- sevelamer carbonate
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Renvela 2.4 g powder for oral suspension
Each sachet contains 2.4 g sevelamer carbonate.
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
Powder for oral suspension.
Pale yellow powder.
Renvela is indicated for the control of hyperphosphataemia in adult patients receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Renvela is also indicated for the control of hyperphosphataemia in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis with serum phosphorus ≥ 1.78 mmol/l.
Renvela is indicated for the control of hyperphosphataemia in paediatric patients (>6 years of age and a body surface area (BSA) of >0.75 m2) with chronic kidney disease.
Renvela should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium supplement, 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to control the development of renal bone disease.
The recommended starting dose of sevelamer carbonate for adults is 2.4 g or 4.8 g per day based on clinical needs and serum phosphorus level. Renvela must be taken three times per day with meals.
Serum phosphorus level in patients
Total daily dose of sevelamer carbonate to be taken over 3 meals per day
1.78 – 2.42 mmol/l (5.5 – 7.5 mg/dl)
> 2.42 mmol/l (> 7.5 mg/dl)
*Plus subsequent titrating, see section “Titration and maintenance”
Children/adolescents (>6 years of age and a BSA of >0.75m2)
The recommended starting dose of sevelamer carbonate for children is between 2.4 g and 4.8 g per day based on the patient's BSA category. Renvela must be taken three times per day with meals or snacks.
Total daily dose of sevelamer carbonate to be taken over 3 meals/snacks per day
>0.75 to <1.2
**Plus subsequent titrating, see section “Titration and maintenance”
For patients previously on phosphate binders (sevelamer hydrochloride or calcium based), Renvela should be given on a gram for gram basis with monitoring of serum phosphorus levels to ensure optimal daily doses.
Titration and maintenance
For adult patients, serum phosphorus must be monitored and the dose of sevelamer carbonate titrated by 0.8 g three times per day (2.4 g/day) increments every 2-4 weeks until an acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached, with regular monitoring thereafter.
In clinical practice, treatment will be continuous based on the need to control serum phosphorus levels and the daily adult dose is expected to be an average of approximately 6 g per day.
**Children and adolescents (>6 years of age and a BSA of >0.75m2)
For paediatric patients, serum phosphorus levels must be monitored and the dose of sevelamer carbonate titrated in increments based on patient's BSA, three times per day every 2-4 weeks until an acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached, with regular monitoring thereafter.
Paediatric dose based on BSA (m2)
>0.75 to <1.2
0.8 g three times daily
Titrate up/down by 0.4 g three times daily
1.6 g three times daily
Titrate up/down by 0.8 g three times daily
Patients taking sevelamer carbonate should adhere to their prescribed diets.
No dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly population.
No studies have been performed in patients with hepatic impairment.
The safety and efficacy of Renvela in children below the age of 6 years or in children with a BSA below 0.75 m2 have not been established. No data are available.
For paediatric patients with a <1.2 BSA (m2), the oral suspension should be administered, as tablet formulations were not tested in this population and therefore are not appropriate for this population.
Method of administration
Each sachet of 2.4 g of powder is to be dispersed in 60 mL of water prior to administration (see section 6.6). The suspension should be ingested within 30 minutes after being prepared. Renvela should be taken with food and not on an empty stomach.
As an alternative to water, the powder may be pre-mixed with a small amount of beverage or food (e.g. 100 grams/120 ml) and consumed within 30 minutes. Do not heat Renvela powder (e.g. microwave) or add to heated foods or liquids.
If a dose of 0.4 g is to be administered, please use the dedicated 0.8 g powder presentation with dosing spoon.
• Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
• Bowel obstruction.
The safety and efficacy of sevelamer carbonate have not been established in adult patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis with serum phosphorus < 1.78 mmol/l. Therefore it is currently not recommended for use in these patients.
The safety and efficacy of sevelamer carbonate have not been established in patients with the following disorders:
• swallowing disorders
• severe gastrointestinal motility disorders including untreated or severe gastroparesis, retention of gastric contents and abnormal or irregular bowel motion
• active inflammatory bowel disease
• major gastrointestinal tract surgery
Treatment of these patients with Renvela should only be initiated after careful benefit/risk assessment. If the therapy is initiated, patients suffering from these disorders should be monitored. Renvela treatment should be reevaluated in patients who develop severe constipation or other severe gastrointestinal symptoms.
Intestinal obstruction and ileus/subileus
In very rare cases, intestinal obstruction and ileus/subileus have been observed in patients during treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride (capsules/tablets), which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate. Constipation may be a preceding symptom. Patients who are constipated should be monitored carefully while being treated with Renvela. The treatment should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe constipation or other severe gastrointestinal symptoms.
Fat-soluble vitamins and folate deficiency
Patients with CKD may develop low levels of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, depending on dietary intake and the severity of their disease. It cannot be excluded that sevelamer carbonate can bind fat-soluble vitamins contained in ingested food. In patients not taking supplemental vitamins but on sevelamer, serum vitamin A, D, E and K status should be assessed regularly. It is recommended that vitamin supplements be given if necessary. It is recommended that CKD patients not on dialysis are given vitamin D supplements (approximately 400 IU of native vitamin D daily) which can be part of a multivitamin preparation to be taken apart from their dose of sevelamer carbonate. In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis additional monitoring of fat-soluble vitamins and folic acid is recommended, since vitamin A, D, E and K levels were not measured in a clinical study in these patients.
There is at present insufficient data to exclude the possibility of folate deficiency during long term sevelamer carbonate treatment. In patients not taking supplemental folic acid but on sevelamer, folate level should be assessed regularly.
Patients with CKD may develop hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia. Sevelamer carbonate does not contain any calcium. Serum calcium levels should therefore be monitored at regular intervals and elemental calcium should be given as a supplement if required.
Patients with CKD are predisposed to developing metabolic acidosis. As part of good clinical practice, monitoring of serum bicarbonate levels is therefore recommended.
Patients receiving dialysis are subject to certain risks for infection specific to dialysis modality. Peritonitis is a known complication in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis and in a clinical trial with sevelamer hydrochloride, a greater number of peritonitis cases were reported in the sevelamer group than in the control group. Patients on peritoneal dialysis should be closely monitored to ensure the correct use of appropriate aseptic technique with the prompt recognition and management of any signs and symptoms associated with peritonitis.
Closer monitoring of patients with hypothyroidism co-administered with sevelamer carbonate and levothyroxine is recommended (see section 4.5).
Sevelamer carbonate is not indicated for the control of hyperparathyroidism. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism sevelamer carbonate should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium as supplements, 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to lower the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels.
Inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders
Cases of serious inflammatory disorders of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (including serious complications such as bleeding, perforation, ulceration, necrosis, colitis) associated with the presence of sevelamer crystals have been reported in literature. However, the causality of the sevelamer crystals in initiating such disorders has not been demonstrated. Sevelamer carbonate treatment should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe gastrointestinal symptoms.
This medicine contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per sachet, that is to say essentially 'sodium-free'.
Interaction studies have not been conducted in patients on dialysis.
In interaction studies in healthy volunteers, sevelamer hydrochloride, which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate, decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by approximately 50% when co-administered with sevelamer hydrochloride in a single dose study. Consequently, sevelamer carbonate should not be taken simultaneously with ciprofloxacin.
Ciclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus in transplant patients
Reduced levels of ciclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus have been reported in transplant patients when co-administered with sevelamer hydrochloride without any clinical consequences (e.g., graft rejection). The possibility of an interaction cannot be excluded and a close monitoring of blood concentrations of ciclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus should be considered during the use of combination and after its withdrawal.
Very rare cases of hypothyroidism have been reported in patients co-administered with sevelamer hydrochloride, which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate, and levothyroxine. Closer monitoring of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels is therefore recommended in patients receiving sevelamer carbonate and levothyroxine.
Anti-arrhythmics and anti-seizure medicinal products
Patients taking anti-arrhythmic medicinal products for the control of arrhythmias and anti-seizure medicinal products for the control of seizure disorders were excluded from clinical trials. Therefore, possible reduction in absorption cannot be excluded. The anti-arrhythmic medical product should be taken at least one hour before or three hours after Renvela and blood monitoring can be considered.
Proton pump inhibitors
During post-marketing experience, very rare cases of increased phosphate levels have been reported in patients taking proton pump inhibitors co-administered with sevelamer carbonate. Caution should be exercised when prescribing PPI to patients concomitantly treated with Renvela. The phosphate serum level should be monitored and the Renvela dosage adjusted consequently.
Sevelamer carbonate is not absorbed and may affect the bioavailability of other medicinal products. When administering any medicinal product where a reduction in the bioavailability could have a clinically significant effect on safety or efficacy, the medicinal product should be administered at least one hour before or three hours after sevelamer carbonate, or the physician should consider monitoring blood levels.
Digoxin, warfarin, enalapril or metoprolol
In interaction studies in healthy volunteers, sevelamer hydrochloride, which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate, had no effect on the bioavailability of digoxin, warfarin, enalapril or metoprolol.
There are no or limited amount of data from the use of sevelamer in pregnant women. Animal studies have shown some reproductive toxicity when sevelamer was administered to rats at high doses (see section 5.3). Sevelamer has also been shown to reduce the absorption of several vitamins including folic acid (see sections 4.4 and 5.3). The potential risk to humans is unknown. Sevelamer carbonate should only be given to pregnant women if clearly needed and after a careful risk/benefit analysis has been conducted for both the mother and the foetus.
It is unknown whether sevelamer/metabolites are excreted in human milk. The non-absorbed nature of sevelamer indicates that excretion of sevelamer in breast milk is unlikely. A decision on whether to continue/discontinue breast-feeding or to continue/discontinue therapy with sevelamer carbonate should be made taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding to the child and the benefit of sevelamer carbonate therapy to the woman.
There are no data from the effect of sevelamer on fertility in humans. Studies in animals have shown that sevelamer did not impair fertility in male or female rats at exposures at a human equivalent dose 2 times the maximum clinical trial dose of 13 g/day, based on a comparison of relative BSA.
Sevelamer has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Summary of the safety profile
The most frequently occurring (≥ 5% of patients) adverse reactions were all in the gastrointestinal disorders system organ class. Most of these adverse reactions were mild to moderate in intensity.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions
The safety of sevelamer (as either carbonate and hydrochloride salts) has been investigated in numerous clinical trials involving a total of 969 haemodialysis patients with treatment duration of 4 to 50 weeks (724 patients treated with sevelamer hydrochloride and 245 with sevelamer carbonate), 97 peritoneal dialysis patients with treatment duration of 12 weeks (all treated with sevelamer hydrochloride) and 128 patients with CKD not on dialysis with treatment duration of 8 to 12 weeks (79 patients treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride and 49 with sevelamer carbonate).
Adverse reactions that occurred during clinical trials or that were spontaneously reported from post-marketing experience are listed by frequency in the table below. The reporting rate is classified as very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
MedDRA System Organ Class
Immune system disorders
Nausea, vomiting, upper abdominal pain, constipation
Diarrhoea, dyspepsia, flatulence, abdominal pain
Intestinal obstruction, ileus/subileus, intestinal perforation
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
In general, the safety profile for children and adolescents (6 to 18 years of age) is similar to the safety profile for adults.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed below.
Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
IRL – Dublin 2
Tel: +353 1 6764971
Fax: +353 1 6762517
E-mail: [email protected]
Sevelamer hydrochloride, which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate, has been given to normal healthy volunteers in doses of up to 14 grams per day for eight days with no adverse reactions. In CKD patients, the maximum average daily dose studied was 14.4 grams of sevelamer carbonate in a single daily dose.
The symptoms observed in case of overdose are similar to adverse reactions listed in section 4.8, including mainly constipation and other known gastrointestinal disorders.
Appropriate symptomatic treatment should be provided.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: All other therapeutic products, drugs for treatment of hyperkalemia and hyperphosphataemia. ATC code: V03A E02.
Mechanism of action
Renvela contains sevelamer, a non-absorbed phosphate binding crosslinked polymer, free of metal and calcium. Sevelamer contains multiple amines separated by one carbon from the polymer backbone which become protonated in the stomach. These protonated amines bind negatively charged ions such as dietary phosphate in the intestine.
By binding phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract and decreasing absorption, sevelamer lowers the phosphorus concentration in the serum. Regular monitoring of serum phosphorus levels is always necessary during phosphate binder administration.
Clinical efficacy and safety
In two randomised, cross over clinical trials, sevelamer carbonate has been shown to be therapeutically equivalent to sevelamer hydrochloride and therefore effective in controlling serum phosphorus in CKD patients on haemodialysis. These also demonstrated that sevelamer carbonate in both tablet and powder formulations are therapeutically equivalent to sevelamer hydrochloride.
The first study demonstrated that sevelamer carbonate tablets dosed three times per day was equivalent to sevelamer hydrochloride tablets dosed three times per day in 79 haemodialysis patients treated over two randomised 8 week treatment periods (mean serum phosphorus time-weighted averages were 1.5 ± 0.3 mmol/l for both sevelamer carbonate and sevelamer hydrochloride). The second study demonstrated that sevelamer carbonate powder dosed three times per day was equivalent to sevelamer hydrochloride tablets dosed three times per day in 31 hyperphosphataemic (defined as serum phosphorus levels ≥ 1.78 mmol/l) haemodialysis patients over two randomised 4 week treatment periods (mean serum phosphorus time-weighted averages were 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol/l for sevelamer carbonate powder and 1.7 ± 0.4 mmol/l for sevelamer hydrochloride tablets).
In the clinical trials in haemodialysis patients, sevelamer alone did not have a consistent and clinically significant effect on iPTH. In a 12 week study involving peritoneal dialysis patients however, similar iPTH reductions were seen compared with patients receiving calcium acetate. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism sevelamer carbonate should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium as supplements, 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to lower the iPTH levels.
Sevelamer has been shown to bind bile acids in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models. Bile acid binding by ion exchange resins is a well-established method of lowering blood cholesterol. In clinical trials of sevelamer, both the mean total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol declined by 15-39%. The decrease in cholesterol has been observed after 2 weeks of treatment and is maintained with long-term treatment. Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and albumin levels did not change following sevelamer treatment.
Because sevelamer binds bile acids, it may interfere with the absorption of fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E and K.
Sevelamer does not contain calcium and decreases the incidence of hypercalcaemic episodes as compared to patients using calcium based phosphate binders alone. The effects of sevelamer on phosphorus and calcium were proven to be maintained throughout a study with one year follow-up. This information was obtained from studies in which sevelamer hydrochloride was used.
The safety and effectiveness of sevelamer carbonate in hyperphosphatemic paediatric patients with CKD was evaluated in a multicenter study with a 2-week, randomised, placebo-controlled, fixed dose period (FDP) followed by a 6-month, single-arm, open-label, dose titration period (DTP). A total of 101 patients (6 to 18 years old with a BSA range of 0.8 m2 to 2.4 m2) were randomised in the study. Forty-nine (49) patients received sevelamer carbonate and 51 received placebo during the 2 week FDP. Thereafter all patients received sevelamer carbonate for the 26-week DTP. The study met its primary endpoint, meaning Sevelamer carbonate reduced serum phosphorus by an LS mean difference of 0.90 mg/dL compared to placebo, and secondary efficacy endpoints. In paediatric patients with hyperphosphatemia secondary to CKD, sevelamer carbonate significantly reduced serum phosphorus levels compared to placebo during a 2-week FDP. The treatment response was maintained in the paediatric patients who received sevelamer carbonate during the 6-month open-label DTP. 27% of paediatric patients reached their age appropriate serum phosphorus level at end of treatment. These figures were 23% and 15% in the subgroup of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. The treatment response during the 2-week FDP was not affected by BSA, in contrast however, no treatment response was observed in paediatric patients with qualifying phosphorus levels <7.0 mg/dL. Most of adverse events reported as related, or possibly related, to sevelamer carbonate were gastrointestinal in nature. No new risks or safety signals were identified with the use of sevelamer carbonate during the study.
Pharmacokinetic studies have not been carried out with sevelamer carbonate. Sevelamer hydrochloride, which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate, is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, as confirmed by an absorption study in healthy volunteers.
In a clinical trial of one year, no evidence of accumulation of sevelamer was seen. However the potential absorption and accumulation of sevelamer during long-term chronic treatment (> one year) cannot be totally excluded.
Non-clinical data with sevelamer reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity or genotoxicity.
Carcinogenicity studies with oral sevelamer hydrochloride were conducted in mice (doses of up to 9 g/kg/day) and rats (0.3, 1, or 3 g/kg/day). There was an increased incidence of urinary bladder transitional cell papilloma in male rats of the high dose group (human equivalent dose twice the maximum clinical trial dose of 14.4 g). There was no increased incidence of tumours observed in mice (human equivalent dose 3 times the maximum clinical trial dose).
In an in vitro mammalian cytogenetic test with metabolic activation, sevelamer hydrochloride caused a statistically significant increase in the number of structural chromosome aberrations. Sevelamer hydrochloride was not mutagenic in the Ames bacterial mutation assay.
In rats and dogs, sevelamer reduced absorption of fat soluble vitamins D, E and K (coagulation factors), and folic acid.
Deficits in skeletal ossification were observed in several locations in foetuses of female rats dosed with sevelamer at intermediate and high doses (human equivalent dose less than the maximum clinical trial dose of 14.4 g). The effects may be secondary to vitamin D depletion.
In pregnant rabbits given oral doses of sevelamer hydrochloride by gavage during organogenesis, an increase of early resorptions occurred in the high-dose group (human equivalent dose twice the maximum clinical trial dose).
Sevelamer hydrochloride did not impair the fertility of male or female rats in a dietary administration study in which the females were treated from 14 days prior to mating through gestation and the males were treated for 28 days prior to mating. The highest dose in this study was 4.5 g/kg/day (human equivalent dose 2 times the maximum clinical trial dose of 13 g/day, based on a comparison of relative BSA).
Propylene glycol alginate (E405)
Citrus Cream flavour
Iron oxide yellow (E172)
The oral suspension must be administered within 30 minutes.
The sachet has to be discarded after 24 hours of opening.
The medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
Sachet of ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer, polyester, LDPE and aluminium foil laminate, with a heat seal.
Each sachet contains 2.4 g of sevelamer carbonate. Each carton contains 60 or 90 sachets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
The powder should be dispersed in 60 mL of water per sachet prior to administration. The suspension powder is pale yellow with a citrus flavour.
The powder may also be pre-mixed with cold beverage or unheated food (see 4.2). The powder should not be heated (e.g. microwave).
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Genzyme Europe B.V.
1105 BP Amsterdam
Date of first authorisation: 10 June 2009
Date of latest renewal: 20 February 2019
16 May 2019
Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu/.
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