POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
PosologyThe usual recommended initial and maintenance dose is 150 mg once daily, with or without food. Aprovel at a dose of 150 mg once daily generally provides a better 24 hour blood pressure control than 75 mg. However, initiation of therapy with 75 mg could be considered, particularly in haemodialysed patients and in the elderly over 75 years.In patients insufficiently controlled with 150 mg once daily, the dose of Aprovel can be increased to 300 mg, or other antihypertensive agents can be added (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 5.1). In particular, the addition of a diuretic such as hydrochlorothiazide has been shown to have an additive effect with Aprovel (see section 4.5).In hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients, therapy should be initiated at 150 mg irbesartan once daily and titrated up to 300 mg once daily as the preferred maintenance dose for treatment of renal disease.The demonstration of renal benefit of Aprovel in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients is based on studies where irbesartan was used in addition to other antihypertensive agents, as needed, to reach target blood pressure (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 5.1).
Special PopulationsRenal impairment: no dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with impaired renal function. A lower starting dose (75 mg) should be considered for patients undergoing haemodialysis (see section 4.4).Hepatic impairment: no dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. There is no clinical experience in patients with severe hepatic impairment.Older people: although consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 75 mg in patients over 75 years of age, dosage adjustment is not usually necessary for older people.Paediatric population: the safety and efficacy of Aprovel in children aged 0 to 18 has not been established. Currently available data are described in section 4.8, 5.1 and 5.2 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.
Method of AdministrationFor oral use.
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS):There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure. ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.Hyperkalaemia: as with other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hyperkalaemia may occur during the treatment with Aprovel, especially in the presence of renal impairment, overt proteinuria due to diabetic renal disease, and/or heart failure. Close monitoring of serum potassium in patients at risk is recommended (see section 4.5).Lithium: the combination of lithium and Aprovel is not recommended (see section 4.5).Aortic and mitral valve stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: as with other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.Primary aldosteronism: patients with primary aldosteronism generally will not respond to antihypertensive medicinal products acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of Aprovel is not recommended.General: in patients whose vascular tone and renal function depend predominantly on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g. patients with severe congestive heart failure or underlying renal disease, including renal artery stenosis), treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor antagonists that affect this system has been associated with acute hypotension, azotaemia, oliguria, or rarely acute renal failure (see section 4.5). As with any antihypertensive agent, excessive blood pressure decrease in patients with ischaemic cardiopathy or ischaemic cardiovascular disease could result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.As observed for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, irbesartan and the other angiotensin antagonists are apparently less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non-blacks, possibly because of higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population (see section 5.1).Pregnancy: Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists (AIIRAs) should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued AIIRA therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative antihypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with AIIRAs should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started (see sections 4.3 and 4.6).Lactose: this medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.Paediatric population: irbesartan has been studied in paediatric populations aged 6 to 16 years old but the current data are insufficient to support an extension of the use in children until further data become available (see sections 4.8, 5.1 and 5.2).
|The use of AIIRAs is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.4). The use of AIIRAs is contraindicated during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).|
FertilityIrbesartan had no effect upon fertility of treated rats and their offspring up to the dose levels inducing the first signs of parental toxicity (see section 5.3).
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders|
|Immune system disorders:|
|Not known:||hypersensitivity reactions such as angioedema, rash, urticaria|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders:|
|Nervous system disorders:|
|Common:Not known:||dizziness, orthostatic dizziness*vertigo, headache|
|Ear and labyrinth disorder:|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:|
|Common:Uncommon:Not known:||nausea/vomitingdiarrhoea, dyspepsia/heartburndysgeusia|
|Uncommon:Not known:||jaundicehepatitis, abnormal liver function|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:|
|Not known:||leukocytoclastic vasculitis|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders:|
|Common:Not known:||musculoskeletal pain*arthralgia, myalgia (in some cases associated with increased plasma creatine kinase levels), muscle cramps|
|Renal and urinary disorders:|
|Not known:||impaired renal function including cases of renal failure in patients at risk (see section 4.4)|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders:|
|General disorders and administration site conditions:|
|Very common:||Hyperkalaemia* occurred more often in diabetic patients treated with irbesartan than with placebo. In diabetic hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria and normal renal function, hyperkalaemia (≥ 5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 29.4% of the patients in the irbesartan 300 mg group and 22% of the patients in the placebo group. In diabetic hypertensive patients with chronic renal insufficiency and overt proteinuria, hyperkalaemia (≥ 5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 46.3% of the patients in the irbesartan group and 26.3% of the patients in the placebo group.|
|Common:||significant increases in plasma creatine kinase were commonly observed (1.7%) in irbesartan treated subjects. None of these increases were associated with identifiable clinical musculoskeletal events. In 1.7% of hypertensive patients with advanced diabetic renal disease treated with irbesartan, a decrease in haemoglobin*, which was not clinically significant, has been observed.|
HypertensionIrbesartan lowers blood pressure with minimal change in heart rate. The decrease in blood pressure is dose-related for once a day doses with a tendency towards plateau at doses above 300 mg. Doses of 150-300 mg once daily lower supine or seated blood pressures at trough (i.e. 24 hours after dosing) by an average of 8-13/5-8 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic) greater than those associated with placebo.Peak reduction of blood pressure is achieved within 3-6 hours after administration and the blood pressure lowering effect is maintained for at least 24 hours. At 24 hours the reduction of blood pressure was 60-70% of the corresponding peak diastolic and systolic responses at the recommended doses. Once daily dosing with 150 mg produced trough and mean 24 hour responses similar to twice daily dosing on the same total dose.The blood pressure lowering effect of Aprovel is evident within 1-2 weeks, with the maximal effect occurring by 4-6 weeks after start of therapy. The antihypertensive effects are maintained during long term therapy. After withdrawal of therapy, blood pressure gradually returns toward baseline. Rebound hypertension has not been observed.The blood pressure lowering effects of irbesartan and thiazide-type diuretics are additive. In patients not adequately controlled by irbesartan alone, the addition of a low dose of hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) to irbesartan once daily results in a further placebo-adjusted blood pressure reduction at trough of 7-10/3-6 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic).The efficacy of Aprovel is not influenced by age or gender. As is the case with other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin system, black hypertensive patients have notably less response to irbesartan monotherapy. When irbesartan is administered concomitantly with a low dose of hydrochlorothiazide (e.g. 12.5 mg daily), the antihypertensive response in black patients approaches that of white patients.There is no clinically important effect on serum uric acid or urinary uric acid secretion.
Paediatric populationReduction of blood pressure with 0.5 mg/kg (low), 1.5 mg/kg (medium) and 4.5 mg/kg (high) target titrated doses of irbesartan was evaluated in 318 hypertensive or at risk (diabetic, family history of hypertension) children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years over a three week period. At the end of the three weeks the mean reduction from baseline in the primary efficacy variable, trough seated systolic blood pressure (SeSBP) was 11.7 mmHg (low dose), 9.3 mmHg (medium dose), 13.2 mmHg (high dose). No significant difference was apparent between these doses. Adjusted mean change of trough seated diastolic blood pressure (SeDBP) was as follows: 3.8 mmHg (low dose), 3.2 mmHg (medium dose), 5.6 mmHg (high dose). Over a subsequent two week period where patients were re-randomized to either active medicinal product or placebo, patients on placebo had increases of 2.4 and 2.0 mmHg in SeSBP and SeDBP compared to +0.1 and -0.3 mmHg changes respectively in those on all doses of irbesartan (see section 4.2).
Hypertension and type 2 diabetes with renal diseaseThe Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT) shows that irbesartan decreases the progression of renal disease in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and overt proteinuria. IDNT was a double blind, controlled, morbidity and mortality trial comparing Aprovel, amlodipine and placebo. In 1,715 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, proteinuria ≥ 900 mg/day and serum creatinine ranging from 1.0-3.0 mg/dl, the long-term effects (mean 2.6 years) of Aprovel on the progression of renal disease and all-cause mortality were examined. Patients were titrated from 75 mg to a maintenance dose of 300 mg Aprovel, from 2.5 mg to 10 mg amlodipine, or placebo as tolerated. Patients in all treatment groups typically received between 2 and 4 antihypertensive agents (e.g., diuretics, beta blockers, alpha blockers) to reach a predefined blood pressure goal of ≤ 135/85 mmHg or a 10 mmHg reduction in systolic pressure if baseline was > 160 mmHg. Sixty per cent (60%) of patients in the placebo group reached this target blood pressure whereas this figure was 76% and 78% in the irbesartan and amlodipine groups respectively. Irbesartan significantly reduced the relative risk in the primary combined endpoint of doubling serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or all-cause mortality. Approximately 33% of patients in the irbesartan group reached the primary renal composite endpoint compared to 39% and 41% in the placebo and amlodipine groups [20% relative risk reduction versus placebo (p = 0.024) and 23% relative risk reduction compared to amlodipine (p = 0.006)]. When the individual components of the primary endpoint were analysed, no effect in all cause mortality was observed, while a positive trend in the reduction in ESRD and a significant reduction in doubling of serum creatinine were observed.Subgroups consisting of gender, race, age, duration of diabetes, baseline blood pressure, serum creatinine, and albumin excretion rate were assessed for treatment effect. In the female and black subgroups which represented 32% and 26% of the overall study population respectively, a renal benefit was not evident, although the confidence intervals do not exclude it. As for the secondary endpoint of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, there was no difference among the three groups in the overall population, although an increased incidence of non-fatal MI was seen for women and a decreased incidence of non-fatal MI was seen in males in the irbesartan group versus the placebo-based regimen. An increased incidence of non-fatal MI and stroke was seen in females in the irbesartan-based regimen versus the amlodipine-based regimen, while hospitalization due to heart failure was reduced in the overall population. However, no proper explanation for these findings in women has been identified.The study of the Effects of Irbesartan on Microalbuminuria in Hypertensive Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (IRMA 2) shows that irbesartan 300 mg delays progression to overt proteinuria in patients with microalbuminuria. IRMA 2 was a placebo-controlled double blind morbidity study in 590 patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/day) and normal renal function (serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 mg/dl in males and < 1.1 mg/dl in females). The study examined the long-term effects (2 years) of Aprovel on the progression to clinical (overt) proteinuria (urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) > 300 mg/day, and an increase in UAER of at least 30% from baseline). The predefined blood pressure goal was ≤ 135/85 mmHg. Additional antihypertensive agents (excluding ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and dihydropyridine calcium blockers) were added as needed to help achieve the blood pressure goal. While similar blood pressure was achieved in all treatment groups, fewer subjects in the irbesartan 300 mg group (5.2%) than in the placebo (14.9%) or in the irbesartan 150 mg group (9.7%) reached the endpoint of overt proteinuria, demonstrating a 70% relative risk reduction versus placebo (p = 0.0004) for the higher dose. An accompanying improvement in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not observed during the first three months of treatment. The slowing in the progression to clinical proteinuria was evident as early as three months and continued over the 2 year period. Regression to normoalbuminuria (< 30 mg/day) was more frequent in the Aprovel 300 mg group (34%) than in the placebo group (21%). Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker. ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy. ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.
Paediatric populationThe pharmacokinetics of irbesartan were evaluated in 23 hypertensive children after the administration of single and multiple daily doses of irbesartan (2 mg/kg) up to a maximum daily dose of 150 mg for four weeks. Of those 23 children, 21 were evaluable for comparison of pharmacokinetics with adults (twelve children over 12 years, nine children between 6 and 12 years). Results showed that Cmax, AUC and clearance rates were comparable to those observed in adult patients receiving 150 mg irbesartan daily. A limited accumulation of irbesartan (18%) in plasma was observed upon repeated once daily dosing.Renal impairment: in patients with renal impairment or those undergoing haemodialysis, the pharmacokinetic parameters of irbesartan are not significantly altered. Irbesartan is not removed by haemodialysis.Hepatic impairment: in patients with mild to moderate cirrhosis, the pharmacokinetic parameters of irbesartan are not significantly altered. Studies have not been performed in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
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