This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Forxiga 5 mg film-coated tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each tablet contains dapagliflozin propanediol monohydrate equivalent to 5 mg dapagliflozin.

Excipient with known effect:

Each 5 mg tablet contains 25 mg of lactose anhydrous.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablet (tablet).

Yellow, biconvex, 0.7 cm diameter round, film-coated tablets with “5” engraved on one side and “1427” engraved on the other side.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Forxiga is indicated in adults for the treatment of insufficiently controlled

• type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise, to improve glycaemic control,

- as monotherapy when metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance.

- in addition to other medicinal products for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

• type 1 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to insulin in patients with BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2, when insulin alone does not provide adequate glycaemic control despite optimal insulin therapy.

For clinical study results with respect to populations studied, effects on glycaemic control and combinations with other medicinal products see sections 4.4, 4.5 and 5.1.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

The recommended dose is 10 mg dapagliflozin once daily for monotherapy and add-on combination therapy with other glucose-lowering medicinal products including insulin. When dapagliflozin is used in combination with insulin or an insulin secretagogue, such as a sulphonylurea, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see sections 4.5 and 4.8).

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Treatment with Forxiga is to be initiated and supervised by specialists in type 1 diabetes.

The recommended dose is 5 mg once daily.

Dapagliflozin must only be administered as an adjunct to insulin.

Before initiating treatment with dapagliflozin:

• Risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) should be assessed (see section 4.4).

• It should be ensured that ketone levels are normal. If ketones are elevated (blood beta-hydroxybutyrate reading greater than 0.6 mmol/L or urine ketones one plus (+)), treatment with dapagliflozin should not be started until the ketone levels are normal (see section 4.4).

• It should be ensured that the patient demonstrates the ability to monitor ketone levels.

• It is recommended that patients obtain several baseline ketone levels over one to two weeks prior to initiation of dapagliflozin therapy, and, patients should become familiar with how their behaviours and circumstances affect their ketone levels.

• Patients should be informed, in a dedicated education session, on the risk of DKA, how to recognise DKA risk factors, signs or symptoms, how and when to monitor ketone levels and what actions to take at elevated ketone readings (see section 4.4).

• Correction of volume depletion prior to initiation of dapagliflozin is recommended in patients with this condition (see section 4.4).

In order to avoid hypoglycaemia with the first dose of dapagliflozin a 20% reduction in the first mealtime bolus insulin may be considered. Subsequent bolus doses should be adjusted individually based on blood glucose results. No reduction in basal insulin is recommended when initiating dapagliflozin. Subsequently, basal insulin should be adjusted based on blood glucose results. When needed, insulin dose reduction should be done cautiously to avoid ketosis and DKA.

Ketone monitoring during treatment:

During the initial one to two weeks of treatment with dapagliflozin, ketones should be monitored on a regular basis, then the frequency of ketone level testing should be individualized, according to the patient's lifestyle and/or risk factors (see section 4.4).

Patients should be informed about what actions to take if ketone levels are elevated. The recommended actions are listed in Table 1. Measurement of blood ketone levels is preferred to urine.

Table 1

Clinical stage

Blood Ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate)

Urine Ketone

Actions

Ketonaemia

0.6-1.5 mmol/L

Trace or Small

+

The patient may need to take extra insulin and drink water. The patient should measure blood glucose and consider taking extra carbohydrates if the glucose levels are normal or low.

Ketone levels should be measured again after two hours.

The patient should immediately seek medical advice and stop taking dapagliflozin if levels persist and symptoms present.

Impending DKA

> 1.5-3.0 mmol/L

Moderate

++

The patient should immediately seek medical advice and stop taking dapagliflozin.

The patient may need to take extra insulin and drink water. The patient should measure blood glucose and consider taking extra carbohydrates if the glucose levels are normal or low.

Ketone levels should be measured again after two hours.

Probable DKA

> 3.0 mmol/L

Large to very large

+++ / ++++

The patient should go to emergency department without delay and stop taking dapagliflozin.

The patient may need to take extra insulin and drink water. The patient should measure blood glucose and consider taking extra carbohydrates if the glucose levels are normal or low.

Special populations

Renal impairment

Forxiga should not be initiated in patients with a glomerular filtration rate [GFR] < 60 mL/min and should be discontinued at GFR persistently below 45 mL/min (see sections 4.4, 4.8, 5.1 and 5.2).

No dose adjustment is required based on renal function.

Hepatic impairment

No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, a starting dose of 5 mg is recommended. If well tolerated, the dose may be increased to 10 mg (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).

Elderly (≥ 65 years)

In general, no dose adjustment is recommended based on age. Renal function and risk of volume depletion should be taken into account (see sections 4.4 and 5.2). Due to the limited therapeutic experience in patients 75 years and older, initiation of dapagliflozin therapy is not recommended.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in children aged 0 to < 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

Forxiga can be taken orally once daily at any time of day with or without food. Tablets are to be swallowed whole.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Renal impairment

The glycaemic efficacy of dapagliflozin is dependent on renal function, and efficacy is reduced in patients who have moderate renal impairment and is likely absent in patients with severe renal impairment (see section 4.2). In subjects with moderate renal impairment (GFR < 60 mL/min), a higher proportion of subjects treated with dapagliflozin had adverse reactions of increase in creatinine, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and hypotension, compared with placebo.

Forxiga should not be initiated in patients with a GFR < 60 mL/min and should be discontinued at GFR persistently below 45 mL/min. Forxiga has not been studied in severe renal impairment (GFR < 30 mL/min) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Monitoring of renal function is recommended as follows:

• Prior to initiation of dapagliflozin and at least yearly, thereafter (see sections 4.2, 4.8, 5.1 and 5.2).

• Prior to initiation of concomitant medicinal products that may reduce renal function and periodically thereafter.

• For renal function with GFR < 60 mL/min, at least 2 to 4 times per year.

Hepatic impairment

There is limited experience in clinical studies in patients with hepatic impairment. Dapagliflozin exposure is increased in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2 and 5.2).

Use in patients at risk for volume depletion, hypotension and/or electrolyte imbalances

Due to its mechanism of action, dapagliflozin increases diuresis associated with a modest decrease in blood pressure (see section 5.1), which may be more pronounced in patients with very high blood glucose concentrations.

Dapagliflozin is not recommended for use in patients receiving loop diuretics (see section 4.5) or who are volume depleted, e.g. due to acute illness (such as gastrointestinal illness).

Caution should be exercised in patients for whom a dapagliflozin-induced drop in blood pressure could pose a risk, such as patients with known cardiovascular disease, patients on anti-hypertensive therapy with a history of hypotension or elderly patients.

For patients receiving dapagliflozin, in case of intercurrent conditions that may lead to volume depletion, careful monitoring of volume status (e.g. physical examination, blood pressure measurements, laboratory tests including haematocrit) and electrolytes is recommended. Temporary interruption of treatment with dapagliflozin is recommended for patients who develop volume depletion until the depletion is corrected (see section 4.8).

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors should be used with caution in patients with increased risk of DKA. Patients who may be at higher risk of DKA include patients with a low beta-cell function reserve (e.g. type 1 diabetes patients, type 2 diabetes patients with low C-peptide or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) or patients with a history of pancreatitis), patients with conditions that lead to restricted food intake or severe dehydration, patients for whom insulin doses are reduced and patients with increased insulin requirements due to acute medical illness, surgery or alcohol abuse.

The risk of diabetic ketoacidosis must be considered in the event of non-specific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, excessive thirst, difficulty breathing, confusion, unusual fatigue or sleepiness. Patients should be assessed for ketoacidosis immediately if these symptoms occur, regardless of blood glucose level.

Before initiating dapagliflozin, factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis should be considered.

Treatment should be interrupted in patients who are hospitalised for major surgical procedures or acute serious medical illnesses. In both cases, treatment with dapagliflozin may be restarted once the patient's condition has stabilised.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Rare cases of DKA, including life-threatening and fatal cases, have been reported in patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors, including dapagliflozin. In a number of cases, the presentation of the condition was atypical with only moderately increased blood glucose values, below 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL).

In patients where DKA is suspected or diagnosed, dapagliflozin treatment should be stopped immediately.

Restarting SGLT2 inhibitor treatment in patients experiencing a DKA while on SGLT2 inhibitor treatment is not recommended, unless another clear precipitating factor is identified and resolved.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

In type 1 diabetes mellitus studies with dapagliflozin, patients had a higher number of DKA events compared with the placebo group (see section 4.8).

Before initiating dapagliflozin

Before starting treatment, patients should be evaluated with respect to DKA risk.

Dapagliflozin should not be initiated when patients are at a higher risk of DKA, such as:

• Patients with low insulin needs.

• Patient not on optimal insulin dose or who have recent issues with noncompliance or recurrent errors with insulin dosing and who are unlikely to maintain adequate insulin dosing.

• Patients with increased insulin requirements due to acute medical illness or surgery.

• Patients who insist on maintaining caloric restriction, carbohydrate restriction or ketogenic diet or who chronically under-dose insulin (e.g. in order to remain in a lipolytic state).

• Patients with recent or recurrent history of DKA.

• Patients with elevated ketones levels (BHB reading is greater than 0.6 mmol/L or urine ketones one plus (+)). If ketones are elevated (blood beta-hydroxybutyrate reading 0.6 mmol/L or greater), treatment with dapagliflozin should not be started until the ketone levels are normal (see section 4.2).

• Patients unable or unwilling to monitor ketones.

• Patients with excessive alcohol consumption or who use illicit drugs.

Patients using an insulin infusion pump have a higher risk of DKA and should be experienced with pump use, common trouble-shooting strategies when interruptions of insulin delivery via pump occur (issues with insertion site, clogged tubing, empty reservoir, etc.) and use of supplemental insulin injections with pen or syringe as needed in case of pump failure. Patients should consider monitoring ketones levels three to four hours after changing pump materials. Patients using a pump should also check their ketone levels with any suspected insulin interruption, regardless of blood glucose levels. Insulin injections should be given within 2 hours of an unexplained high blood glucose/ketone value and dapagliflozin treatment should be interrupted.

• The patients should be educated on the risk of DKA, emphasizing that DKA could occur even when blood glucose levels are below 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL).

• The patient should be informed how to recognise the risk factors which can predispose to ketosis (including starvation ketosis) and DKA and how to recognise DKA signs or symptoms.

• Dapagliflozin should only be given to patients who are able to monitor ketone levels and are educated in when it is most appropriate to do so.

• Dapagliflozin should only be given to patients with access to ketone testing materials and immediate access to a clinician if blood or urine ketones are elevated.

• The patients should be educated on what actions to take when ketosis/DKA is suspected and when to discontinue dapagliflozin therapy (see section 4.2).

• DKA should be treated as per standard of care. Supplemental carbohydrate may be required in addition to hydration and additional rapid insulin (see Table 1 in section 4.2).

In patients where DKA is suspected or diagnosed, dapagliflozin treatment should be stopped immediately.

Restarting SGLT2 inhibitor treatment in patients experiencing a DKA while on SGLT2 inhibitor treatment is not recommended, unless another clear precipitating factor is identified and resolved.

During treatment with dapagliflozin:

• Insulin therapy should be continuously optimised.

• When needed to prevent hypoglycaemia, insulin dose reduction should be done cautiously to avoid ketosis and DKA (see section 4.2).

• In the event of a marked reduction of insulin need, discontinuation of dapagliflozin should be considered.

Ketone monitoring:

The patient should be advised to test their ketone level (urine or blood) if signs or symptoms of ketoacidosis occur. Measurement of blood ketone levels is preferred to urine. Ketones should be monitored on a regular basis during the initial one to two weeks, then the frequency of ketone level testing should be individualised, according to the patient's lifestyle and/or risk factors (see section 4.2). Ketone levels should be also checked in situations that may predispose to or increase risk of DKA.

Patients must be informed about what actions to take if ketone levels are elevated. The recommended actions are listed in Table 1 (see section 4.2)

Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene)

Post-marketing cases of necrotising fasciitis of the perineum (also known as Fournier's gangrene) have been reported in female and male patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. This is a rare but serious and potentially life-threatening event that requires urgent surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

Patients should be advised to seek medical attention if they experience a combination of symptoms of pain, tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, with fever or malaise. Be aware that either uro-genital infection or perineal abscess may precede necrotising fasciitis. If Fournier's gangrene is suspected, Forxiga should be discontinued and prompt treatment (including antibiotics and surgical debridement) should be instituted.

Urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infections were more frequently reported for dapagliflozin 10 mg compared to placebo in a pooled analysis up to 24 weeks (see section 4.8). Pyelonephritis was uncommon and occurred at a similar frequency to control. Urinary glucose excretion may be associated with an increased risk of urinary tract infection; therefore, temporary interruption of dapagliflozin should be considered when treating pyelonephritis or urosepsis.

Elderly (≥ 65 years)

Elderly patients are more likely to have impaired renal function, and/or to be treated with anti-hypertensive medicinal products that may cause changes in renal function such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB). The same recommendations for renal function apply to elderly patients as to all patients (see sections 4.2, 4.4, 4.8 and 5.1).

In subjects ≥ 65 years of age, a higher proportion of subjects treated with dapagliflozin had adverse reactions related to renal impairment or failure compared with placebo. The most commonly reported adverse reaction related to renal function was serum creatinine increases, the majority of which were transient and reversible (see section 4.8).

Elderly patients may be at a greater risk for volume depletion and are more likely to be treated with diuretics. In subjects ≥ 65 years of age, a higher proportion of subjects treated with dapagliflozin had adverse reactions related to volume depletion (see section 4.8).

Therapeutic experience in patients 75 years and older is limited. Initiation of dapagliflozin therapy in this population is not recommended (see sections 4.2 and 5.2).

Cardiac failure

Experience in NYHA class I-II is limited, and there is no experience in clinical studies with dapagliflozin in NYHA class III-IV.

Use in patients treated with pioglitazone

While a causal relationship between dapagliflozin and bladder cancer is unlikely (see sections 4.8 and 5.3), as a precautionary measure, dapagliflozin is not recommended for use in patients concomitantly treated with pioglitazone. Available epidemiological data for pioglitazone suggest a small increased risk of bladder cancer in diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone.

Elevated haematocrit

Haematocrit increase was observed with dapagliflozin treatment (see section 4.8); therefore, caution in patients with already elevated haematocrit is warranted.

Lower limb amputations

An increase in cases of lower limb amputation (primarily of the toe) has been observed in ongoing long-term, clinical studies with another SGLT2 inhibitor. It is unknown whether this constitutes a class effect. Like for all diabetic patients it is important to counsel patients on routine preventative foot care.

Urine laboratory assessments

Due to its mechanism of action, patients taking Forxiga will test positive for glucose in their urine.

Lactose

The tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Pharmacodynamic interactions

Diuretics

Dapagliflozin may add to the diuretic effect of thiazide and loop diuretics and may increase the risk of dehydration and hypotension (see section 4.4).

Insulin and insulin secretagogues

Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulphonylureas, cause hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or an insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (see sections 4.2 and 4.8).

In patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and a known risk of frequent or severe hypoglycaemia, it may be necessary to reduce the insulin dose at the time of initiating treatment with dapagliflozin to decrease the risk of hypoglycaemia. When needed, insulin dose reduction should be done cautiously to avoid ketosis and DKA (see section 4.2).

Pharmacokinetic interactions

The metabolism of dapagliflozin is primarily via glucuronide conjugation mediated by UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9).

In in vitro studies, dapagliflozin neither inhibited cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, nor induced CYP1A2, CYP2B6 or CYP3A4. Therefore, dapagliflozin is not expected to alter the metabolic clearance of coadministered medicinal products that are metabolised by these enzymes.

Effect of other medicinal products on dapagliflozin

Interaction studies conducted in healthy subjects, using mainly a single-dose design, suggest that the pharmacokinetics of dapagliflozin are not altered by metformin, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, glimepiride, voglibose, hydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, valsartan, or simvastatin.

Following coadministration of dapagliflozin with rifampicin (an inducer of various active transporters and drug-metabolising enzymes) a 22% decrease in dapagliflozin systemic exposure (AUC) was observed, but with no clinically meaningful effect on 24-hour urinary glucose excretion. No dose adjustment is recommended. A clinically relevant effect with other inducers (e.g. carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital) is not expected.

Following coadministration of dapagliflozin with mefenamic acid (an inhibitor of UGT1A9), a 55% increase in dapagliflozin systemic exposure was seen, but with no clinically meaningful effect on 24-hour urinary glucose excretion. No dose adjustment is recommended.

Effect of dapagliflozin on other medicinal products

In interaction studies conducted in healthy subjects, using mainly a single-dose design, dapagliflozin did not alter the pharmacokinetics of metformin, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, glimepiride, hydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, valsartan, digoxin (a P-gp substrate) or warfarin (S-warfarin, a CYP2C9 substrate), or the anticoagulatory effects of warfarin as measured by INR. Combination of a single dose of dapagliflozin 20 mg and simvastatin (a CYP3A4 substrate) resulted in a 19% increase in AUC of simvastatin and 31% increase in AUC of simvastatin acid. The increase in simvastatin and simvastatin acid exposures are not considered clinically relevant.

Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) assay

Monitoring glycaemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycaemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use of alternative methods to monitor glycaemic control is advised.

Paediatric population

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are no data from the use of dapagliflozin in pregnant women. Studies in rats have shown toxicity to the developing kidney in the time period corresponding to the second and third trimesters of human pregnancy (see section 5.3). Therefore, the use of dapagliflozin is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

When pregnancy is detected, treatment with dapagliflozin should be discontinued.

Breast-feeding

It is unknown whether dapagliflozin and/or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Available pharmacodynamic/toxicological data in animals have shown excretion of dapagliflozin/metabolites in milk, as well as pharmacologically-mediated effects in nursing offspring (see section 5.3). A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Dapagliflozin should not be used while breast-feeding.

Fertility

The effect of dapagliflozin on fertility in humans has not been studied. In male and female rats, dapagliflozin showed no effects on fertility at any dose tested.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Forxiga has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Patients should be alerted to the risk of hypoglycaemia when dapagliflozin is used in combination with a sulphonylurea or insulin.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

In a pre-specified pooled analysis of 13 placebo-controlled studies, 2,360 subjects were treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and 2,295 were treated with placebo.

The most frequently reported adverse reaction was hypoglycaemia, which depended on the type of background therapy used in each study. The frequency of minor episodes of hypoglycaemia was similar between treatment groups, including placebo, with the exceptions of studies with add-on sulphonylurea (SU) and add-on insulin therapies. Combination therapies with sulphonylurea and add-on insulin had higher rates of hypoglycaemia (see Hypoglycaemia below).

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

In two placebo-controlled studies in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 548 subjects were treated with dapagliflozin 5 mg plus adjustable insulin and 532 were treated with placebo plus adjustable insulin.

The most frequently reported adverse reactions associated with dapagliflozin in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were genital infections, which were more frequent in females. Diabetic ketoacidosis was reported with common frequency. See “Description of selected adverse reactions” and section 4.4.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The following adverse reactions have been identified in the placebo-controlled clinical studies and post-marketing surveillance. None were found to be dose-related. Adverse reactions listed below are classified according to frequency and system organ class (SOC). Frequency categories are defined according to the following convention: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000), and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Table 2. Adverse reactions in placebo-controlled clinical studiesa and postmarketing experience

System organ class

Very common

Common*

Uncommon**

Rare

Very Rare

Not known

Infections and infestations

Vulvovaginitis, balanitis and related genital infections*,b,c

Urinary tract infection*,b,d

Fungal infection**

Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene)i

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Hypoglycaemia (when used with SU or insulin)b

Diabetic ketoacidosis (when used in type 1 diabetes mellitus)b,i,k

Volume depletionb,e

Thirst**

Diabetic ketoacidosis (when used in type 2 diabetes mellitus)i

Nervous system disorders

Dizziness

Gastrointestinal disorders

Constipation**

Dry mouth**

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rashj

Angioedema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Back pain*

Renal and urinary disorders

Dysuria

Polyuria*,f

Nocturia**

Renal impairment**,b

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Vulvovaginal pruritus**

Pruritus genital**

Investigations

Haematocrit increasedg

Creatinine renal clearance decreasedb

Dyslipidaemiah

Blood creatinine increased **,b

Blood urea increased**

Weight decreased**

aThe table shows up to 24-week (short-term) data regardless of glycaemic rescue.

bSee corresponding subsection below for additional information.

cVulvovaginitis, balanitis and related genital infections includes, e.g. the predefined preferred terms: vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vaginal infection, balanitis, genital infection fungal, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginitis, balanitis candida, genital candidiasis, genital infection, genital infection male, penile infection, vulvitis, vaginitis bacterial, vulval abscess.

dUrinary tract infection includes the following preferred terms, listed in order of frequency reported: urinary tract infection, cystitis, Escherichia urinary tract infection, genitourinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, trigonitis, urethritis, kidney infection and prostatitis.

eVolume depletion includes, e.g. the predefined preferred terms: dehydration, hypovolaemia, hypotension.

fPolyuria includes the preferred terms: pollakiuria, polyuria, urine output increased.

gMean changes from baseline in haematocrit were 2.30% for dapagliflozin 10 mg versus-0.33% for placebo. Haematocrit values >55% were reported in 1.3% of the subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg versus 0.4% of placebo subjects.

hMean percent change from baseline for dapagliflozin 10 mg versus placebo, respectively, was: total cholesterol 2.5% versus 0.0%; HDL cholesterol 6.0% versus 2.7%; LDL cholesterol 2.9% versus -1.0%; triglycerides –2.7% versus -0.7%.

i See section 4.4.

jAdverse reaction was identified through postmarketing surveillance. Rash includes the following preferred terms, listed in order of frequency in clinical studies: rash, rash generalised, rash pruritic, rash macular, rash maculo-papular, rash pustular, rash vesicular, and rash erythematous. In active- and placebo-controlled clinical studies (dapagliflozin, N=5936, All control, N=3403), the frequency of rash was similar for dapagliflozin (1.4 %) and all control (1.4%), respectively.

kFrequency of adverse reaction was identified from the full study population in 2 placebo-controlled studies in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

*Reported in ≥ 2% of subjects and ≥ 1% more and at least 3 more subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg compared to placebo.

**Reported by the investigator as possibly related, probably related or related to study treatment and reported in ≥ 0.2% of subjects and ≥ 0.1% more and at least 3 more subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg compared to placebo.

Description of selected adverse reactions

Clinical studies in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Hypoglycaemia

The frequency of hypoglycaemia depended on the type of background therapy used in each study.

For studies of dapagliflozin in monotherapy, as add-on to metformin or as add-on to sitagliptin (with or without metformin), the frequency of minor episodes of hypoglycaemia was similar (< 5%) between treatment groups, including placebo up to 102 weeks of treatment. Across all studies, major events of hypoglycaemia were uncommon and comparable between the groups treated with dapagliflozin or placebo. Studies with add-on sulphonylurea and add-on insulin therapies had higher rates of hypoglycaemia (see section 4.5).

In an add-on to glimepiride study, at weeks 24 and 48, minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported more frequently in the group treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg plus glimepiride (6.0% and 7.9%, respectively) than in the placebo plus glimepiride group (2.1% and 2.1%, respectively).

In an add-on to insulin study, episodes of major hypoglycaemia were reported in 0.5% and 1.0% of subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg plus insulin at Weeks 24 and 104, respectively, and in 0.5% of subjects treated with placebo plus insulin groups at Weeks 24 and 104. At Weeks 24 and 104, minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported, respectively, in 40.3% and 53.1% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg plus insulin and in 34.0% and 41.6% of the subjects who received placebo plus insulin.

In an add-on to metformin and a sulphonylurea study, up to 24 weeks, no episodes of major hypoglycaemia were reported. Minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported in 12.8% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin and a sulphonylurea and in 3.7% of subjects who received placebo plus metformin and a sulphonylurea.

Volume depletion

Reactions related to volume depletion (including, reports of dehydration, hypovolaemia or hypotension) were reported in 1.1% and 0.7% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively; serious reactions occurred in < 0.2% of subjects balanced between dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo (see section 4.4).

Vulvovaginitis, balanitis and related genital infections

Vulvovaginitis, balanitis and related genital infections were reported in 5.5% and 0.6% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. Most infections were mild to moderate, and subjects responded to an initial course of standard treatment and rarely resulted in discontinuation from dapagliflozin treatment. These infections were more frequent in females (8.4% and 1.2% for dapagliflozin and placebo, respectively), and subjects with a prior history were more likely to have a recurrent infection.

Urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infections were more frequently reported for dapagliflozin 10 mg compared to placebo (4.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; see section 4.4). Most infections were mild to moderate, and subjects responded to an initial course of standard treatment and rarely resulted in discontinuation from dapagliflozin treatment. These infections were more frequent in females, and subjects with a prior history were more likely to have a recurrent infection.

Increased creatinine

Adverse reactions related to increased creatinine were grouped (e.g. decreased renal creatinine clearance, renal impairment, increased blood creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate). This grouping of reactions was reported in 3.2% and 1.8% of patients who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. In patients with normal renal function or mild renal impairment (baseline eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2) this grouping of reactions were reported in 1.3% and 0.8% of patients who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. These reactions were more common in patients with baseline eGFR ≥ 30 and < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 (18.5% dapagliflozin 10 mg versus 9.3% placebo).

Further evaluation of patients who had renal-related adverse events showed that most had serum creatinine changes of ≤ 0.5 mg/dl from baseline. The increases in creatinine were generally transient during continuous treatment or reversible after discontinuation of treatment.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Small increases in serum PTH levels were observed with increases being larger in subjects with higher baseline PTH concentrations. Bone mineral density measurements in patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function did not indicate bone loss over a treatment period of two years.

Malignancies

During clinical studies, the overall proportion of subjects with malignant or unspecified tumours was similar between those treated with dapagliflozin (1.50%) and placebo/comparator (1.50%), and there was no carcinogenicity or mutagenicity signal in animal data (see section 5.3). When considering the cases of tumours occurring in the different organ systems, the relative risk associated with dapagliflozin was above 1 for some tumours (bladder, prostate, breast) and below 1 for others (e.g. blood and lymphatic, ovary, renal tract), not resulting in an overall increased tumour risk associated with dapagliflozin. The increased/decreased risk was not statistically significant in any of the organ systems. Considering the lack of tumour findings in non-clinical studies as well as the short latency between first drug exposure and tumour diagnosis, a causal relationship is considered unlikely. Since the numerical imbalance of breast, bladder and prostate tumours must be considered with caution, it will be further investigated in post-authorisation studies.

Clinical studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus

The safety profile of dapagliflozin in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus was similar to the known safety profile of dapagliflozin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, with the exception of a higher number of DKA events in dapagliflozin-treated subjects in the type 1 diabetes mellitus studies.

Diabetic ketoacidosis

In the two placebo-controlled clinical studies of dapagliflozin in type 1 diabetes mellitus, patients were advised to monitor blood ketones in case of suspected symptoms of DKA and seek medical advice/attention if their self-measured blood ketone reading was ≥ 0.6 mmol/L. In the pooled 52-week data, events of DKA were reported in 22 (4.0%) patients in the dapagliflozin 5 mg group and 6 (1.1%) patients in the placebo group, with corresponding incidence rates per 100 patient years of 4.62 for dapagliflozin 5 mg and 1.27 for placebo. DKA events occurred evenly distributed over the clinical study period. Inadequate insulin doses (missed insulin dose or insulin pump failure) were the most common precipitating factors. 6 of 23 events of DKA in the dapagliflozin 5 mg group occurred in patients with blood glucose in the euglycaemic range (< 14 mmol/L or 250 mg/dL).

Special populations

Elderly (≥ 65 years)

In subjects ≥ 65 years of age with type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse reactions related to renal impairment or failure were reported in 7.7% of subjects treated with dapagliflozin and 3.8% of subjects treated with placebo (see section 4.4). The most commonly reported adverse reaction related to renal function was increased serum creatinine. The majority of these reactions were transient and reversible. In subjects ≥ 65 years of age with type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse reactions of volume depletion, most commonly reported as hypotension, were reported in 1.7% and 0.8% of dapagliflozin-treated subjects and placebo-treated subjects, respectively (see section 4.4).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:

United Kingdom

Yellow Card Scheme

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store

Ireland

HPRA Pharmacovigilance

Earlsfort Terrace

IRL - Dublin 2

Tel: +353 1 6764971

Fax: +353 1 6762517

Website: www.hpra.ie

e-mail: [email protected]

Malta

ADR Reporting

Website: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mt/adrportal

4.9 Overdose

Dapagliflozin did not show any toxicity in healthy subjects at single oral doses up to 500 mg (50 times the maximum recommended human dose). These subjects had detectable glucose in the urine for a dose-related period of time (at least 5 days for the 500 mg dose), with no reports of dehydration, hypotension or electrolyte imbalance, and with no clinically meaningful effect on QTc interval. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was similar to placebo. In clinical studies where once-daily doses of up to 100 mg (10 times the maximum recommended human dose) were administered for 2 weeks in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes subjects, the incidence of hypoglycaemia was slightly higher than placebo and was not dose-related. Rates of adverse events including dehydration or hypotension were similar to placebo, and there were no clinically meaningful dose-related changes in laboratory parameters, including serum electrolytes and biomarkers of renal function.

In the event of an overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated as dictated by the patient's clinical status. The removal of dapagliflozin by haemodialysis has not been studied.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs used in diabetes, Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, ATC code: A10BK01

Mechanism of action

Dapagliflozin is a highly potent (Ki: 0.55 nM), selective and reversible inhibitor of SGLT2.

The SGLT2 is selectively expressed in the kidney with no expression detected in more than 70 other tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, breast, bladder and brain. SGLT2 is the predominant transporter responsible for reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulation. Despite the presence of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, reabsorption of filtered glucose continues. Dapagliflozin improves both fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels by reducing renal glucose reabsorption leading to urinary glucose excretion. This glucose excretion (glucuretic effect) is observed after the first dose, is continuous over the 24-hour dosing interval and is sustained for the duration of treatment. The amount of glucose removed by the kidney through this mechanism is dependent upon the blood glucose concentration and GFR. Dapagliflozin does not impair normal endogenous glucose production in response to hypoglycaemia. Dapagliflozin acts independently of insulin secretion and insulin action. Improvement in homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA beta-cell) has been observed in clinical studies with Forxiga.

Urinary glucose excretion (glucuresis) induced by dapagliflozin is associated with caloric loss and reduction in weight. Inhibition of glucose and sodium co-transport by dapagliflozin is also associated with mild diuresis and transient natriuresis.

Dapagliflozin does not inhibit other glucose transporters important for glucose transport into peripheral tissues and is > 1,400 times more selective for SGLT2 versus SGLT1, the major transporter in the gut responsible for glucose absorption.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Increases in the amount of glucose excreted in the urine were observed in healthy subjects and in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus following the administration of dapagliflozin. Approximately 70 g of glucose was excreted in the urine per day (corresponding to 280 kcal/day) at a dapagliflozin dose of 10 mg/day in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 12 weeks. Evidence of sustained glucose excretion was seen in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus given dapagliflozin 10 mg/day for up to 2 years.

This urinary glucose excretion with dapagliflozin also results in osmotic diuresis and increases in urinary volume in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Urinary volume increases in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg were sustained at 12 weeks and amounted to approximately 375 ml/day. The increase in urinary volume was associated with a small and transient increase in urinary sodium excretion that was not associated with changes in serum sodium concentrations.

Urinary uric acid excretion was also increased transiently (for 3-7 days) and accompanied by a sustained reduction in serum uric acid concentration. At 24 weeks, reductions in serum uric acid concentrations ranged from -48.3 to -18.3 micromoles/l (-0.87 to -0.33 mg/dl).

Clinical efficacy and safety

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Fourteen double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical studies were conducted with 7,056 subjects with type 2 diabetes to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Forxiga; 4,737 subjects in these studies were treated with dapagliflozin. Twelve studies had a treatment period of 24 weeks duration, 8 with long-term extensions ranging from 24 to 80 weeks (up to a total study duration of 104 weeks), one study had a 28-week treatment period, and one study was 52 weeks in duration with long-term extensions of 52 and 104 weeks (total study duration of 208 weeks). Mean duration of diabetes ranged from 1.4 to 16.9 years. Fifty percent (50%) had mild renal impairment and 11% had moderate renal impairment. Fifty-one percent (51%) of the subjects were men, 84% were White, 8% were Asian, 4% were Black and 4% were of other racial groups. Eighty-one percent (81%) of the subjects had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27. Furthermore, two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies were conducted in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

Glycaemic control

Monotherapy

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration (with an additional extension period) was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of monotherapy with Forxiga in subjects with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Once-daily treatment with dapagliflozin resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.0001) reductions in HbA1c compared to placebo (Table 3).

In the extension period, HbA1c reductions were sustained through Week 102 (-0.61%, and -0.17% adjusted mean change from baseline for dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively).

Table 3. Results at Week 24 (LOCFa) of a placebo-controlled study of dapagliflozin as monotherapy

Monotherapy

Dapagliflozin

10 mg

Placebo

Nb

70

75

HbA1c (%)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

 

8.01

-0.89

-0.66*

(-0.96, -0.36)

 

7.79

-0.23

Subjects (%) achieving:

HbA1c < 7%

Adjusted for baseline

 

 

50.8§

 

 

31.6

Body weight (kg)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

 

94.13

-3.16

-0.97

(-2.20, 0.25)

 

88.77

-2.19

aLOCF: Last observation (prior to rescue for rescued subjects) carried forward

bAll randomised subjects who took at least one dose of double-blind study medication during the short-term double-blind period

cLeast squares mean adjusted for baseline value

*p-value < 0.0001 versus placebo

§ Not evaluated for statistical significance as a result of the sequential testing procedure for secondary end points

Add-on combination therapy

In a 52-week, active-controlled non-inferiority study (with 52- and 104-week extension periods), Forxiga was evaluated as add-on therapy to metformin compared with a sulphonylurea (glipizide) as add-on therapy to metformin in subjects with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c > 6.5% and ≤ 10%). The results showed a similar mean reduction in HbA1c from baseline to Week 52, compared to glipizide, thus demonstrating non-inferiority (Table 4). At Week 104, adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c was -0.32% for dapagliflozin and -0.14% for glipizide. At Week 208, adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c was -0.10% for dapagliflozin and 0.20% for glipizide. At 52, 104 and 208 weeks, a significantly lower proportion of subjects in the group treated with dapagliflozin (3.5%, 4.3% and 5.0%, respectively) experienced at least one event of hypoglycaemia compared to the group treated with glipizide (40.8%, 47.0% and 50%, respectively). The proportion of subjects remaining in the study at Week 104 and Week 208 was 56.2% and 39.7% for the group treated with dapagliflozin and 50.0% and 34.6% for the group treated with glipizide.

Table 4. Results at Week 52 (LOCFa) in an active-controlled study comparing dapagliflozin to glipizide as add-on to metformin

Parameter

Dapagliflozin + metformin

Glipizide + metformin

Nb

400

401

HbA1c (%)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from glipizide + metforminc

(95% CI)

 

7.69

-0.52

0.00d

(-0.11, 0.11)

 

7.74

-0.52

Body weight (kg)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from glipizide + metforminc

(95% CI)

 

88.44

-3.22

-4.65*

(-5.14, -4.17)

 

87.60

1.44

aLOCF: Last observation carried forward

bRandomised and treated subjects with baseline and at least 1 post-baseline efficacy measurement

cLeast squares mean adjusted for baseline value

dNon-inferior to glipizide + metformin

*p-value < 0.0001

Dapagliflozin as an add-on with either metformin, glimepiride, metformin and a sulphonylurea, sitagliptin (with or without metformin) or insulin resulted in statistically significant reductions in HbA1c at 24 weeks compared with subjects receiving placebo (p < 0.0001; Tables 5, 6 and 7).

The reductions in HbA1c observed at Week 24 were sustained in add-on combination studies (glimepiride and insulin) with 48-week data (glimepiride) and up to 104-week data (insulin). At Week 48 when added to sitagliptin (with or without metformin), the adjusted mean change from baseline for dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo was -0.30% and 0.38%, respectively. For the add-on to metformin study, HbA1c reductions were sustained through Week 102 (-0.78% and 0.02% adjusted mean change from baseline for 10 mg and placebo, respectively). At Week 104 for insulin (with or without additional oral glucose-lowering medicinal products), the HbA1c reductions were -0.71% and -0.06% adjusted mean change from baseline for dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. At Weeks 48 and 104, the insulin dose remained stable compared to baseline in subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg at an average dose of 76 IU/day. In the placebo group there was a mean increase of 10.5 IU/day and 18.3 IU/day from baseline (mean average dose of 84 and 92 IU/day) at Weeks 48 and 104, respectively. The proportion of subjects remaining in the study at Week 104 was 72.4% for the group treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and 54.8% for the placebo group.

Table 5. Results of 24-week (LOCFa) placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin in add-on combination with metformin or sitagliptin (with or without metformin)

Add-on combination

Metformin1

DPP-4 Inhibitor

(sitagliptin2) ± Metformin1

Dapagliflozin

10 mg

Placebo

Dapagliflozin

10 mg

Placebo

Nb

135

137

223

224

HbA1c (%)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

 

7.92

-0.84

-0.54*

(-0.74, -0.34)

 

8.11

-0.30

 

7.90

-0.45

-0.48*

(-0.62, -0.34)

 

7.97

0.04

Subjects (%) achieving:

HbA1c < 7%

Adjusted for baseline

40.6**

25.9

Body weight (kg)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

 

86.28

-2.86

-1.97*

(-2.63, -1.31)

 

87.74

-0.89

 

91.02

-2.14

-1.89*

(-2.37, -1.40)

 

89.23

-0.26

1Metformin ≥ 1500 mg/day;

2sitagliptin 100 mg/day

aLOCF: Last observation (prior to rescue for rescued subjects) carried forward

bAll randomised subjects who took at least one dose of double-blind study medicinal product during the short-term double-blind period

cLeast squares mean adjusted for baseline value

*p-value < 0.0001 versus placebo + oral glucose-lowering medicinal product

**p-value < 0.05 versus placebo + oral glucose-lowering medicinal product

Table 6. Results of 24-week placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin in add-on combination with sulphonylurea (glimepiride) or metformin and a sulphonylurea

Add-on combination

Sulphonylurea

(glimepiride1)

Sulphonylurea + Metformin2

Dapagliflozin

10 mg

Placebo

Dapagliflozin

10 mg

Placebo

Na

151

145

108

108

HbA1c (%)b

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

 

8.07

-0.82

-0.68*

(-0.86, -0.51)

 

8.15

-0.13

 

8.08

-0.86

−0.69*

(−0.89, −0.49)

 

8.24

-0.17

Subjects (%) achieving:

HbA1c < 7% (LOCF)d

Adjusted for baseline

31.7*

13.0

31.8*

11.1

Body weight (kg) (LOCF)d

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

 

80.56

-2.26

-1.54*

(-2.17, -0.92)

 

80.94

-0.72

 

88.57

-2.65

−2.07*

(−2.79, −1.35)

 

90.07

-0.58

1glimepiride 4 mg/day; 2Metformin (immediate- or extended-release formulations) ≥1500 mg/day plus maximum tolerated dose, which must be at least half maximum dose, of a sulphonylurea for at least 8 weeks prior to enrolment.

aRandomised and treated patients with baseline and at least 1 post-baseline efficacy measurement.

bColumns 1 and 2, HbA1c analysed using LOCF (see footnote d); Columns 3 and 4, HbA1c analysed using LRM (see footnote e)

cLeast squares mean adjusted for baseline value

dLOCF: Last observation (prior to rescue for rescued subjects) carried forward

eLRM: Longitudinal repeated measures analysis

*p-value < 0.0001 versus placebo + oral glucose-lowering medicinal product(s)

Table 7. Results at Week 24 (LOCFa) in a placebo-controlled study of dapagliflozin in combination with insulin (alone or with oral glucose-lowering medicinal products)

Parameter

Dapagliflozin 10 mg + insulin

± oral glucose-lowering medicinal products2

Placebo + insulin

± oral glucose-lowering medicinal products2

Nb

194

193

HbA1c (%)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

 

8.58

-0.90

-0.60*

(-0.74, -0.45)

 

8.46

-0.30

Body weight (kg)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

 

94.63

-1.67

-1.68*

(-2.19, -1.18)

 

94.21

0.02

Mean daily insulin dose (IU)1

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from placeboc

(95% CI)

Subjects with mean daily insulin dose reduction of at least 10% (%)

 

77.96

-1.16

-6.23*

(-8.84, -3.63)
 

19.7**

 

73.96

5.08

 

 
 

11.0

aLOCF: Last observation (prior to or on the date of the first insulin up-titration, if needed) carried forward

bAll randomised subjects who took at least one dose of double-blind study medicinal product during the short-term double-blind period

cLeast squares mean adjusted for baseline value and presence of oral glucose-lowering medicinal product

*p-value < 0.0001 versus placebo + insulin ± oral glucose-lowering medicinal product

**p-value < 0.05 versus placebo + insulin ± oral glucose-lowering medicinal product

1Up-titration of insulin regimens (including short-acting, intermediate, and basal insulin) was only allowed if subjects met pre-defined FPG criteria.

2Fifty percent of subjects were on insulin monotherapy at baseline; 50% were on 1 or 2 oral glucose-lowering medicinal product(s) in addition to insulin: Of this latter group, 80% were on metformin alone, 12% were on metformin plus sulphonylurea therapy, and the rest were on other oral glucose-lowering medicinal products.

In combination with metformin in drug-naive patients

A total of 1,236 drug-naive patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 7.5% and ≤ 12%) participated in two active-controlled studies of 24 weeks duration to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin (5 mg or 10 mg) in combination with metformin in drug-naive patients versus therapy with the monocomponents.

Treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg in combination with metformin (up to 2000 mg per day) provided significant improvements in HbA1c compared to the individual components (Table 8), and led to greater reductions in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (compared to the individual components) and body weight (compared to metformin).

Table 8. Results at Week 24 (LOCFa) in an active-controlled study of dapagliflozin and metformin combination therapy in drug-naive patients

Parameter

Dapagliflozin 10 mg + Metformin

Dapagliflozin 10 mg

Metformin

Nb

211b

219b

208b

HbA1c (%)

Baseline (mean)

Change from baselinec

Difference from dapagliflozinc

(95% CI)

Difference from metforminc

(95% CI)

 

9.10

-1.98

−0.53*

(−0.74, −0.32)

−0.54*

(−0.75, −0.33)

 

9.03

-1.45

 

 

−0.01

(−0.22, 0.20)

 

9.03

-1.44

aLOCF: last observation (prior to rescue for rescued patients) carried forward.

bAll randomised patients who took at least one dose of double-blind study medication during the short-term double-blind period.

cLeast squares mean adjusted for baseline value.

*p-value <0.0001.

Combination therapy with prolonged-release exenatide

In a 28-week, double-blind, active comparator-controlled study, the combination of dapagliflozin and prolonged-release exenatide (a GLP-1 receptor agonist) was compared to dapagliflozin alone and prolonged-release exenatide alone in subjects with inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone (HbA1c ≥ 8% and ≤ 12%). All treatment groups had a reduction in HbA1c compared to baseline. The combination treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide group showed superior reductions in HbA1c from baseline compared to dapagliflozin alone and prolonged-release exenatide alone (Table 9).

Table 9. Results of one 28-week study of dapagliflozin and prolonged-release exenatide versus dapagliflozin alone and prolonged-release exenatide alone, in combination with metformin (intent to treat patients)

Parameter

Dapagliflozin 10 mg QD

+

Prolonged-release exenatide 2 mg QW

Dapagliflozin 10 mg QD

+

Placebo QW

Prolonged-release exenatide 2 mg QW

+

Placebo QD

N

228

230

227

HbA1c (%)

Baseline (mean)

9.29

9.25

9.26

Change from baselinea

-1.98

-1.39

-1.60

Mean difference in change from baseline between combination and single medicinal product (95% CI)

-0.59*

(-0.84, -0.34)

-0.38**

(-0.63, -0.13)

Subjects (%) achieving HbA1c < 7%

44.7

19.1

26.9

Body weight (kg)

Baseline (mean)

92.13

90.87

89.12

Change from baseline a

-3.55

-2.22

-1.56

Mean difference in change from baseline between combination and single medicinal product (95% CI)

-1.33*

(-2.12, -0.55)

-2.00*

(-2.79, -1.20)

QD=once daily, QW=once weekly, N=number of patients, CI=confidence interval.

aAdjusted least squares means (LS Means) and treatment group difference(s) in the change from baseline values at Week 28 are modelled using a mixed model with repeated measures (MMRM) including treatment, region, baseline HbA1c stratum (< 9.0% or ≥ 9.0%), week, and treatment by week interaction as fixed factors, and baseline value as a covariate.

*p < 0.001, **p < 0.01.

P-values are all adjusted p-values for multiplicity.

Analyses exclude measurements post rescue therapy and post premature discontinuation of study medicinal product.

Fasting plasma glucose

Treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg as a monotherapy or as an add-on to either metformin, glimepiride, metformin and a sulphonylurea, sitagliptin (with or without metformin) or insulin resulted in statistically significant reductions in FPG (-1.90 to -1.20 mmol/l [-34.2 to -21.7 mg/dl]) compared to placebo (-0.33 to 0.21 mmol/l [-6.0 to 3.8 mg/dl]). This effect was observed at Week 1 of treatment and maintained in studies extended through Week 104.

Combination therapy of dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide resulted in significantly greater reductions in FPG at Week 28: -3.66 mmol/l (-65.8 mg/dl), compared to -2.73 mmol/l (-49.2 mg/dl) for dapagliflozin alone (p < 0.001) and -2.54 mmol/l (-45.8 mg/dl) for exenatide alone (p < 0.001).

In a dedicated study in diabetic patients with an eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, treatment with dapagliflozin demonstrated reductions in FPG at Week 24: -1.19 mmol/L (-21.46 mg/dL) compared to -0.27 mmol/L (-4.87 mg/dL) for placebo (p=0.001).

Post-prandial glucose

Treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg as an add-on to glimepiride resulted in statistically significant reductions in 2-hour post-prandial glucose at 24 weeks that were maintained up to Week 48.

Treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg as an add-on to sitagliptin (with or without metformin) resulted in reductions in 2-hour post-prandial glucose at 24 weeks that were maintained up to Week 48.

Combination therapy of dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide resulted in significantly greater reductions in 2-hour post-prandial glucose at Week 28 compared to either medicinal product alone.

Body weight

Dapagliflozin 10 mg as an add-on to metformin, glimepiride, metformin and a sulphonylurea, sitagliptin (with or without metformin) or insulin resulted in statistically significant body weight reduction at 24 weeks (p < 0.0001, Tables 5 and 6). These effects were sustained in longer-term studies. At 48 weeks, the difference for dapagliflozin as add-on to sitagliptin (with or without metformin) compared with placebo was -2.22 kg. At 102 weeks, the difference for dapagliflozin as add-on to metformin compared with placebo, or as add-on to insulin compared with placebo was -2.14 and -2.88 kg, respectively.

As an add-on therapy to metformin in an active-controlled non-inferiority study, dapagliflozin resulted in a statistically significant body weight reduction compared with glipizide of -4.65 kg at 52 weeks (p < 0.0001, Table 4) that was sustained at 104 and 208 weeks (-5.06 kg and -4.38 kg, respectively).

The combination of dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide demonstrated significantly greater weight reductions compared to either medicinal product alone (Table 9).

A 24-week study in 182 diabetic subjects using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate body composition demonstrated reductions with dapagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin compared with placebo plus metformin, respectively, in body weight and body fat mass as measured by DXA rather than lean tissue or fluid loss. Treatment with Forxiga plus metformin showed a numerical decrease in visceral adipose tissue compared with placebo plus metformin treatment in a magnetic resonance imaging substudy.

Blood pressure

In a pre-specified pooled analysis of 13 placebo-controlled studies, treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg resulted in a systolic blood pressure change from baseline of -3.7 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of -1.8 mmHg versus -0.5 mmHg systolic and -0.5 mmHg diastolic blood pressure for placebo group at Week 24. Similar reductions were observed up to 104 weeks.

Combination therapy of dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide resulted in a significantly greater reduction in systolic blood pressure at Week 28 (-4.3 mmHg) compared to dapagliflozin alone (-1.8 mmHg, p < 0.05) and prolonged-release exenatide alone (-1.2 mmHg, p < 0.01).

In two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies a total of 1,062 patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes and hypertension (despite pre-existing stable treatment with an ACE-I or ARB in one study and an ACE-I or ARB plus one additional antihypertensive treatment in another study) were treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo. At Week 12 for both studies, dapagliflozin 10 mg plus usual antidiabetic treatment provided improvement in HbA1c and decreased the placebo-corrected systolic blood pressure on average by 3.1 and 4.3 mmHg, respectively.

In a dedicated study in diabetic patients with an eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, treatment with dapagliflozin demonstrated reductions in seated systolic blood pressure at Week 24: -4.8 mmHg compared to -1.7 mmHg for placebo (p < 0.05).

Cardiovascular safety

A meta-analysis of cardiovascular events in the clinical program was performed. In the clinical program, 34.4% of subjects had a history of cardiovascular disease (excluding hypertension) at baseline and 67.9% had hypertension. Cardiovascular episodes were adjudicated by an independent adjudication committee. The primary end point was the time-to-first event of one of the following outcomes: cardiovascular death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) or hospitalisation for unstable angina. Primary episodes occurred at a rate of 1.62% per patient-year in subjects treated with dapagliflozin and 2.06% in comparator-treatment subjects, per patient-year. The hazard ratio comparing dapagliflozin to comparator was 0.79 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 0.58, 1.07), indicating that in this analysis Forxiga is not associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular death, MI and stroke were observed with a hazard ratio of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.10).

Renal impairment

Moderate renal impairment CKD 3A (eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2)

The efficacy of dapagliflozin was assessed in a dedicated study in diabetic patients with an eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who had inadequate glycaemic control on usual care. Treatment with dapagliflozin resulted in reductions in HbA1c and body weight compared with placebo (Table 10).

Table 10. Results at Week 24 of a placebo-controlled study of dapagliflozin in diabetic patients with an eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2

Dapagliflozina

10 mg

Placeboa

Nb

159

161

HbA1c (%)

Baseline (mean)

8.35

8.03

Change from baselineb

-0.37

-0.03

Difference from placebob

(95% CI)

-0.34*

(-0.53, -0.15)

Body weight (kg)

Baseline (mean)

92.51

88.30

Percent change from baselinec

-3.42

-2.02

Difference in percent change from placeboc

(95% CI)

-1.43*

(-2.15, -0.69)

a Metformin or metformin hydrochloride were part of the usual care in 69.4% and 64.0% of the patients for the dapagliflozin and placebo groups, respectively.

b Least squares mean adjusted for baseline value

c Derived from least squares mean adjusted for baseline value

* p<0.001

Patients with baseline HbA1c ≥ 9%

In a pre-specified analysis of subjects with baseline HbA1c ≥ 9.0%, treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg resulted in statistically significant reductions in HbA1c at Week 24 as a monotherapy (adjusted mean change from baseline: -2.04% and 0.19% for dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively) and as an add-on to metformin (adjusted mean change from baseline: -1.32% and -0.53% for dapagliflozin and placebo, respectively).

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Dapagliflozin as an adjunct to adjustable insulin was studied in two 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies with a 28-week extension to evaluate the efficacy and safety in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and inadequate glycaemic control (defined as HbA1c ≥ 7.5%) on insulin alone. Following an 8-week lead-in period to optimise each patient's diabetes management (glycaemic control including hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia, diet and exercise patterns), a total of 1,646 patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% and ≤ 10.5% were randomised to 5 mg dapagliflozin once daily, 10 mg dapagliflozin once daily or placebo once daily. Throughout the study, insulin dose was adjusted as deemed appropriate.

Glycaemic control

At Week 24, treatment with dapagliflozin once daily provided statistically significant improvements in HbA1c compared with placebo (Table 11). This finding was consistent across subgroups. At Week 52, adjusted mean changes from baseline in HbA1c relative to placebo were -0.33% and - 0.20% for patients treated with dapagliflozin 5 mg, in the two studies, respectively. Treatment with dapagliflozin was not associated with an increase in percentage of patients with hypoglycaemic events compared with placebo. The number of patients with severe hypoglycaemia was balanced across treatment groups (6.9% and 7.5% at Week 24 in the dapagliflozin 5 mg and placebo groups, respectively).

The percentage of patients achieving ≥ 0.5% reductions in HbA1c without severe hypoglycaemia was significantly higher in patients treated with dapagliflozin compared with placebo (Table 11).

Table 11. Results at Week 24 of two placebo-controlled clinical studies of dapagliflozin as an adjunct to insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Study MB102229

Study MB102230

Efficacy Parameter

Dapagliflozin 5 mg + Insulin

Placebo + Insulin

Dapagliflozin 5 mg + Insulin

Placebo + Insulin

N=259

N=260

N=271

N=272

HbA1c (%)

Baseline (mean)

8.52

8.50

8.45

8.40

Change from baseline

-0.45

-0.03

-0.34

0.03

Difference from placebo

-0.42*

-0.37*

95% CI

(-0.56, -0.28)

(-0.49, -0.26)

Subjects (%) achieving ≥ 0.5% reductions in HbA1c without severe hypoglycaemia

49.6*

25.3

39.5*

20.1

Body weight (kg)

Baseline (mean)

81.67

84.42

79.22

79.03

Change from baseline

-2.84

0.15

-2.50

0.06

Difference from placebo

-2.96*

-2.56*

95% CI

(-3.63, -2.28)

(-3.12, -2.00)

* p < 0.0001 versus placebo

Blood glucose variability

The adjusted mean changes for dapagliflozin 5 mg relative to placebo in the mean amplitude of glucose excursion from baseline to Week 24 were -0.96 mmol/L (-17.30 mg/dL) and -0.55 mmol/L (-9.85 mg/dL) in the two studies, respectively (p < 0.0001).

Statistically significant increases in the percentage of glucose readings falling within the range of > 70 mg/dL to ≤ 180 mg/dL from baseline to Week 24 for dapagliflozin 5 mg relative to placebo were +9.11% and +9.02% in the two studies, respectively (p < 0.0001). This increase was not accompanied by any increase in the percentage of 24-hour glucose readings < 70 mg/dL.

Insulin dose

Statistically significant (p < 0.0001) differences in percent reduction of total insulin dose from baseline for dapagliflozin 5 mg relative to placebo at Week 24 were -8.80% and -10.78% in the two studies, respectively.

Body weight

Statistically significant reductions in body weight were demonstrated for dapagliflozin compared with placebo (Table 11). Patients treated with dapagliflozin exhibited continuous weight loss over the 24-week period. At Week 52, the adjusted mean changes in body weight from baseline for dapagliflozin 5 mg relative to placebo were -2.56 kg and -3.50 kg, in the two studies, respectively

Paediatric population

The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with dapagliflozin in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and type 1 diabetes mellitus (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Dapagliflozin was rapidly and well absorbed after oral administration. Maximum dapagliflozin plasma concentrations (Cmax) were usually attained within 2 hours after administration in the fasted state. Geometric mean steady-state dapagliflozin Cmax and AUC values following once daily 10 mg doses of dapagliflozin were 158 ng/ml and 628 ng h/ml, respectively. The absolute oral bioavailability of dapagliflozin following the administration of a 10 mg dose is 78%. Administration with a high-fat meal decreased dapagliflozin Cmax by up to 50% and prolonged Tmax by approximately 1 hour, but did not alter AUC as compared with the fasted state. These changes are not considered to be clinically meaningful. Hence, Forxiga can be administered with or without food.

Distribution

Dapagliflozin is approximately 91% protein bound. Protein binding was not altered in various disease states (e.g. renal or hepatic impairment). The mean steady-state volume of distribution of dapagliflozin was 118 litres.

Biotransformation

Dapagliflozin is extensively metabolised, primarily to yield dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide, which is an inactive metabolite. Dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide or other metabolites do not contribute to the glucose-lowering effects. The formation of dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide is mediated by UGT1A9, an enzyme present in the liver and kidney, and CYP-mediated metabolism was a minor clearance pathway in humans.

Elimination

The mean plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) for dapagliflozin was 12.9 hours following a single oral dose of dapagliflozin 10 mg to healthy subjects. The mean total systemic clearance of dapagliflozin administered intravenously was 207 ml/min. Dapagliflozin and related metabolites are primarily eliminated via urinary excretion with less than 2% as unchanged dapagliflozin. After administration of a 50 mg [14C]-dapagliflozin dose, 96% was recovered, 75% in urine and 21% in faeces. In faeces, approximately 15% of the dose was excreted as parent drug.

Linearity

Dapagliflozin exposure increased proportional to the increment in dapagliflozin dose over the range of 0.1 to 500 mg and its pharmacokinetics did not change with time upon repeated daily dosing for up to 24 weeks.

Special populations

Renal impairment

At steady-state (20 mg once-daily dapagliflozin for 7 days), subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mild, moderate or severe renal impairment (as determined by iohexol plasma clearance) had mean systemic exposures of dapagliflozin of 32%, 60% and 87% higher, respectively, than those of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal renal function. The steady-state 24-hour urinary glucose excretion was highly dependent on renal function and 85, 52, 18 and 11 g of glucose/day was excreted by subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal renal function or mild, moderate or severe renal impairment, respectively. The impact of hemodialysis on dapagliflozin exposure is not known.

Hepatic impairment

In subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classes A and B), mean Cmax and AUC of dapagliflozin were up to 12% and 36% higher, respectively, compared to healthy matched control subjects. These differences were not considered to be clinically meaningful. In subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) mean Cmax and AUC of dapagliflozin were 40% and 67% higher than matched healthy controls, respectively.

Elderly (≥ 65 years)

There is no clinically meaningful increase in exposure based on age alone in subjects up to 70 years old. However, an increased exposure due to age-related decrease in renal function can be expected. There are insufficient data to draw conclusions regarding exposure in patients > 70 years old.

Paediatric population

Pharmacokinetics in the paediatric population have not been studied.

Gender

The mean dapagliflozin AUCss in females was estimated to be about 22% higher than in males.

Race

There were no clinically relevant differences in systemic exposures between White, Black or Asian races.

Body weight

Dapagliflozin exposure was found to decrease with increased weight. Consequently, low-weight patients may have somewhat increased exposure and patients with high weight somewhat decreased exposure. However, the differences in exposure were not considered clinically meaningful.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential and fertility. Dapagliflozin did not induce tumours in either mice or rats at any of the doses evaluated in two-year carcinogenicity studies.

Reproductive and developmental toxicity

Direct administration of dapagliflozin to weanling juvenile rats and indirect exposure during late pregnancy (time periods corresponding to the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with respect to human renal maturation) and lactation are each associated with increased incidence and/or severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatations in progeny.

In a juvenile toxicity study, when dapagliflozin was dosed directly to young rats from postnatal day 21 until postnatal day 90, renal pelvic and tubular dilatations were reported at all dose levels; pup exposures at the lowest dose tested were ≥ 15 times the maximum recommended human dose. These findings were associated with dose-related increases in kidney weight and macroscopic kidney enlargement observed at all doses. The renal pelvic and tubular dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within the approximate 1-month recovery period.

In a separate study of pre- and postnatal development, maternal rats were dosed from gestation day 6 through postnatal day 21, and pups were indirectly exposed in utero and throughout lactation. (A satellite study was conducted to assess dapagliflozin exposures in milk and pups.) Increased incidence or severity of renal pelvic dilatation was observed in adult offspring of treated dams, although only at the highest dose tested (associated maternal and pup dapagliflozin exposures were 1,415 times and 137 times, respectively, the human values at the maximum recommended human dose). Additional developmental toxicity was limited to dose-related reductions in pup body weights, and observed only at doses ≥ 15 mg/kg/day (associated with pup exposures that are ≥ 29 times the human values at the maximum recommended human dose). Maternal toxicity was evident only at the highest dose tested, and limited to transient reductions in body weight and food consumption at dose. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for developmental toxicity, the lowest dose tested, is associated with a maternal systemic exposure multiple that is approximately 19 times the human value at the maximum recommended human dose.

In additional studies of embryo-foetal development in rats and rabbits, dapagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the major periods of organogenesis in each species. Neither maternal nor developmental toxicities were observed in rabbits at any dose tested; the highest dose tested is associated with a systemic exposure multiple of approximately 1,191 times the maximum recommended human dose. In rats, dapagliflozin was neither embryolethal nor teratogenic at exposures up to 1,441 times the maximum recommended human dose.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Tablet core

Microcrystalline cellulose (E460i)

Lactose

Crospovidone (E1202)

Silicon dioxide (E551)

Magnesium stearate (E470b)

Film-coating

Polyvinyl alcohol (E1203)

Titanium dioxide (E171)

Macrogol 3350

Talc (E553b)

Iron oxide yellow (E172)

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Alu/Alu blister

Pack sizes of 14, 28 and 98 film-coated tablets in non-perforated calendar blisters

Pack sizes of 30x1 and 90x1 film-coated tablets in perforated unit dose blisters

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

AstraZeneca AB

SE-151 85 Södertälje

Sweden

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

EU/1/12/795/002 28 film-coated tablets

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation: 12 November 2012

Date of latest renewal: 28 August 2017

10. Date of revision of the text

29th May 2019

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu