- sodium amidotrizoate
- meglumine amidotrizoate
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Dosage for oral useThe dosage is dependent on the type of examination and the age of the patient.Adults and children of 10 years of age or over:Visualisation of the stomach: 60 mlFollow-through examination of the gastrointestinal tract: a maximum of 100 ml
Computerised tomography (CT)0.5 - 1.5 litres of approximately 3% Gastrografin solution (30 ml Gastrografin/1 litre of water).Older and cachectic patients: Dilution with an equal volume of water is recommended.
ChildrenChildren (up to 10 years of age): 15-30 ml (can be diluted with twice its volume of water)Infants and young children: 15-30 ml (diluted with 3 times its volume of water)Dosage for rectal use (including therapy of uncomplicated meconium ileus)
AdultsUp to 500 ml Gastrografin dilution (diluted with 3 - 4 times its volume of water)
ChildrenChildren (over 5 years of age): up to 500 ml Gastrografin dilution (diluted with 4 - 5 times its volume of water)Children (up to 5 years of age): up to 500 ml Gastrografin dilution (diluted with 5 times its volume of water)
Therapy of uncomplicated meconium ileusGastrografin can be given by enema for non-operative treatment of uncomplicated meconium ileus. Advantage is taken of the high osmotic pressure of the contrast medium: the surrounding tissue is forced to release considerable amounts of fluid, which then flows into the gut and dissolves the inspissated meconium.The procedure must be carried out slowly and only under fluoroscopic control. Injection should stop as soon as Gastrografin is seen to enter the ileum. Owing to its high osmolarity, Gastrografin may cause the loss of a large amount of fluid into the intestines. An intravenous drip must therefore be set up before the enema is given and fluid should be infused as required. If the Gastrografin is not expelled during the first hour after removal of the rectal catheter, an X-ray should be taken to ensure that overdistension of the bowel as a result of the high osmolarity of Gastrografin has not occurred.Dosage for Gastrografin in combination with barium sulphate: Oral and rectal administration.
AdultsIn adult patients, addition of approximately 30 ml Gastrografin to the usual dose of barium should be adequate.
ChildrenChildren from 5 - 10 years of age: 10 ml Gastrografin to 100 ml barium sulphate suspension.Children up to 5 years of age: 2 - 5 ml Gastrografin to 100 ml barium sulphate suspension. If necessary (in cases of pylorospasm or pyloric stenosis), the portion of Gastrografin in the suspension may be further increased. This does not affect the contrast.For the early diagnosis of a perforation or investigation of an anastomosis in the oesophagus or gastrointestinal tract, the patient should drink up to 100 ml Gastrografin. After 30-60 minutes (later, if the defect is suspected of being in the distal gut), a urine specimen should be taken and 5 ml mixed with 5 drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The contrast medium which has undergone renal excretion will appear within two hours as a typical crystal formation in the precipitate.
HypersensitivityAs with other contrast agents, Gastrografin can be associated with anaphylactoid/hypersensitivity or other idiosyncratic reactions, characterized by cardiovascular, respiratory or cutaneous manifestations, and ranging to severe reactions including shock.Delayed reactions may occur (hours later or up to several days) (see section 4.8).Medication for the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions as well as readiness for institution of emergency measures are necessary.The risk of anaphylactoid/hypersensitivity reactions is higher in case of:- any history of allergic disorders,- history of bronchial asthma,- a previous anaphylactoid/hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media.Patients with cardiovascular disorders are more susceptible to serious or even fatal outcomes of severe anaphylactoid/hypersensitivity reactions.
Gastrografin contains sodiumThis medicinal product contains 3.8 mg sodium per ml. To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
Barium sulphateIf Gastrografin is used together with barium sulfate preparations, attention must be drawn to the contraindications, warnings and possible side effects relevant to the preparation.
GastrointestinalIn case of prolonged retention of Gastrografin in the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. obstruction, stasis), tissue damage, bleeding, bowel necrosis and intestinal perforation may occur.
HydrationAdequate hydration and electrolyte balance should be established and maintained in the patients, since the hyperosmolarity of Gastrografin may cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.Because of the additives (flavourings and a wetting agent), Gastrografin must not be used intravascularly.
Interference with diagnostic testsRadioisotopes: Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders with thyrotropic radioisotopes may be impeded for up to several weeks after administration of iodinated contrast agents due to reduced radioisotope uptake.
PregnancyAdequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have not been conducted.Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to embryonal/foetal development (see section 5.3).Caution should be exercised when using Gastrografin in pregnant women.
Breast-feedingIt is unknown whether sodium amidotrizoate or meglumine amidotrizoate are excreted in human breast milk. Intravascular use has shown that salts of the diatrizoic acid are excreted in breast milk. A decision on whether to continue / discontinue breast-feeding or continue / discontinue therapy with Gastrografin should be made taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding to the child and the benefit of administering Gastrografin to the woman.
Immune system disorders, anaphylactic reaction/hypersensitivityAnaphylactoid shock, anaphylactoid / hypersensitivity reaction.Systemic hypersensitivity is mostly mild and occurs generally in the form of skin reactions. However, the possibility of a severe hypersensitivity reaction cannot be entirely excluded (see section 4.4).
Metabolism and nutrition disordersFluid and electrolyte imbalance
Nervous system disordersDisturbances in consciousness, headache, dizziness
Cardiac disordersCardiac arrest, tachycardia
Vascular disordersShock, Hypotension
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disordersBronchospasm, dyspnoea, medication aspiration, pulmonary oedema following aspiration, aspiration pneumonia
Gastrointestinal disorders:The hypertonic Gastrografin solution may give rise to diarrhoea, but this ceases as soon as the intestine has been emptied. Existing enteritis or colitis may be temporarily exacerbated. In case of obstruction, the prolonged contact with bowel mucosa can lead to erosions and to bowel necrosis. Other undesirable effects include vomiting, nausea, diarrhoea, intestinal perforation, abdominal pain and oral mucosal blistering.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disordersToxic epidermal necrolysis, urticaria, rash, pruritus, erythema, oedema face
General disorders and administration site conditionsPyrexia, sweating
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
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