This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

One ml of concentrate contains 20 mg irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate equivalent to 17.33 mg irinotecan.

Each vial of 2 ml contains 40 mg of irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate (40 mg/2 ml)

Each vial of 5 ml contains 100 mg of irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate (100 mg/5 ml)

Each vial of 15 ml contains 300 mg of irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate (300 mg/15 ml)

Each vial of 25 ml contains 500 mg of irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate (500 mg/25 ml)

Each vial of 50 ml contains 1000 mg of Irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate (1000 mg/50 ml)

Excipient with known effect

Each ml contains 45 mg sorbitol.

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Concentrate for solution for infusion.

A pale yellow clear solution practically free from particles. pH in the range of approximately 3.0 to 3.8 and osmolality in the range of approximately 270 to 330 mOsmol/kg.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer:

• In combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients without prior chemotherapy for advanced disease,

• As a single agent in patients who have failed an established 5-fluorouracil containing treatment regimen.

Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion in combination with cetuximab is indicated for the treatment of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing, KRAS wild- type metastatic colorectal cancer, who had not received prior treatment for metastatic disease or after failure of irinotecan-including cytotoxic therapy. (see section 5.1)

Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion in combination with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and bevacizumab is indicated for first-line treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum.

Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion in combination with Capecitabine with or without bevacizumab is indicated for first – line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

For adults only. Irinotecan concentrate for solution for infusion should be infused into a peripheral or central vein.

Recommended dosage:

In monotherapy (for previously treated patient):

The recommended dosage of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion is 350 mg/m² administered as an intravenous infusion over a 30 to 90 minute period every three weeks (see sections 4.4 and 6.6).

In combination therapy (for previously untreated patient):

Safety and efficacy of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and folinic acid (FA) have been assessed with the following schedule (see section 5.1):

• Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion plus 5FU/FA in every 2 weeks schedule.

The recommended dose of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion is 180 mg/m² administered once every 2 weeks as an intravenous infusion over a 30 –to- 90 minute period, followed by infusion with folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil.

For the posology and method of administration of concomitant cetuximab, refer to the product information for this medicinal product.

Normally, the same dose of irinotecan is used as administered in the last cycles of the prior irinotecan-containing regimen. Irinotecan must not be administered earlier than 1 hour after the end of the cetuximab infusion.

For the posology and method of administration of bevacizumab, refer to the bevacizumab summary product of characteristics.

For the posology and method of administration of capecitabine combination, please see section 5.1 and refer to the appropriate sections in the capecitabine summary of product characteristics.

Dosage adjustments:

Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion should be administered after appropriate recovery of all adverse events to grade 0 or 1 NCI-CTC grading (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) and when treatment-related diarrhoea is fully resolved.

At the start of a subsequent infusion of therapy, the dose of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion, and 5FU when applicable, should be decreased according to the worst grade of adverse events observed in the prior infusion. Treatment should be delayed by 1 to 2 weeks to allow recovery from treatment-related adverse events.

With the following adverse events a dose reduction of 15 to 20 % should be applied for Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion and/or 5FU when applicable:

• haematological toxicity [neutropenia grade 4, febrile neutropenia (neutropenia grade 3-4 and fever grade 2-4), thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (grade 4)],

• non haematological toxicity (grade 3-4).

Recommendations for dose modifications of cetuximab when administered in combination with irinotecan must be followed according to the product information for this medicinal product.

Refer to the bevacizumab summary product of characteristics for dose modifications of bevacizumab when administered in combination with Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion /5FU/FA.

In combination with capecitabine for patients 65 years of age or more, a reduction of the starting dose of capecitabine to 800 mg/m2 twice daily is recommended according to the summary of product characteristics for capecitabine. Refer also to the recommendations for dose modifications in combination regimen given in the summary of product characteristics for capecitabine.

Treatment Duration:

Treatment with Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion should be continued until there is an objective progression of the disease or an unacceptable toxicity.

Special populations:

Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function: In monotherapy: Blood bilirubin levels [up to 3 times the upper limit of the normal range (ULN)] in patients with performance status ≤ 2, should determine the starting dose of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion. In these patients with hyperbilirubinemia and prothrombin time greater than 50%, the clearance of irinotecan is decreased (see section 5.2) and therefore the risk of hematological toxicity is increased. Thus, weekly monitoring of complete blood counts should be conducted in this patient population.

• In patients with bilirubin up to 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range (ULN), the recommended dosage of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion is 350 mg/m²,

• In patients with bilirubin ranging from 1.5 to 3 times the ULN, the recommended dosage of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion is 200 mg/m²,

• Patients with bilirubin beyond 3 times the ULN should not be treated with Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion (see section 4.3 and section 4.4).

No data are available in patients with hepatic impairment treated by Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion in combination.

Patients with Impaired Renal Function: Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion is not recommended for use in patients with impaired renal function, as studies in this population have not been conducted. (See sections 4.4 and 5.2).

Elderly:

No specific pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in elderly. However, the dose should be chosen carefully in this population due to their greater frequency of decreased biological functions. This population should undergo more intense surveillance (see section 4.4).

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Irinotecan in children have not yet been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the medicinal product

Irinotecan concentrate for solution for infusion is cytotoxic.For information regarding dilution, and special precautions for disposal and other handling see section 6.6.

4.3 Contraindications

• Chronic inflammatory bowel disease and/or bowel obstruction (see section 4.4).

• Hypersensitivity reactions to the active substance(s)or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1. Lactation (see section 4. 6)

• Bilirubin > 3 times the upper limit of the normal range (see section 4.4).

• Severe bone marrow failure.

• WHO performance status > 2.

• Concomitant use with St John's Wort (see section 4.5).

• Live attenuated vaccines (see section 4.5).

For additional contraindications of cetuximab or bevacizumab or capecitabine, refer to the product information for these medicinal products.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

The use of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion should be confined to units specialised in the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy and it should only be administered under the supervision of a physician qualified in the use of anticancer chemotherapy.

Given the nature and incidence of adverse events, Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion will only be prescribed in the following cases after the expected benefits have been weighted against the possible therapeutic risks:

• in patients presenting a risk factor, particularly those with a WHO performance status = 2.

• in the few rare instances where patients are deemed unlikely to observe recommendations regarding management of adverse events (need for immediate and prolonged antidiarrhoeal treatment combined with high fluid intake at onset of delayed diarrhoea). Strict hospital supervision is recommended for such patients.

When Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion is used in monotherapy, it is usually prescribed with the every-3-week-dosage schedule. However, the weekly-dosage schedule (see section 5.1) may be considered in patients who may need a closer follow-up or who are at particular risk of severe neutropenia.

Delayed diarrhoea

Patients should be made aware of the risk of delayed diarrhoea occurring more than 24 hours after the administration of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion and at any time before the next cycle. In monotherapy, the median time of onset of the first liquid stool was on day 5 after the infusion of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion. Patients should quickly inform their physician of its occurrence and start appropriate therapy immediately.

Patients with an increased risk of diarrhoea are those who had a previous abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy, those with baseline hyperleucocytosis, those with performance status ≥ 2 and women. If not properly treated, diarrhoea can be life threatening, especially if the patient is concomitantly neutropaenic.

As soon as the first liquid stool occurs, the patient should start drinking large volumes of beverages containing electrolytes and an appropriate antidiarrhoeal therapy must be initiated immediately. This antidiarrhoeal treatment will be prescribed by the department where Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion has been administered. After discharge from the hospital, the patients should obtain the prescribed medicinal products so that they can treat the diarrhoea as soon as it occurs. In addition, they must inform their physician or the department administering Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion when/if diarrhoea is occurring.

The currently recommended antidiarrhoeal treatment consists of high doses of loperamide (4 mg for the first intake and then 2 mg every 2 hours). This therapy should continue for 12 hours after the last liquid stool and should not be modified. In no instance should loperamide be administered for more than 48 consecutive hours at these doses, because of the risk of paralytic ileus, nor for less than 12 hours.

In addition to the anti-diarrhoeal treatment, a prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotic should be given, when diarrhoea is associated with severe neutropenia (neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm³).

In addition to the antibiotic treatment, hospitalisation is recommended for management of the diarrhoea, in the following cases:

- Diarrhoea associated with fever,

- Severe diarrhoea (requiring intravenous hydration),

- Diarrhoea persisting beyond 48 hours following the initiation of high-dose loperamide therapy.

Loperamide should not be given prophylactically, even in patients who experienced delayed diarrhoea with previous cycles.

In patients who experienced severe diarrhoea, a reduction in dose is recommended for subsequent cycles (see section 4.2).

Haematology

In clinical studies, the frequency of NCI CTC grade 3 and 4 neutropenia has been significantly higher in patients who received previous pelvic/abdominal irradiation than in those who had not received such irradiation. Patients with baseline serum total bilirubin levels of 1.0 mg/dL or more have also had a significantly greater likelihood of experiencing first-cycle grade 3 or 4 neutropenia than those with bilirubin levels that were less than 1.0 mg/dL.

Weekly monitoring of complete blood cell count is recommended during treatment with Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion. Patients should be aware of the risk of neutropenia and the significance of fever. Febrile neutropenia (temperature > 38°C and neutrophil count ≤ 1,000 cells/mm³) should be urgently treated in the hospital with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics.

In patients who experienced severe haematological events, a dose reduction is recommended for subsequent administration (see section 4.2).

There is an increased risk of infections and haematological toxicity in patients with severe diarrhoea. In patients with severe diarrhoea, complete blood cell counts should be performed.

Liver impairment

Liver function tests should be performed at baseline and before each cycle.

Weekly monitoring of complete blood counts should be conducted in patients with bilirubin ranging from 1.5 to 3 times ULN, due to decrease of the clearance of irinotecan (see section 5.2) and thus increasing the risk of hematotoxicity in this population. For patients with a bilirubin > 3 times ULN (see section 4.3).

Nausea and vomiting

A prophylactic treatment with antiemetics is recommended before each treatment with Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion. Nausea and vomiting have been frequently reported. Patients with vomiting associated with delayed diarrhoea should be hospitalised as soon as possible for treatment.

Acute cholinergic syndrome

If acute cholinergic syndrome appears (defined as early diarrhoea and various other signs and symptoms such as sweating abdominal cramping, myosis and salivation), atropine sulphate (0.25mg subcutaneously) should be administered unless clinically contraindicated (see section 4.8).

These symptoms may be observed during or shortly after infusion of irinotecan, are thought to be related to the anticholinesterase activity of the irinotecan parent compound, and are expected to occur more frequently with higher irinotecan doses.

Caution should be exercised in patients with asthma. In patients who experienced an acute and severe cholinergic syndrome, the use of prophylactic atropine sulphate is recommended with subsequent doses of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion.

Respiratory disorders

Interstitial lung disease presenting as lung infiltration is uncommon during irinotecan therapy. Interstitial lung disease can be fatal. Risk factors possibly associated with the development of interstitial lung disease include the use of pneumotoxic medicinal products, radiation therapy and colony stimulating factors.

Patients with risk factors should be closely monitored for respiratory symptoms before and during irinotecan therapy.

Extravasation

While irinotecan is not a known vesicant, care should be taken to avoid extravasation and the infusion site should be monitored for signs of inflammation. Should extravasation occur, flushing the site and application of ice is recommended.

Elderly

Due to the greater frequency of decreased biological functions, in particular hepatic function, in elderly patients, dose selection with Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion should be cautious in this population (see section 4.2).

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease and/or bowel obstruction

Patients must not be treated with Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion until resolution of the bowel obstruction (see section 4.3).

Renal Function

Increases in serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen have been observed. There have been cases of acute renal failure. These events have generally been attributed to complications of infection or to dehydration related to nausea, vomiting, or diarrhoea. Rare instances of renal dysfunction due to tumour lysis syndrome have also been reported.

Irradiation therapy

Patients who have previously received pelvic/abdominal irradiation are at increased risk of myelosuppression following the administration of irinotecan. Physicians should use caution in treating patients with extensive prior irradiation (e.g.>25% of bone marrow irradiated and within 6 weeks prior to start treatment with irinotecan). Dosing adjustment may apply to this population (see section 4.2).

Cardiac Disorders

Myocardial ischaemic events have been observed following irinotecan therapy predominately in patients with underlying cardiac disease, other known risk factors for cardiac disease, or previous cytotoxic chemotherapy (see section 4.8)

Consequently, patients with known risk factors should be closely monitored, and action should be taken to try to minimize all modifiable risk factors (e.g. smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia)

Vascular disorders

Irinotecan has been rarely associated with thromboembolic events (pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, and arterial thromboembolism) in patients presenting with multiple risk factors in addition to the underlying neoplasm.

Others

Infrequent cases of renal insufficiency, hypotension or circulatory failure have been observed in patients who experienced episodes of dehydration associated with diarrhoea and/or vomiting, or sepsis.

Women of childbearing potential and men have to use effective contraception during and up to 1 month and 3months after treatment respectively.

Concomitant administration of irinotecan with a strong inhibitor (e.g. ketoconazole) or inducer (e.g. rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin) of CYP3A4 may alter the metabolism of irinotecan and should be avoided.

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium per dose, i.e. essentially 'sodium-free'.

Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take this medicine.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Concomitant use contraindicated (see section 4.3)

- Yellow fever vaccine: risk of fatal generalised reaction to vaccines

Saint John's Wort: Decrease in the active metabolite of irinotecan, SN-38, plasma levels. In a small pharmacokinetic study (n=5), in which irinotecan 350 mg/m2 was co-administered with St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) 900 mg, a 42% decrease in the active metabolite of irinotecan, SN-38, plasma concentrations was observed. As a result, St. John's Wort should not be administered with irinotecan.

Live attenuated vaccines: Risk of generalised reaction to vaccines, possibly fatal. Concomitant use is contraindicated during treatment with irinotecan and for 6 months following discontinuation of chemotherapy. Killed or inactivated vaccines may be administered; however, the response to such vaccines may be diminished.

Concomitant use not recommended

Concurrent administration of irinotecan with a strong inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) may alter the metabolism of irinotecan and should be avoided (see section 4.4):

Strong CYP3A4 and/or UGT1A1 inducing medicinal products: (e.g. rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or phenytoin):

Risk of reduced exposure to irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide and reduced pharmacodynamic effects. Several studies have shown that concomitant administration of CYP3A4-inducing anticonvulsant medicinal products leads to reduced exposure to irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide and reduced pharmacodynamic effects. The effects of such anticonvulsant medicinal products were reflected by a decrease in AUC of SN-38 and SN-38G by 50% or more. In addition to induction of CYP3A4 enzymes, enhanced glucuronidation and enhanced biliary excretion may play a role in reducing exposure to irinotecan and its metabolites. Additionally with phenytoin: Risk of exacerbation of convulsions resulting from the decrease of phenytoin digestive absorption by cytotoxic medicinal products.

Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors: (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, protease inhibitors, clarithromycine, erythromycine, telithromycine):

A study has shown that the co-administration of ketoconazole resulted in a decrease in the AUC of APC of 87% and in an increase in the AUC of SN-38 of 109% in comparison to irinotecan given alone.

UGT1A1 inhibitors: (e.g. atazanavir, ketoconazole, regorafenib)

Risk to increase systemic exposure to SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. Physicians should take this into consideration if the combination is unavoidable.

Other CYP3A4 inhibitors: (e.g. crizotinib, idelalisib)

Risk of increase in irinotecan toxicity, due to a decrease in irinotecan metabolism by crizotinib or idelalisib.

Caution for use

Vitamin K antagonists: Increased risk of haemorrhage and thrombotic events in tumoral diseases. If vitamin K antagonist are indicated, an increased frequency in the monitoring of INR (International Normalised Ratio) is required.

Concomitant use to take into consideration

Immunodepressant agents: (e.g. ciclosporine, tacrolimus): Excessive immunosuppression with risk of lymphoproliferation.

Neuromuscular blocking agents: Interaction between irinotecan and neuromuscular blocking agents cannot be ruled out. Since <Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate For Solution For Infusion> has anticholinesterase activity, medicinal products with anticholinesterase activity may prolong the neuromuscular blocking effects of suxamethonium and the neuromuscular blockade of non-depolarising medicinal products may be antagonised.

Other combinations

5-fluorouracil/folinic acid: Coadministration of 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid in the combination regimen does not change the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan.

Bevacizumab: Results from a dedicated drug-drug interaction trial demonstrated no significant effect of bevacizumab on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38. However, this does not preclude any increase of toxicities due to their pharmacological properties.

Cetuximab: There is no evidence that the safety profile of irinotecan is influenced by cetuximab or vice versa.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Women of child-bearing potential/Contraception in males and females:

Women of childbearing potential and men have to use effective contraception during and up to 1 month and 3 months after treatment respectively.

Pregnancy:

There is no information on the use of irinotecan in pregnant women. Irinotecan has been shown to be embryotoxic and teratogenic in animals. Therefore, based on results from animal studies and the mechanism of action of irinotecan, irinotecan should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.

Breast-feeding

In lactating rats, 14C-irinotecan was detected in milk. It is not known whether irinotecan is excreted in human milk. Consequently, because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants, breast-feeding must be discontinued for the duration of irinotecan therapy (see section 4.3).

Fertility

There are no human data on the effect of irinotecan on fertility. In animals adverse effects of irinotecan on the fertility of offspring has been documented (see section 5.3).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion, has moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Patients should be warned about the potential for dizziness or visual disturbances which may occur within 24 hours following the administration of Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion, and advised not to drive or operate machinery if these symptoms occur.

4.8 Undesirable effects

CLINICAL STUDIES

Adverse reaction data have been extensively collected from studies in metastatic colorectal cancer; the frequencies are presented below. The adverse reactions for other indications are expected to be similar to those for colorectal cancer.

The most common (≥ 1/10), dose-limiting adverse reactions of irinotecan are delayed diarrhoea (occurring more than 24 hours after administration) and blood disorders including neutropenia, anaemia and thrombocytopenia.

Neutropenia is a dose-limiting toxic effect. Neutropenia was reversible and not cumulative; the median day to nadir was 8 days whatever the use in monotherapy or in combination therapy.

Very commonly severe transient acute cholinergic syndrome was observed. The main symptoms were defined as early diarrhoea and various other symptoms such as abdominal pain, sweating, myosis and increased salivation occurring during or within the first 24 hours after the infusion of irinotecan. These symptoms disappear after atropine administration (see section 4.4).

MONOTHERAPY AND POST-MARKETING SURVEILLANCE

The following adverse reactions considered to be possibly or probably related to the administration of irinotecan have been reported from 765 patients at the recommended dose of 350 mg/m² in monotherapy in clinical studies and/or during post-marketing surveillance. Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), and very rare (<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Adverse Reactions Reported with irinotecan in Monotherapy (350 mg/m2 every 3 weeks schedule)

MedDRA System Organ Class

Frequency Category

Preferred Term

Infections and infestations

Common

Infection

Not known

Pseudomembranous colitis one of which has been documented bacteriologically (Clostridium difficile), sepsis, Fungal infectionsa, Viral infectionsb

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very common

Neutropenia, anaemia

Common

Thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia

Not known

Peripheral thrombocytopenia with antiplatelet antibodies.

Immune system disorders

Not known

Hypersensitivity reaction, anaphylactic reaction

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common

Decreased appetite

Not known

Dehydration (due to diarrhoea and vomiting), hypovolaemia, hypomagnesaemia, tumour lysis syndrome, hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia

Psychiatric disorders

Not known

Confusion

Nervous system disorders

Very common

Cholinergic syndrome

Not known

Transient speech disorders, in some cases, the event was attributed to the cholinergic syndrome observed during or shortly after infusion of irinotecan, paraesthesia, headache, syncope

Cardiac disorders

Not known

Hypertension (during or after infusion), cardio circulatory failure*, cardiovascular disorders (angina pectoris, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischaemia, bradycardia.

Vascular disorders

Not known

Hypotension, flushing, thromboembolic events (arterial thrombosis, cerebral infarction, cerebrovascular accident, deep thrombophlebitis, embolus of the lower extremity, pulmonary embolus, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, and sudden death), peripheral vascular disorder

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Not known

Interstitial pulmonary disease presenting as pulmonary infiltrates, dyspnoea, hiccups

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common

Diarrhoea, l vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain

Common

Constipation

Not known

Intestinal obstruction, ileus,, megacolon,gastrointestinal haemorrhage,colitis, including typhlitis, ischemic and ulcerative colitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, symptomatic or asymptomatic elevation in pancreatic enzymes, intestinal perforation, , GI monilia,

Hepatobiliary disorders

Common

Increased blood creatinine increased,transaminases (ASTand ALT)

increasedbilirubin, increased blood alkaline phosphatase.

Not known

increased GTP, Hepatic steatosis, Steatohepatitis, Amylase increased, Lipase increased

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Very common

Alopecia (reversible)

Not known

Skin reactions, rash

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Not known

Muscular contraction or cramps

Renal and urinary disorders

Not known

Renal impairment and acute renal failure, renal insufficiency, urinary tract infection

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Not known

Breast pain

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very common

Mucosal inflammation, pyrexia, asthenia

Not known

Infusion site reactions, pain, abnormal gait, extravasation

a. e.g. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, systemic candida.

b. e.g. Herpes zoster, influenza, hepatitis B reactivation, cytomegalovirus colitis.

*Infrequent cases of renal insufficiency, hypotension or cardio circulatory failure have been observed in patients who experienced episodes of dehydration associated with diarrhoea and/or vomiting, or sepsis

Description of selected adverse reactions (monotherapy)

Severe diarrhoea was observed in 20 % of patients who followed the recommendations for the management of diarrhoea. Of the evaluable cycles, 14 %had severe diarrhoea. The median time of onset of the first liquid stool was on day 5 after the infusion of irinotecan.

Nausea and vomiting were severe in approximately 10 % of patients treated with antiemetics.

Constipation was observed in less than 10% of patients.

Neutropenia was observed in 78.7 % of patients and was severe (neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3) in 22.6 % of patients. Of the evaluable cycles, 18 % had a neutrophil count below 1,000 cells/mm3 including 7.6 % with a neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3. Total recovery was usually reached by day 22.

Febrileneutropenia was reported in 6.2 % of patients and in 1.7 % of cycles.

Infections occurred in about 10.3 % of patients (2.5 % of cycles) and were associated with severe neutropenia in about 5.3 % of patients (1.1 % of cycles), and resulted in death in 2 cases.

Anaemia was reported in about 58.7 % of patients (8 % with haemoglobin < 8 g/dl and 0.9 % with haemoglobin < 6.5 g/dl).

Thrombocytopenia (< 100,000 cells/mm3) was observed in 7.4 % of patients and 1.8 % of cycles with 0.9 % with platelets count ≤50,000 cells/mm3 and 0.2 % of cycles. Nearly all the patients showed a recovery by day 22.

Acute cholinergic syndrome

Severe transient acute cholinergic syndrome was observed in 9 % of patients treated in monotherapy.

Asthenia was severe in less than 10 % of patients treated in monotherapy. The causal relationship to irinotecan has not been clearly established. Pyrexia in the absence of infection and without concomitant severe neutropenia, occurred in 12 % of patients treated in monotherapy.

Laboratory tests

Transient and mild to moderate increases in serum levels of either transaminases, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin were observed in 9.2 %, 8.1 % and 1.8 % of the patients, respectively, in the absence of progressive liver metastasis.

Transient and mild to moderate increases of serum levels of creatinine have been observed in 7.3 % of the patients.

COMBINATION THERAPY

Adverse reactions detailed in this section refer to irinotecan. There is no evidence that the safety profile of irinotecan is influenced by cetuximab or vice versa. In combination with cetuximab, additional reported adverse reactions were those expected with cetuximab (such as dermatitis acneiform 88%). For information on adverse reactions on irinotecan in combination with cetuximab, also refer to their respective summaries of product characteristics.

Adverse drug reactions reported in patients treated with capecitabine in combination with irinotecan in addition to those seen with capecitabine monotherapy or seen at a higher frequency grouping compared to capecitabine monotherapy include: Very common, all grade adverse drug reactions: thrombosis/embolism; Common, all grade adverse drug reactions: hypersensitivity myocardialischemia/infarction; Common, grade 3 and grade 4 adverse drug reactions: febrile neutropenia. For complete information on adverse reactions of capecitabine, refer to the capecitabine summary product of characteristics.

Grade 3 and Grade 4 adverse drug reactions reported in patients treated with capecitabine in combination with irinotecan and bevacizumab in addition to those seen with capecitabine monotherapy or seen at a higher frequency grouping compared to capecitabine monotherapy include: Common, grade 3 and grade 4 adverse drug reactions: neutropenia, thrombosis/embolism, hypertension, and cardiac ischemia/infarction. For complete information on adverse reactions of capecitabine and bevacizumab, refer to the respective capecitabine and bevacizumab summary of product characteristics.

Grade 3 hypertension was the principal significant risk involved with the addition of bevacizumab to bolus irinotecan/5-FU/FA.

In addition, there was a small increase in the grade 3/4 chemotherapy adverse events of diarrhoea and leukopenia with this regimen compared to patients receiving bolus irinotecan/5-FU/FA alone. For other information on adverse reactions in combination with bevacizumab, refer to the bevacizumab summary of product characteristics.

Irinotecan has been studied in combination with 5-FU and FA for metastatic colorectal cancer. Safety data of adverse reactions from clinical studies demonstrate very commonly observed NCI Grade 3 or 4 possibly or probably-related adverse events in the blood and the lymphatic system disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders MedDRA System Organ Classes.

The following adverse reactions considered to be possibly or probably related to the administration of irinotecan have been reported from 145 patients treated by irinotecan in combination therapy with 5FU/FA in every 2 weeks schedule at the recommended dose of 180 mg/m².

Adverse Reactions Reported with irinotecan in Combination Therapy (180 mg/m2 every 2 weeks schedule)

MedDRA System Organ Class

Frequency Category

Preferred Term

Infections and infestations

Common

Infection

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very common

Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anaemia

Common

Febrile neutropenia

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common

Decreased appetite

Nervous system disorders

Very common

Cholinergic syndrome

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common

Diarrhoea,vomiting, nausea

Common

Abdominal pain, constipation

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very common

Increased transaminases (ASTandALT), increasedbilirubin, increased blood alkaline phosphatase i

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Very common

Alopecia (reversible)

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very common

Mucosal inflammation, asthenia

Common

Pyrexia

Description of selected adverse reactions (combination therapy)

Severe diarrhoea was observed in 13.1 % of patients who followed recommendations for the management of diarrhoea. Of the evaluable cycles, 3.9 % had severe diarrhoea.

A lower incidence of severe nausea and vomiting was observed (2.1 % and 2.8 % of patients respectively).

Constipation relative to irinotecan and loperamide has been observed in 3.4 % of patients.

Neutropenia was observed in 82.5 % of patients and was severe (neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3) in 9.8 % of patients. Of the evaluable cycles, 67.3 % had a neutrophil count below 1,000 cells/mm3 including 2.7 % with a neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3. Total recovery was usually reached within 7-8 days.

Febrileneutropenia was reported in 3.4 % of patients and in 0.9 % of cycles.

Infections occurred in about 2 % of patients (0.5 % of cycles) and were associated with severe neutropenia in about 2.1 % of patients (0.5 % of cycles), and resulted in death in 1 case.

Anaemia was reported in 97.2 % of patients (2.1 % with haemoglobin < 8 g/dl).

Thrombocytopenia (< 100,000 cells/mm3) was observed in 32.6 % of patients and 21.8 % of cycles. No severe thrombocytopenia (< 50,000 cells/mm3) has been observed.

Acute cholinergic syndrome

Severe transient acute cholinergic syndrome was observed in 1.4 % of patients treated in combination therapy.

Asthenia was severe in 6.2 % of patients treated in combination therapy. The causal relationship to irinotecan has not been clearly established.

Pyrexia in the absence of infection and without concomitant severe neutropenia, occurred in 6.2 % of patients treated in combination therapy.

Laboratory tests

Transient serum levels (Grades 1 and 2) of either SGOT, SGPTalkaline phosphatase or bilirubin were observed in 15 %, 11 %, 11 % and 10 % of the patients, respectively, in the absence of progressive liver metastasis. Transient Grade 3 increases were observed in 0 %, 0%, 0 % and 1 % of the patients, respectively. No Grade 4 elevation was observed.

Increases of amylase and/or lipase have been very rarely reported.

Rare cases of hypokalaemia and hyponatraemia mostly related with diarrhoea and vomiting have been reported.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via via the national reporting Yellow Card Scheme Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms

There have been reports of overdosage at doses up to approximately twice the recommended therapeutic dose, which may be fatal. The most significant adverse reactions reported were severe neutropenia and severe diarrhoea.

Management

There is no known antidote for Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate for Solution for Infusion. Maximum supportive care should be instituted to prevent dehydration due to diarrhoea and to treat any infectious complications.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other Antineoplastic agents, ATC Code: L01XX19

Mechanism of action

Experimental data

Irinotecan is a semi-synthetic derivative of camptothecin. It is an antineoplastic agent, which acts as a specific inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I. It is metabolised by carboxylesterase in most tissues to SN-38, which was found to be more active than irinotecan in purified topoisomerase I and more cytotoxic than irinotecan against several murine and human tumour cell lines. The inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I by irinotecan or SN-38 induces single-strand DNA lesions which blocks the DNA replication fork and are responsible for the cytotoxicity. This cytotoxic activity was found time-dependent and was specific to the S phase.

In vitro, irinotecan and SN-38 were not found to be significantly recognised by the P -glycoprotein MDR, and displays cytotoxic activities against doxorubicin and vinblastine resistant cell lines.

Furthermore, irinotecan has a broad antitumour activity in vivo against murine tumour models (P03 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, MA16/C mammary adenocarcinoma, C38 and C51 colon adenocarcinomas) and against human xenografts (Co-4 colon adenocarcinoma, Mx-1 mammary adenocarcinoma, ST-15 and SC-16 gastric adenocarcinomas). Irinotecan is also active against tumours expressing the P-glycoprotein MDR (vincristine- and doxorubicin-resistant P388 leukaemia's).

Beside the antitumour activity of irinotecan, the most relevant pharmacological effect of irinotecan is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase.

Clinical data

In combination therapy for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma

In combination therapy with Folinic Acid and 5-Fluorouracil

A phase III study was performed in 385 previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with either every 2 weeks schedule (see section 4.2) or weekly schedule regimens. In the every 2 weeks schedule, on day 1, the administration of irinotecan at 180 mg/m² once every 2 weeks is followed by infusion with folinic acid (200 mg/m² over a 2-hour intravenous infusion) and 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m² as an intravenous bolus, followed by 600 mg/m² over a 22-hour intravenous infusion). On day 2, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil are administered at the same doses and schedules. In the weekly schedule, the administration of irinotecan at 80 mg/m² is followed by infusion with folinic acid (500 mg/m² over a 2-hour intravenous infusion) and then by 5-fluorouracil (2300 mg/m² over a 24-hour intravenous infusion) over 6 weeks.

In the combination therapy trial with the 2 regimens described above, the efficacy of irinotecan was evaluated in 198 treated patients:

Combined regimens

(n=198)

Weekly schedule

(n=50)

Every 2 weeks schedule

(n=148)

Irinotecan +5FU/FA

5FU/FA

Irinotecan +5FU/FA

5FU/FA

Irinotecan +5FU/FA

5FU/FA

Response rate (%)

40.8 *

23.1 *

51.2 *

28.6 *

37.5 *

21.6 *

p value

p<0.001

p=0.045

p=0.005

Median time to progression (months)

6.7

4.4

7.2

6.5

6.5

3.7

p value

p<0.001

NS

p=0.001

Median duration of response (months)

9.3

8.8

8.9

6.7

9.3

9.5

p value

NS

p=0.043

NS

Median duration of response and stabilisation (months)

8.6

6.2

8.3

6.7

8.5

5.6

p value

p<0.001

NS

p=0.003

Median time to treatment failure (months)

5.3

3.8

5.4

5.0

5.1

3.0

p value

p=0.0014

NS

p<0.001

Median survival (months)

16.8

14.0

19.2

14.1

15.6

13.0

p value

p=0.028

NS

p=0.041

5FU : 5-fluorouracil

FA : folinic acid

NS : Non Significant

*: As per protocol population analysis

In the weekly schedule, the incidence of severe diarrhoea was 44.4% in patients treated by irinotecan in combination with 5FU/FA and 25.6% in patients treated by 5FU/FA alone. The incidence of severe neutropenia (neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3) was 5.8% in patients treated by irinotecan in combination with 5FU/FA and in 2.4% in patients treated by 5FU/FA alone.

Additionally, median time to definitive performance status deterioration was significantly longer in irinotecan combination group than in 5FU/FA alone group (p=0.046).

Quality of life was assessed in this phase III study using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Time to definitive deterioration constantly occurred later in the irinotecan groups. The evolution of the Global Health Status/Quality of life was slightly better in irinotecan combination group although not significant; showing that efficacy of irinotecan in combination could be reached without affecting the quality of life.

In combination therapy with bevacizumab:

A phase III randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial evaluated bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan/5FU/FA as first-line treatment for metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum (Study AVF2107g). The addition of bevacizumab to the combination of irinotecan/5FU/FA resulted in a statistically significant increase in overall survival. The clinical benefit, as measured by overall survival, was seen in all pre-specified patient subgroups, including those defined by age, sex, performance status, location of primary tumour, number of organs involved, and duration of metastatic disease. Refer also to the bevacizumab summary of product characteristics. The efficacy results of Study AVF2107g are summarized in the table below.

AVF2107g

Arm 1

Irinotecan/5FU/FA

placebo

Arm 2

Irinotecan/5FU/FA

bevacizumaba

Number of Patients

411

402

Overall survival

Median time (months)

15.6

20.3

95% Confidence Interval

14.29 – 16.99

18.46 – 24.18

Hazard ratiob

0.660

p-value

0.00004

Progression-free survival

Median time (months)

6.2

10.6

Hazard ratio

0.54

p-value

<0.0001

Overall response rate

Rate (%)

34.8

44.8

95% CI

30.2 – 39.6

39.9 – 49.8

p-value

0.0036

Duration of response

Median time (months)

7.1

10.4

25–75 percentile (months)

4.7 – 11.8

6.7 – 15.0

a5 mg/kg every 2 weeks.

bRelative to control arm.

In combination therapy with cetuximab

EMR 62 202-013: This randomised study in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had not received prior treatment for metastatic disease compared the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan plus infusional 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (5-FU/FA) (599 patients) to the same chemotherapy alone (599 patients). The proportion of patients with KRAS wild-type tumours from the patient population evaluable for KRAS status comprised 64%.

The efficacy data generated in this study are summarised in the table below:

Overall population

KRAS wild-type population

Variable/statistic

Cetuximab plus FOLFIRI

(N=599)

FOLFIRI

(N=599)

Cetuximab plus FOLFIRI

(N=172)

FOLFIRI

(N=176)

ORR

% (95%CI)

46.9 (42.9, 51.0)

38.7 (34.8, 42.8)

59.3 (51.6, 66.7)

43.2 (35.8, 50.9)

p-value

0.0038

0.0025

PFS

Hazard Ratio (95% CI)

0.85 (0.726, 0.998)

0.68 (0.501, 0.934)

p-value

0.0479

0.0167

CI = confidence interval, FOLFIRI = irinotecan plus infusional 5-FU/FA, ORR = objective response rate (patients with complete response or partial response), PFS = progression-free survival time

In combination therapy with capecitabine

Data from a randomised, controlled phase III study (CAIRO) support the use of capecitabine at a starting dose of 1000 mg/m2 for 2 weeks every 3 weeks in combination with irinotecan for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. 820 patients were randomized to receive either sequential treatment (n=410) or combination treatment (n=410). Sequential treatment consisted of first-line treatment with capecitabine (1250 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days), second-line irinotecan (350 mg/m2 on day 1), and third-line combination of capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days) with oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 on day 1). Combination treatment consisted of first-line treatment of capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days) combined with irinotecan (250 mg /m2 on day 1) (XELIRI) and second-line capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days) plus oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 on day 1). All treatment cycles were administered at intervals of 3 weeks. In first-line treatment the median progression-free survival in the intent-to-treat population was 5.8 months (95%CI, 5.1 -6.2 months) for capecitabine monotherapy and 7.8 months (95%CI, 7.0-8.3 months) for XELIRI (p=0.0002).

Data from an interim analysis of a multicentre, randomised, controlled phase II study (AIO KRK 0604) support the use of capecitabine at a starting dose of 800 mg/m2 for 2 weeks every 3 weeks in combination with irinotecan and bevacizumab for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. 115 patients were randomised to treatment with capecitabine combined with irinotecan (XELIRI) and bevacizumab: capecitabine (800 mg/m2 twice daily for two weeks followed by a 7-day rest period), irinotecan (200 mg/m2 as a 30 minute infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks), and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg as a 30 to 90 minute infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks); a total of 118 patients were randomised to treatment with capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab: capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily for two weeks followed by a 7-day rest period), oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 as a 2 hour infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks), and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg as a 30 to 90 minute infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks). Progression-free survival at 6 months in the intent-to-treat population was 80% (XELIRI plus bevacizumab) versus 74 % (XELOX plus bevacizumab). Overall response rate (complete response plus partial response) was 45 % (XELOX plus bevacizumab) versus 47 % (XELIRI plus bevacizumab).

In monotherapy for the second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma:

Clinical phase II/III studies were performed in more than 980 patients in the every 3 week dosage schedule with metastatic colorectal cancer who failed a previous 5-FU regimen. The efficacy of irinotecan was evaluated in 765 patients with documented progression on 5-FU at study entry.

Phase III

Irinotecan versus supportive care

Irinotecan versus 5FU

Irinotecan

n=183

Supportive care

n=90

p values

Irinotecan

n=127

5FU

n=129

p values

Progression Free Survival at 6 months (%)

NA

NA

33.5 *

26.7

p=0.03

Survival at 12 months (%)

36.2 *

13.8

p=0.0001

44.8 *

32.4

p=0.0351

Median survival

(Months)

9.2*

6.5

p=0.0001

10.8*

8.5

p=0.0351

NA: Non Applicable

*: Statistically significant difference

In phase II studies, performed on 455 patients in the every 3-week dosage schedule, the progression free survival at 6 months was 30 % and the median survival was 9 months. The median time to progression was 18 weeks.

Additionally, non-comparative phase II studies were performed in 304 patients treated with a weekly schedule regimen, at a dose of 125 mg/m² administered as an intravenous infusion over 90 minutes for 4 consecutive weeks followed by 2 weeks rest. In these studies, the median time to progression was 17 weeks and median survival was 10 months. A similar safety profile has been observed in the weekly-dosage schedule in 193 patients at the starting dose of 125 mg/m², compared to the every 3-week-dosage schedule. The median time of onset of the first liquid stool was on day 11.

In combination with cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-including cytotoxic therapy:

The efficacy of the combination of cetuximab with irinotecan was investigated in two clinical studies. A total of 356 patients with EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer who had recently failed irinotecan-including cytotoxic therapy and who had a minimum Karnofsky performance status of 60, but the majority of whom had a Karnofsky performance status of ≥80 received the combination treatment.

EMR 62 202-007: This randomised study compared the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan (218 patients) with cetuximab monotherapy (111 patients).

IMCL CP02-9923: This single arm open-label study investigated the combination therapy in 138 patients.

The efficacy data from these studies are summarized below:

Study

N

ORR

DCR

PFS (months)

OS (months)

n (%)

95%CI

n (%)

95%CI

Median

95%CI

Median

95%CI

Cetuximab + irinotecan

EMR 62 202-007

218

50 (22.9)

17.5, 29.1

121 (55.5)

48.6, 62.2

4.1

2.8, 4.3

8.6

7.6, 9.6

IMCL CP02-9923

138

21 (15.2)

9.7, 22.3

84 (60.9)

52.2, 69.1

2.9

2.6, 4.1

8.4

7.2, 10.3

Cetuximab

EMR 62 202-007

111

12 (10.8)

5.7, 18.1

36 (32.4)

23.9, 42.0

1.5

1.4, 2.0

6.9

5.6, 9.1

CI = confidence interval, DCR = disease control rate (patients with complete response, partial response, or stable disease for at least 6 weeks), ORR = objective response rate (patients with complete response or partial response), OS = overall survival time, PFS = progression-free survival

The efficacy of the combination of cetuximab with irinotecan was superior to that of cetuximab monotherapy, in terms of objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and progression-free survival (PFS). In the randomised trial, no effects on overall survival were demonstrated (hazard ratio 0.91, p = 0.48).

Patients with Reduced UGT1A1 Activity

Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is involved in the metabolic deactivation of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, to inactive SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G). The UGT1A1 gene is highly polymorphic, resulting in variable metabolic capacities among individuals. One specific variation of the UGT1A1 gene includes a polymorphism in the promoter region known as the UGT1A1*28 variant. This variant, and other congenital deficiencies in UGT1A1 expression (such as Crigler-Najjar and Gilbert's syndrome), are associated with reduced activity of this enzyme. Data from a meta-analysis indicate that individuals with Crigler-Najjar syndrome (types 1 and 2) or those who are homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele (Gilbert's syndrome) are at increased risk of haematological toxicity (grades 3 and 4) following administration of irinotecan at moderate or high doses (>150 mg/m2). A relationship between UGT1A1 genotype and the occurrence of irinotecan induced diarrhoea was not established.

Patients known to be homozygous for UGT1A1*28 should be administered the normally indicated irinotecan starting dose. However, these patients should be monitored for haematologic toxicities. A reduced irinotecan starting dose should be considered for patients who have experienced prior haematologic toxicity with previous treatment. The exact reduction in starting dose in this patient population has not been established and any subsequent dose modifications should be based on a patient's tolerance of the treatment. (see sections 4.2 and 4.4)

There is at present insufficient data to conclude on clinical utility of UGT1A1 genotyping.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

At the end of the infusion, at the recommended dose of 350 mg/m², the mean peak plasma concentrations of irinotecan and SN-38 were 7.7 µg/ml and 56 ng/ml, respectively, and the mean area under the curve (AUC) values were 34 µg.h/ml and 451 ng.h/ml, respectively. A large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetic parameters is generally observed for SN-38.

Distribution

The phase I study in 60 patients with a dosage regimen of a 30-minute intravenous infusion of 100 to 750 mg/m² every three weeks, the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss): 157 L/m².

In vitro, plasma protein binding for irinotecan and SN-38 was approximately 65 % and 95 % respectively.

Biotransformation

Mass balance and metabolism studies with 14 C-labelled drug have shown that more than 50% of an intravenously administered dose of irinotecan is excreted as unchanged drug, with 33% in the faeces mainly via the bile and 22% in urine.

Two metabolic pathways account each for at least 12% of the dose:

• Hydrolysis by carboxylesterase into active metabolite SN-38, SN-38 is mainly eliminated by glucuronidation, and further by biliary and renal excretion (less than 0.5% of the irinotecan dose) The SN-38 glucuronite is subsequently probably hydrolysed in the intestine.

• Cytochrome P450 3A enzymes-dependent oxidations resulting in opening of the outer piperidine ring with formation of APC (aminopentanoic acid derivate) and NPC (primary amine derivate) (see section 4.5).

Unchanged irinotecan is the major entity in plasma, followed by APC, SN-38 glucuronide and SN-38. Only SN-38 has significant cytotoxic activity.

Elimination

In a phase I study in 60 patients with a dosage regimen of a 30-minute intravenous infusion of 100 to 750 mg/m² every three weeks, irinotecan showed a biphasic or thriphasic elimination profile. The mean plasma clearance was 15 L/h/m². The mean plasma half-life of the first phase of the triphasic model was 12 minutes, of the second phase 2.5 hours, and the terminal phase half-life was 14.2 hours. SN-38 showed a biphasic elimination profile with a mean terminal elimination half-life of 13.8 hours.

Irinotecan clearance is decreased by about 40% in patients with bilirubinemia between 1.5 and 3 times the ULN. In these patients a 200 mg/m² irinotecan dose leads to plasma drug exposure comparable to that observed at 350 mg/m² in cancer patients with normal liver parameters.

Linearity/non-linearity

A population pharmacokinetic analysis of irinotecan has been performed in 148 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, treated with various schedules and at different doses in phase II trials. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated with a three compartment model were similar to those observed in phase I studies. All studies have shown that irinotecan (CPT-11) and SN-38 exposure increase proportionally with CPT-11 administered dose; their pharmacokinetics are independent of the number of previous cycles and of the administration schedule.

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic relationship(s)

The intensity of the major toxicities encountered with <Irinotecan Hydrochloride 20 mg/ml Concentrate For Solution For Infusion> (e.g. leukoneutropenia and diarrhoea) are related to the exposure (AUC) to parent drug and metabolite SN-38. Significant correlations were observed between haematological toxicity (decrease in white blood cells and neutrophils at nadir) or diarrhoea intensity and both irinotecan and metabolite SN-38 AUC values in monotherapy.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Irinotecan and SN-38 have been shown to be mutagenic in vitro in the chromosomal aberration test on CHO-cells as well as in the in vivo micronucleus test in mice.

However, they have been shown to be devoid of any mutagenic potential in the Ames test.

In rats treated once a week during 13 weeks at the maximum dose of 150 mg/m² (which is less than half the human recommended dose), no treatment related tumours were reported 91 weeks after the end of treatment.

Single- and repeated-dose toxicity studies with irinotecan have been carried out in mice, rats and dogs. The main toxic effects were seen in the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems. In dogs, delayed diarrhoea associated with atrophy and focal necrosis of the intestinal mucosa was reported. Alopecia was also observed in the dog.

The severity of these effects was dose-related and reversible.

Reproduction

Irinotecan was teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses below the human therapeutic dose. In rats, pups born to treated animals with external abnormalities showed a decrease in fertility. This was not seen in morphologically normal pups. In pregnant rats there was a decrease in placental weight and in the offspring a decrease in foetal viability and increase in behavioural abnormalities

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Sorbitol (E420)

Lactic acid

Sodium hydroxide (for pH-adjustment)

Hydrochloric acid (for pH-adjustment)

Water for injections

6.2 Incompatibilities

This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products, except those mentioned in section 6.6 (see also section 4.2).

6.3 Shelf life

The shelf-life of unopened vials is 3 years.

Irinotecan solution is physically and chemically stable with infusion solutions (0.9% (w/v) sodium chloride solution and 5% (w/v) glucose solution) for up to 28 days when stored in LDPE or PVC containers at 5°C or at 25°C and protected from light. When exposed to light, physico-chemical stability has been demonstrated for up to 3 days.

From a microbiological point of view, the diluted solution should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2 to 8°C, unless dilution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special temperature storage conditions. Store in the original package in order to protect from light.

Do not freeze.

For storage conditions of the diluted medicinal product, see section 6.3.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

For 2 ml,

Concentrate for solution for infusion is filled in 5 ml Type - I amber glass vial closed with grey chlorobutyl rubber stopper and aluminum flip off orange seal.

For 5 ml,

Concentrate for solution for infusion is filled in 5 ml Type - I amber glass vial closed with grey chlorobutyl rubber stopper and aluminum flip off red seal.

For 15 ml,

Concentrate for solution for infusion is filled in 20 ml Type - I amber glass vial closed with grey chlorobutyl rubber stopper and aluminum flip off orange seal.

For 25 ml,

Concentrate for solution for infusion is filled in 30 ml Type - I amber glass vial closed with grey chlorobutyl rubber stopper and aluminum flip off orange seal.

For 50 ml,

Concentrate for solution for infusion is filled in 50 ml USP - I amber vial closed with grey westar rubber stopper silicon 1 and aluminum flip off orange seal.

Pack sizes:

2 ml

5 ml

15 ml

25 ml

50 ml

Not all pack size may be marketed

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

As with other antineoplastic agents, Irinotecan Injection must be prepared and handled with caution. Protective chamber should be used and protective gloves as well as protective gown should be worn. If there is no protective chamber available mouth cover and goggles should be used.

If Irinotecan solution or infusion solution should come into contact with the skin, wash immediately and thoroughly with soap and water. If Irinotecan solution or infusion solution should come into contact with the mucous membranes, wash immediately with water.

Preparation for the intravenous infusion administration:

As with any other injectable drugs, the irinotecan solution must be prepared aseptically (see Section 6.3).

If any precipitate is observed in the vials or after dilution, the product should be discarded according to standard procedures for cytotoxic agents.

Aseptically withdraw the required amount of Irinotecan solution from the vial with a calibrated syringe and inject into a 250 ml infusion bag or bottle containing either 0.9% sodium chloride solution or 5% glucose solution. The infusion should then be thoroughly mixed by manual rotation.

Disposal:

For single use only.

All materials used for dilution and administration should be disposed of according to hospital standard procedures applicable to cytotoxic agents.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Accord Healthcare Limited

Sage House,

319, Pinner Road,

North Harrow,

Middlesex, HA1 4HF,

United Kingdom

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 20075/0443

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

14/06/2016

10. Date of revision of the text

07/10/2020