This condition may include slow or impaired movement, sensations of stiffness or tightness of the muscles (making your movements jerky), and sometimes even a sensation of movement “freezing up” and then restarting. Other signs of parkinsonism include a slow shuffling walk, a tremor while at rest, increased saliva and/or drooling and a loss of expression on the face
Feeling sleepy or less alert
Common side effects (may affect up to 1 in 10 people):
Pneumonia, infection of the chest (bronchitis), common cold symptoms, sinus infection, urinary tract infection, ear infection, feeling like you have the flu
Raised levels of a hormone called “prolactin” found in a blood test (which may or may not cause symptoms).
Symptoms of high prolactin occur uncommonly and may include in men breast swelling, difficulty in getting or maintaining erections, decreased sexual desire or other sexual dysfunction. In women they may include breast discomfort, leakage of milk from the breasts, missed menstrual periods or other problems with your cycle or fertility problems
Weight gain, increased appetite, decreased appetite
Dystonia: This is a condition involving slow or sustained involuntary contraction of muscles. While it can involve any part of the body (and may result in abnormal posture), dystonia often involves muscles of the face, including abnormal movements of the eyes, mouth, tongue or jaw
Dyskinesia: This is a condition involving involuntary muscle movements, and can include repetitive, spastic or writhing movements or twitching
Blurry vision, eye infection or “pink eye”
Rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, shortness of breath
Muscle spasms, bone or muscle ache, back pain, joint pain
Incontinence (lack of control) of urine
Swelling of the body, arms or legs, fever, chest pain, weakness, fatigue (tiredness), pain
Uncommon side effects (may affect up to 1 in 100 people):
Infection of the breathing passages, bladder infection, eye infections, tonsillitis, fungal infection of the nails, infections of the skin, an infection confined to a single area of skin or part of the body, viral infections, skin inflammation caused by mites
Decrease in the type of white blood cells that help to protect you against infection, white blood cell count decrease, decrease in platelets (blood cells that help you stop bleeding), anaemia, decrease in red blood cells, increase in eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in your blood
Diabetes or worsening of diabetes, high blood sugar, excessive drinking of water
Weight loss, loss of appetite resulting in malnutrition and low body weight
Increased cholesterol in your blood
Elated mood (mania), confusion, decreased sexual drive, nervousness, nightmares
Unresponsiveness to stimuli, loss of consciousness, low levels of consciousness
Convulsion (fits), fainting
A restless urge to move parts of your body, balance disorder, abnormal coordination, dizziness upon standing, disturbance in attention, problems with speech, loss or abnormal sense of taste, reduced sensation of skin to pain and touch, a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of skin
Oversensitivity of the eyes to light, dry eye, increased tears, redness of the eyes
Sensation of spinning (vertigo), ringing in the ears, ear pain
Atrial fibrillation (an abnormal heart rhythm), an interruption in conduction between the upper and lower parts of the heart, abnormal electrical conduction of the heart, prolongation of the QT interval from your heart, slow heart rate, abnormal electrical tracing of the heart (electrocardiogram or ECG), a fluttering or pounding feeling in your chest (palpitations)
Low blood pressure, low blood pressure upon standing (consequently, some people taking risperidone may feel faint, dizzy, or may pass out when they stand up or sit up suddenly), flushing
Pneumonia caused by inhaling food, lung congestion, congestion of breathing passages, crackly lung sounds, wheezing, voice disorders, breathing passage disorders
Stomach or intestinal infection, bowel incontinence, very hard stools, difficulty swallowing, excessive passing of gas or wind
Hives (or “nettle rash”), itching, hair loss, thickening of the skin, eczema, dry skin, skin discolouration, acne, flaky, itchy scalp or skin, skin disorders, skin lesions
An increase of CPK (creatine phosphokinase) in your blood, an enzyme which is sometimes released with muscle breakdown
Increased liver transaminases in your blood, increased GGT (a liver enzyme called gamma-glutamyltransferase) in your blood, increased liver enzymes in your blood
Rare side effects (may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people):
Inappropriate secretions of a hormone that controls urine volume
Sleep-related eating disorders
Sugar in the urine, low blood sugar, high blood triglycerides (a fat)
Lack of emotion, inability to reach orgasm
Not moving or responding while awake (catatonia)
Blood vessel problems in the brain
Coma due to uncontrolled diabetes
Shaking of the head
Glaucoma (increased pressure within the eyeball), problems with movement of your eyes, eye rolling, eyelid margin crusting
Eye problems during cataract surgery. During cataract surgery, a condition called intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) can happen if you take or have taken risperidone. If you need to have cataract surgery, be sure to tell your eye doctor if you take or have taken this medicine
Dangerously low numbers of a certain type of white blood cell needed to fight infection in your blood
Dangerously excessive intake of water
Irregular heart beat
Trouble breathing during sleep (sleep apnoea), fast, shallow breathing
Inflammation of the pancreas, a blockage in the bowels
Swollen tongue, chapped lips, a rash on skin
Breakdown of muscle fibres and pain in muscles (rhabdomyolysis)
A delay in menstrual periods, enlargement of the glands in your breasts, breast enlargement, discharge from the breasts
Increased insulin (a hormone that controls blood sugar levels) in your blood
Hardening of the skin
Decreased body temperature, coldness in arms and legs
Symptoms of drug withdrawal
Yellowing of the skin and the eyes (jaundice).
Very rare side effects (may affect up to 1 in 10,000 people):
Life threatening complications of uncontrolled diabetes
Serious allergic reaction with swelling that may involve the throat and lead to difficulty breathing
Lack of bowel muscle movement that causes blockages.
Not known (frequency cannot be estimated from the available data):
Severe or life-threatening rash with blisters and peeling skin that may start in and around the mouth, nose, eyes, and genitals and spread to other areas of the body (Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis).
The following side effect has been seen with the use of another medicine called paliperidone that is very similar to risperidone, so these can also be expected with risperidone: Rapid heartbeat upon standing.
Additional side effects in children and adolescents
In general, side effects in children are expected to be similar to those in adults.
The following side effects were reported more often in children and adolescents (5 to 17 years) than in adults: feeling sleepy, or less alert, fatigue (tiredness), headache, increased appetite, vomiting, common cold symptoms, nasal congestion, abdominal pain, dizziness, cough, fever, tremor (shaking), diarrhoea, and incontinence (lack of control) of urine.
Reporting of side effects
If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.
This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. You can also report side effects directly via the Yellow Card Scheme Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store. By reporting side-effects you can help provide more information on the safety of this medicine.
5. HOW TO STORE RISPERIDONE
Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.
Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the blister and carton. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.
Store below 25°C
Blister packs: Store in the original package in order to protect light and moisture.
Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. These measures will help protect the environment.
6. CONTENTS OF THE PACK AND OTHER INFORMATION
What risperidone contains
The active substance is risperidone. Each film-coated tablet contains 0.25 mg of risperidone.