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Bronchitol 40 mg inhalation powder, hard capsules

Last Updated on eMC 30-Jan-2017 View changes  | Pharmaxis Pharmaceuticals Limited Contact details

1. Name of the medicinal product

Bronchitol 40 mg inhalation powder, hard capsules

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each hard capsule contains 40 mg mannitol.

Mean delivered dose per capsule is 32.2 mg.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Inhalation powder, hard capsule.

Clear colourless hard capsules marked with 'PXS 40 mg' and containing white or almost white powder.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Bronchitol is indicated for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in adults aged 18 years and above as an add-on therapy to best standard of care.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

The patient's initiation dose of Bronchitol must be used under the supervision and monitoring of an experienced physician or another health care professional appropriately trained and equipped to perform spirometry, monitor oxygen saturation (SpO2), and manage acute bronchospasm (see sections 4.4 and 4.8) including appropriate use of resuscitation equipment.

Posology

Initiation dose assessment

Before commencing treatment with Bronchitol, all patients should be assessed for bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol during administration of their initiation dose (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

The patient should be pre-medicated with a bronchodilator 5-15 minutes prior to the initiation dose but after the baseline FEV1 and SpO2 (Oxygen saturation in the blood) measurement. All FEV1 measurements and SpO2 monitoring should be performed 60 seconds after dose inhalation.

Training the patient to practice correct inhaler technique during the initiation dose assessment is important.

The initiation dose assessment must be performed according to the following steps:

Step 1: Patients baseline FEV1 and SpO2 is measured prior to the initiation dose

Step 2: Patient inhales 40 mg (1x40 mg capsules) and SpO2 is monitored

Step 3: Patient inhales 80 mg (2x40 mg capsules) and SpO2 is monitored

Step 4: Patient inhales 120 mg (3x40 mg capsules), FEV1 is measured and SpO2 is monitored

Step 5: Patient inhales 160 mg (4x40 mg capsules), FEV1 is measured and SpO2 is monitored

Step 6: Patients FEV1 is measured 15 minutes post initiation dose.

Patients with asthma may experience reversible temporary mild bronchospasm after passing the initiation dose assessment and therefore all patients should be monitored until their FEV1 has returned to baseline levels.

Therapeutic dose regimen

The therapeutic dose regimen should not be prescribed until the initiation dose assessment has been performed. The patient must complete and pass the initiation dose assessment before starting treatment with Bronchitol.

A bronchodilator must be administered 5-15 minutes before each dose of Bronchitol.

The recommended dose of Bronchitol is 400 mg twice a day. This requires the inhalation of the contents of ten capsules via the inhaler device twice a day.

The doses should be taken morning and night with the evening dose taken 2-3 hours before bedtime.

For patients receiving several respiratory therapies, the recommended order is:

1. Bronchodilator

2. Bronchitol

3. Physiotherapy/exercise

4. Dornase alfa (if applicable)

5. Inhaled antibiotics (if applicable)

Special populations

Elderly patients (≥65 years)

There are insufficient data in this population to support a recommendation for or against dose adjustment.

Renal or hepatic impairment

Bronchitol has not specifically been studied in patients with impaired renal and hepatic function. Available data from studies DPM-CF-301 and 302 suggest that no dose adjustments are required for these patient populations.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Bronchitol in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years has not yet been established. Currently available data are described in sections 4.8, 5.1 and 5.2 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

The safety and efficacy of Bronchitol in children aged less than 6 years has not been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

Bronchitol is for inhalation use, using the inhaler provided in the pack. It must not be administered by any other route or using any other inhaler. The capsules must not be swallowed.

Each of the capsules is loaded into the device separately. The contents of the capsules are inhaled via the inhaler device with one or two breaths. After inhalation, each empty capsule is discarded before inserting the next capsule into the inhaler device with as little delay as possible between capsules.

The inhaler device is to be replaced after one week of use. If the inhaler does require cleaning, it must be ensured that the device is empty, then it should be washed in warm water and before re use, the inhaler should be allowed to thoroughly air dry.

Detailed instructions on how to use the inhaler can be found in the patient information leaflet. Patients should be advised to carefully read them.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance.

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol (see section 4.4).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Hyperresponsiveness to mannitol

Patients must be monitored for bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol during their initiation dose assessment before commencing the therapeutic dose regimen of Bronchitol.If the patient is unable to perform spirometry or complete the initiation dose assessment, they must not be prescribed Bronchitol. Hyperresponsive patients should not be prescribed the therapeutic dose regimen of Bronchitol (see section 4.3).The usual precautions regarding bronchial hyperresponsiveness monitoring apply (see section 4.2).

A patient is defined as hyperresponsive to inhaled mannitol and must not be prescribed the therapeutic dose regimen if they experience any of the following during the initiation dose assessment:

- ≥10% fall from baseline in SpO2 at any point of the assessment;

- FEV1 fall from baseline is ≥20% at 240 mg cumulative dose;

- FEV1 has fallen 20-<50% (from baseline) at the end of the assessment and does not return to <20% within 15 minutes;

- FEV1 has fallen ≥50% (from baseline) at the end of the assessment.

If a therapy induced hyperresponsive reaction is suspected, Bronchitol should be discontinued.

Bronchospasm

Bronchospasm can occur with inhalation of medicinal product and has been reported with Bronchitol in clinical studies, even in patients who were not hyperresponsive to the initiation dose of inhaled mannitol (see section 4.8). Bronchospasm should be treated with a bronchodilator or as medically appropriate.

If there is evidence of therapy induced bronchospasm, the physician should carefully evaluate whether the benefits of continued use of Bronchitol outweigh the risks to the patient.

All patients should be formally reviewed after approximately six weeks of Bronchitol treatment to assess for signs and symptoms suggestive of active substance induced bronchospasm. The initiation dose assessment described in section 4.2 should be repeated if uncertainty exists.

Asthma

The safety/efficacy of mannitol in patients with asthma has not been properly studied. Patients with asthma must be carefully monitored for worsening signs and symptoms of asthma after the initiation dose of Bronchitol.

Patients must be advised to report worsening signs and symptoms of asthma during therapeutic use to their physician. If there is evidence of therapy induced bronchospasm, the physician should carefully evaluate whether the benefits of continued use of Bronchitol outweigh the risks to the patient. Bronchospasm should be treated with a bronchodilator or as medically appropriate.

Haemoptysis

Haemoptysis has been commonly reported with Bronchitol in clinical studies. Bronchitol has not been studied in patients with a history of significant episodes of haemoptysis (>60 ml) in the previous three months. As a consequence, these patients should be carefully monitored, and Bronchitol should be withheld in the event of massive haemoptysis. A massive/serious haemoptysis is considered to be:

• acute bleeding ≥240 ml in a 24-hour period

• recurrent bleeding ≥100 ml/day over several days

The reinstitution or withholding of Bronchitol following smaller episodes of haemoptysis should be based on clinical judgement.

Cough

Cough was very commonly reported with use of Bronchitol in clinical studies (see section 4.8). Patients should be trained to practice correct inhaler technique during treatment and advised to report persistent cough with the use of Bronchitol to their physician.

Impaired lung function

Safety and efficacy have not been demonstrated in patients with a FEV1 of less than 30% of predicted (see section 5.1). The use of Bronchitol is not recommended in these patients.

Non-CF Bronchiectasis

Efficacy and safety have not been established in non-CF bronchiectasis patients. Therefore, treatment with Bronchitol is not recommended.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No formal interaction studies have been conducted.

However, Bronchitol has been used in clinical studies in conjunction with standard cystic fibrosis therapies such as mucolytics, antibiotics (including tobramycin and colistimethate sodium), bronchodilators, pancreatic enzymes, vitamins, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, and analgesics.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are limited data from the use of mannitol in pregnant women. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). As the effects of a possible hyperresponsive reaction on the mother and/or foetus are unknown, caution should be exercised when prescribing bronchitol to pregnant women. As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Bronchitol during pregnancy.

Breastfeeding

It is unknown whether mannitol is excreted in human milk. The excretion of mannitol in milk has not been studied in animals. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast feeding or to discontinue Bronchitol therapy taking into account the benefit of breast feeding for the child and the benefit of Bronchitol therapy for the woman.

Fertility

For mannitol no clinical data on fertility is available. Animal reproduction studies have not been carried out with inhaled mannitol. However, studies with orally administered mannitol indicate no fertility effects (see section 5.3).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Bronchitol has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

Initiation dose assessment

The most commonly observed adverse reaction associated with the use of Bronchitol during the initiation dose assessment is cough (3.6% of patients), (see section 4.4).

The most important adverse reaction associated with the use of Bronchitol during the initiation dose assessment is bronchospasm (see section 4.4).

Therapeutic dose regimen

The most commonly observed adverse reaction associated with the use of Bronchitol is cough (see section 4.4). This was observed in 10.2% of patients compared to 5.0% of patients in the control arm. Cough which led to cessation of treatment was also commonly experienced and was observed in 4.7% of patients in the Bronchitol treatment arm.

The most important adverse reaction associated with the use of Bronchitol is haemoptysis. The proportion of patients who experienced haemoptysis as an adverse reaction was 7.3% and 2.9% in the Bronchitol arms for studies 301 and 302, respectively vs. 3.4% and 0% in the control arms. Total haemoptysis incidence including during exacerbation was 15.8% in the mannitol arm and 14.6% in the control arm (see section 4.4).

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

Frequencies provided in Table 1 and 2 are based on the observations on the day of screening and during two pivotal comparative clinical studies investigating the effect of Bronchitol (safety population, 361 patients on Bronchitol).

Frequencies are defined as:

Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (≥1/100,000 to <1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Table 1: Frequency of adverse reactions with Bronchitol during the treatment phase and on the day of screening

System organ class

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Infections and infestations

Bacterial disease carrier

Oral candidiasis

Staphylococcal infection

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Decreased appetite

CF related diabetes

Dehydration1

Psychiatric disorders

Initial insomnia

Morbid thoughts

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Dizziness2

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Ear pain

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Cough

Haemoptysis

Condition aggravated2

Pharyngolaryngeal pain

Cough1

Chest discomfort2

Wheezing

Productive cough

Throat irritation

Wheezing1

Bacteria sputum identified

Asthma

Rhinorrhoea

Bronchospasm2

Fungus sputum test positive

Dysphonia

Dyspnoea

Hyperventilation

Obstructive airways disorder

Respiratory tract congestion

Sputum discoloured

Bronchitis

Bronchopneumonia

Lung infection

Pharyngitis

Upper respiratory tract infection

Hypoxia1

Productive cough1

Forced expiratory volume decreased1

Chest pain1

Throat irritation1

Gastrointestinal disorders

Post-tussive vomiting

Vomiting

Nausea2

Vomiting1

Diarrhoea1

Eructation

Flatulence

Gastrooesophageal reflux disease

Glossodynia

Retching2

Stomatitis

Abdominal pain upper1

Apthous Stomatitis1

Odynophagia1

Post-tussive vomiting1

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Acne

Cold sweat

Pruritus

Rash

Rash pruritic

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Musculoskeletal chest pain

Arthralgia

Back pain

Joint stiffness

Musculoskeletal pain

Renal and urinary disorders

Urinary incontinence

General disorders and administration site conditions

Influenza like illness

Fatigue2

Hernia pain

Malaise

Pyrexia

Investigations

Blood alkaline phosphatase increased1

1Adverse reaction occurred on the day of screening

2Adverse reaction occurred both during the treatment phase and on the day of screening

Description of selected adverse reactions

Twenty seven (7%) out of 389 patients enrolled in study 301 and 14 (4.1%) out of 342 enrolled in study 302 were not randomised due to a positive mannitol tolerance test (MTT). In study 301, overall the most frequently reported events during the MTT were cough in 18 (4.8%) subjects, wheezing/bronchospasm in eight (2.1%) subjects and chest discomfort in six (1.6%) subjects. In study 302 the most frequent clinical sign or symptom reported during the MTT was cough (7.9%).

Paediatric population (6 to 17 years of age)

Frequency, type and severity of adverse reactions in children are similar to those observed in adults.

Initiation dose (6 to 17 years of age)

The most commonly observed adverse reaction associated with the use of Bronchitol during the initiation dose assessment with the paediatric population is cough (4.8% of patients).

The most important adverse reaction associated with the use of Bronchitol during the initiation dose assessment with the paediatric population is bronchospasm.

Therapeutic dose regimen(6 to 17 years of age)

The most commonly observed adverse reaction associated with the use of Bronchitol is cough. This was observed in 7.8% of patients compared to 3.8% of patients in the control arm. The most important adverse reaction associated with the use of Bronchitol is haemoptysis.

Table 2: Frequency of adverse reactions with Bronchitol during the treatment phase and on the day of screening-paediatric population (6 to 17 years of age)

System organ class

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Psychiatric disorders

Initial insomnia

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Dizziness2

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Ear Pain

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Cough2

Condition aggravated

Haemoptysis

Pharyngolaryngeal pain

Bacteria sputum identified

Chest discomfort

Wheezing

Asthma

Productive cough

Bronchitis

Bronchopneumonia

Dysphonia

Hyperventilation

Sputum Discoloured

Throat irritation Pharyngitis

Upper respiratory tract infection

Bronchospasm1

Dyspnoea

Chest discomfort1

Chest pain1

Gastrointestinal disorders

Vomiting

Post-tussive vomiting

Nausea2

Vomiting1

Odynophagia1

Post-tussive vomiting1

Retching1

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Pruritus

Pruritic rash

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Musculoskeletal chest pain

Renal and urinary disorders

Urinary incontinence

General disorders and administration site conditions

Pyrexia

1Adverse reaction occurred on the day of screening

2Adverse reaction occurred both during the treatment phase and on the day of screening

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme in the UK, Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or in Ireland to HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2; Tel: +353 1 6764971; Fax: +353 1 6762517; Website: www.hpra.ie; e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie.

4.9 Overdose

Susceptible persons may suffer bronchoconstriction in the event of an inhaled overdose. If excessive coughing and bronchoconstriction occurs, a beta2 agonist should be given, and oxygen if necessary.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Cough and cold preparations, Mucolytic. ATC code: R05CB16

Mechanism of action

Bronchitol is an inhaled hyperosmotic medicinal product. While the exact mechanism of action is unknown, inhaled mannitol may change the viscoelastic properties of mucus, increase the hydration of the periciliary fluid layer and contribute to increased mucus clearance of the retained secretions through mucociliary activity. Productive cough can contribute to sputum clearance.

Pharmacodynamic effects

In the ITT population of an open label dose response study, DPM-CF-202, the mean (SD) percent change in FEV1 for the 400 mg dose was 8.75 (SD: 12.4) and -1.569 (SD: 9.0) for 40 mg dose (p < 0.0001).

Clinical efficacy and safety

Two Phase 3, 26-week double blind, randomised, parallel arm, controlled, intervention studies (DPM-CF-301 and DPM-CF-302) have been performed in which 324 (DPM-CF-301) and 318 (DPM-CF-302) patients aged 6 years and above were randomised in a 3:2 ratio to inhaled mannitol 400 mg twice daily or to control (inhaled mannitol 50 mg twice daily). Twenty seven (7%) out of 389 patients enrolled in study 301 and 14 (4.1%) out of 342 enrolled in study 302 were not randomised due to a positive mannitol tolerance test (MTT) defined as either 1) a fall in FEV1 >20% from baseline at midpoint (step 4) or 2) fall from baseline > 20 % at end of test that did not recover to < 20% within 15 minutes or 3) who had a fall in FEV1 > 50% from baseline at end of test (step 6) or 4) who had a fall in Sp02 to < 89% during the procedure. An additional 4% (n=27) of patients from the two studies had incomplete MTTs and were not randomised.

Mean (SD) baseline FEV1 percent predicted in study DPM-CF-301 (safety population, N= 295) was 62.4 (SD:16.45) and 61.4 (SD:16.13) in the mannitol and control groups, respectively. These figures for study DPM-CF-302 (N=305) are as follows: 65.24 (SD:13.90) and 64.35 (SD:15.29). In study DPM-CF-301 64.4 % of the patient population were adults while in study DPM-CF-302 this figure was 49.5%. Fifty five % of patients were receiving rhDNase in study DPM-CF-301 while in study DPM-CF-302 this number was 75%. The percentage of patients receiving inhaled antibiotics was 55% in study DPM-CF-301 and 56% in study DPM-CF-302. Concomitant administration with hypertonic saline was not permitted in these trials.

The primary pre-specified endpoint i.e. the change from baseline in FEV1 (ml) in the modified ITT (mITT) population (n=269 and 297 in studies DPM-CF-301 and DPM-CF-302, respectively) compared to control over the 26 weeks period is provided in Table 1 alongside FEV1 presented as absolute and relative change % predicted.

Table 1 – Change in FEV1 from baseline over 26 weeks in the mITT and adult populations

Effect size estimate

DPM-CF-301

DPM-CF-302

FEV1

(95% CI)

p value

FEV1

(95% CI)

p value

Overall Population

N=269

N=297

Absolute mL

94.5

(46.2, 142.7)

<0.001

54.1

(-1.97, 110.3)

0.059

Absolute % predicted

2.4

(0.9, 3.9)

0.001

1.9

(-0.02, 3.8)

0.052

Relative % predicted

3.5

(1.0, 6.1)

0.007

3.6

(0.3, 6.9)

0.033

Adult Population

N=171

N=144

Absolute mL

108.5

(47.6, 169.4)

<0.001

85.9

(4.6, 167.3)

0.038

Absolute % predicted

2.7

(0.9, 4.5)

0.004

2.3

(-0.4, 5.1)

0.095

Relative % predicted

4.3

(1.1, 7.5)

0.008

5.0

(0.2, 9.8)

0.040

In rhDNase users in study 301 the relative change in FEV1 % predicted from baseline across 26 weeks of treatment was 2.83 (95% CI -0.62, 6.27). For non-users the relative change was 4.30 (95% CI 0.53, 8.07). In study 302 the relative change (95% CI) for rhDNase users and non-users was 3.21 (-0.61, 7.03) and 4.73 (-1.93, 11.40), respectively.

The number of subjects with at least one protocol defined pulmonary exacerbation (PDPE, defined by the presence of at least 4 symptoms and signs plus the use of intravenous antibiotics) was 18.1% in the mannitol arm and 28% in the control arm in study 301 (ITT population). In study 302 15.2% subjects in the mannitol arm and 19% in the control had a PDPE.

The estimated effect of treatment (mean change and 95% CI from baseline over 26 weeks, mITT population) on FVC was 108.78 ml (95% CI: 49.21, 168.35) in study 301 and 71.4 ml (95% CI: 10.57, 132.13) in study 302.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Bronchitol in children and adolescents aged less than 18 years has not been established (see section 4.2).

In studies DPM-CF-301 and 302 relative % predicted FEV1 compared to control in children (6-11 years) was improved by 0.44% (95% CI -5.90, 6.77, N=43) and 6.1% (95% CI -1.28, 13.54, N=59) over 26 weeks (p=0.892 and 0.104) respectively.

In adolescents (12-17 years) relative change in % predicted FEV1 compared to control improved by 3.31% (95% CI -2.29, 8.90, N=55) and 0.42% (95% CI -5.45, 6.29, N=94) over 26 weeks (p=0.245 and 0.888) respectively.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

In a study of 18 healthy male adult volunteers, the absolute bioavailability of mannitol powder for inhalation by comparison to mannitol administered intravenously was 0.59% ± 0.15.

The rate and extent of absorption of mannitol after inhaled administration was very similar to that observed after oral administration. The Tmax after inhaled administration was 1.5 ± 0.5 hours.

In a study of 9 cystic fibrosis patients (6 adults, 3 adolescents), using 400 mg inhaled mannitol as a single dose (Day 1) then twice a day for 7 days (Days 2 - 7), pharmacokinetic parameters were similar for adults and adolescents, except for a longer average apparent terminal half life for adolescents (Day 1 = 7.29 hours, Day 7 = 6.52 hours) compared with adults (Day 1 = 6.10 hours, Day 7 = 5.42 hours). Overall, the comparison of AUCs between Day 1 and Day 7 showed a time independence of pharmacokinetics, indicating linearity at the dose level administered in this study.

Biotransformation

A small percentage of systemically absorbed mannitol undergoes hepatic metabolism to glycogen and carbon dioxide. Studies in rats, mice and humans have demonstrated that mannitol has no toxic metabolites. The metabolic pathway of inhaled mannitol was not examined in pharmacokinetic studies.

Distribution

Lung deposition studies have demonstrated a 24.7% deposition of inhaled mannitol confirming its distribution to the target organ. Nonclinical toxicology studies indicate that mannitol inhaled into the lungs is absorbed into the bloodstream, with the maximum serum concentration being achieved occurring at 1 hour. There is no evidence that mannitol is accumulated in the body, therefore distribution of inhaled mannitol was not examined in PK studies.

Elimination

The cumulative amount of mannitol filtered into the urine over the 24 hour collection period was similar for inhaled (55%) and oral (54%) mannitol. When administered intravenously, mannitol is eliminated largely unchanged by glomerular filtration and 87% of the dose is excreted in the urine within 24 hours. The mean terminal half-life in adults was approximately 4 to 5 hours from serum and approximately 3.66 hours from urine.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Bronchitol in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years has not yet been established.

The limited data available in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years indicate the pharmacokinetic parameters of inhaled mannitol are similar to the adult population.

There are no data available for children under 12 years of age.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

In male rats after 13 weeks of inhaled mannitol dosing, elevated circulating lymphocyte numbers and mandibular lymph node plasmacytosis was observed at doses greater than 9.3 fold the maximal dose. The elevated lymphocyte count was within historical control values, did not progress and was essentially resolved by the end of the in life phase of the study and following withdrawal of treatment. This effect was not noted in any other species and did not result in clinical signs.

In dogs an increased occurrence of coughing was observed both during and immediately post dose for low and high dose inhaled mannitol administration. No treatment-related adverse effect occurred greater than 13 fold the maximal therapeutic dose.

No mutagenic or genotoxic effect has been revealed when mannitol was assayed in a standard battery of genotoxicity tests.

Mannitol was shown not to be an irritant in an isolated bovine eye assay or when introduced into rabbit eyes.

No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed when dietary mannitol (≤5%) was administered to mice and rats for 2 years. Carcinogenicity studies have not been carried out with inhaled mannitol.

Reproduction and developmental toxicity studies have not been carried out with inhaled mannitol. However, studies conducted with mannitol administered via other routes indicated no effect on foetal survival in mice, rats and hamsters and on embryo and foetal development in rats and rabbits.

Animal reproduction studies have not been carried out with inhaled mannitol. However, studies conducted with orally administered mannitol indicated no teratogenic effects in mice or rats, at doses of up to 1.6 g/kg, or in hamsters at 1.2 g/kg.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

None.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years

Discard the inhaler and its cap 1 week after first use.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store below 30°C.

Store in the original blister in order to protect from moisture. The capsules must only be removed immediately before use.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Aluminium/polyamide/PVC/aluminium blisters. Cartons containing 10 or 280 capsules for initial dose and treatment use respectively.

The initiation dose carton contains 1 blister (of 10 capsules) and one inhaler device.

The 2-week carton contains 28 blisters (of 10 capsules each) and two inhaler devices.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special requirements.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Pharmaxis Pharmaceuticals Limited,

25 Moorgate,

London,

EC2R 6AY

United Kingdom.

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

EU/1/12/760/001-002

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation: 13 April 2012

Date of latest renewal: 11 January 2017

10. Date of revision of the text

11.01.2017

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu/.

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Company contact details

Pharmaxis Pharmaceuticals Limited

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Chiesi Limited, 333 Styal Road, Manchester, M22 5LG

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+44 (0) 161 488 5566

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+44 (0)161 488 5555

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Active ingredients

mannitol

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