- losartan potassium
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Excipient:Each ml suspension contains 0.296 mg methylhydroxybenzoate, 0.041 mg propylhydroxybenzoate, 50.6 mg sorbitol, and 1.275 mg lactose.For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
HypertensionThe usual starting and maintenance dose is 50 mg once daily for most patients. The maximal antihypertensive effect is attained 3-6 weeks after initiation of therapy. Some patients may receive an additional benefit by increasing the dose to 100 mg once daily (in the morning).Losartan may be administered with other antihypertensive agents, especially with diuretics (e.g. hydrochlorothiazide) (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, and 5.1).
Hypertensive type II diabetic patients with proteinuria ≥ 0.5 g/dayThe usual starting dose is 50 mg once daily. The dose may be increased to 100 mg once daily based on blood pressure response from one month onwards after initiation of therapy. Losartan may be administered with other antihypertensive agents (e.g. diuretics, calcium channel blockers, alpha- or beta-blockers, and centrally acting agents) (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, and 5.1) as well as with insulin and other commonly used hypoglycemic agents (e.g. sulfonylureas, glitazones and glucosidase inhibitors).
Heart FailureThe usual initial dose of losartan in patients with heart failure is 12.5 mg once daily. The dose should generally be titrated at weekly intervals (i.e. 12.5 mg daily, 25 mg daily, 50 mg daily, 100 mg daily, up to a maximum dose of 150 mg once daily) as tolerated by the patient.
Reduction in the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with left-ventricular hypertrophy documented by ECGThe usual starting dose is 50 mg of losartan once daily. A low dose of hydrochlorothiazide should be added and/or the dose of losartan should be increased to 100 mg once daily based on blood pressure response.
Use in patients with intravascular volume depletion:For patients with intravascular volume-depletion (e.g. those treated with high-dose diuretics), a starting dose of 25 mg once daily should be considered (see section 4.4).
Use in patients with renal impairment and haemodialysis patients:No initial dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment and in haemodialysis patients.
Use in patients with hepatic impairment:A lower dose should be considered for patients with a history of hepatic impairment. There is no therapeutic experience in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, losartan is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
Paediatric population6 months-less than 6 years The safety and efficacy of children aged 6 months to less than 6 years has not been established. Currently available data are described in sections 5.1 and sections 5.2 but no recommendation on posology can be made. 6 years to 18 years The recommended starting dose in patients >20 to <50 kg is 0.7 mg/kg once daily (up to 25 mg total, in exceptional cases where target doses above 25 mg are required, the maximal dose is 50 mg). Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. In patients >50 kg, the usual dose is 50 mg once daily. In exceptional cases the dose can be adjusted to a maximum of 100 mg once daily. Doses above 1.4 mg/kg (or in excess of 100 mg) daily have not been studied in paediatric patients.For patients who can swallow tablets, this dosage form is also available.Losartan is not recommended for use in children below 6 years old due to insufficient data on safety and/or efficacy in these patient groups.It is not recommended in children with glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, as no data are available (see also section 4.4).Losartan is also not recommended in children with hepatic impairment (see also section 4.4).
Use in elderlyAlthough consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 25 mg in patients over 75 years of age, dosage adjustment is not usually necessary for the elderly. Method of administration
Administration of the oral suspensionShake the closed bottle of losartan oral suspension well before use. Push the plunger of the dispenser completely down toward the tip of the dispenser. Insert the dispenser into the adapter on the medication bottle until a tight seal is made between the bottle and the adapter. With the dispenser, adapter, and bottle attached, turn the entire assembly upside down. Pull out the plunger to withdraw the medication medicinal product into the dispenser. Return the entire assembly to the upright position. Remove the dispenser and administer the medication. Replace the original cap onto the bottle.For reconstitution see section 6.6.Losartan may be administered with or without food.
HypersensitivityAngiooedema. Patients with a history of angiooedema (swelling of the face, lips, throat, and/or tongue) should be closely monitored (see section 4.8).
Hypotension and Electrolyte/Fluid ImbalanceSymptomatic hypotension, especially after the first dose and after increasing of the dose, may occur in patients who are volume- and/or sodium-depleted by vigorous diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, diarrhoea or vomiting. These conditions should be corrected prior to administration of losartan, or a lower starting dose should be used (see section 4.2). This also applies to children 6 to 18 years of age.
Electrolyte imbalancesElectrolyte imbalances are common in patients with renal impairment, with or without diabetes, and should be addressed. In a clinical study conducted in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy, the incidence of hyperkalemia was higher in the group treated with losartan as compared to the placebo group (see section 4.8). Therefore, the plasma concentrations of potassium as well as creatinine clearance values should be closely monitored especially patients with heart failure and a creatinine clearance between 30-50 ml/min should be closely monitored.The concomitant use of potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and potassium containing salt substitutes with losartan is not recommended (see section 4.5).
Hepatic impairmentBased on pharmacokinetic data which demonstrate significantly increased plasma concentrations of losartan in cirrhotic patients, a lower dose should be considered for patients with a history of hepatic impairment. There is no therapeutic experience with losartan in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore losartan must not be administered in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2, 4.3 and 5.2).Losartan is not recommended in children with hepatic impairment (see section 4.2).
Renal impairmentAs a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system, changes in renal function including renal failure have been reported (in particular, in patients whose renal function is dependent on the renin angiotensin aldosterone system such as those with severe cardiac insufficiency or pre-existing renal dysfunction). As with other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increases in blood urea and serum creatinine have also been reported in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a solitary kidney; these changes in renal function may be reversible upon discontinuation of therapy. Losartan should be used with caution in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a solitary kidney.
Use in paediatric patients with renal impairmentLosartan is not recommended in children with glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/ min/1.73 m2 as no data are available (see section 4.2).Renal function should be regularly monitored during treatment with losartan as it may deteriorate. This applies particularly when losartan is given in the presence of other conditions (fever, dehydration) likely to impair renal function.Concomitant use of losartan and ACE-inhibitors has been shown to impair renal function. Therefore, concomitant use is not recommended (see section 4.5).
Renal transplantationThere is no experience in patients with recent kidney transplantation.
Primary hyperaldosteronismPatients with primary aldosteronism generally will not respond to antihypertensive medicinal products acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of losartan is not recommended.
Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular diseaseAs with any antihypertensive agents, excessive blood pressure decrease in patients with ischaemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease could result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.
Heart failureIn patients with heart failure, with or without renal impairment, there is, as with other medicinal products acting on the renin-angiotensin system, a risk of severe arterial hypotension, and (often acute) renal impairment.There is no sufficient therapeutic experience with losartan in patients with heart failure and concomitant severe renal impairment, in patients with severe heart failure (NYHA class IV) as well as in patients with heart failure and symptomatic life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, losartan should be used with caution in these patient groups. The combination of losartan with a beta-blocker should be used with caution (see section 5.1).
Aortic and mitral valve stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathyAs with other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
PregnancyLosartan should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued losartan therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with losartan should be stopped immediately, and if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started (see sections 4.3 and 4.6).
Other warnings and precautions:As observed for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, losartan and the other angiotensin antagonists are apparently less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non-blacks, possibly because of higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population. Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia, and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure. ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Excipients This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Sorbitol/Fructose intoleranceThe solvent contains sorbitol. Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take this medicine.Methylhydroxybenzoate and propylhydroxybenzoate may cause allergic reactions (possibly delayed).
PregnancyThe use of losartan is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.4). The use of losartan is contraindicated during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.3 and 4.4).Epidemiological evidence regarding the risk of teratogenicity following exposure to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy has not been conclusive; however a small increase in risk cannot be excluded. Whilst there is no controlled epidemiological data on the risk with Angiotensin II Receptor Inhibitors (AIIRAs), similar risks may exist for this class of medicinal products. Unless continued AIIRA therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with losartan should be stopped immediately and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.Exposure to AIIRA therapy during the second and third trimesters is known to induce human fetotoxicity (decreased renal function, oligohydramnios, skull ossification retardation) and neonatal toxicity (renal failure, hypotension, hyperkalaemia) (see also section 5.3). Should exposure to losartan have occurred from the second trimester of pregnancy, ultrasound check of renal function and skull is recommended.Infants whose mothers have taken losartan should be closely observed for hypotension (see also section 4.3 and 4.4).
BreastfeedingBecause no information is available regarding the use of losartan during breastfeeding, losartan is not recommended and alternative treatments with better established safety profiles during breastfeeding are preferable, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Table 1. The frequency of adverse reactions identified from placebo-controlled clinical studies and post marketing experience
|Adverse reaction||Frequency of adverse reaction by indication||Other|
|Hypertension||Hypertensive patients with left-ventricular hypertrophy||Chronic Heart Failure||Hypertension and type 2 diabetes with renal disease||Post-marketing experience|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders|
|anaemia||common||frequency not known|
|thrombocytopenia||frequency not known|
|Immune system disorders|
|hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic reactions, angiooedema*, and vasculitis**||rare|
|depression||frequency not known|
|Nervous system disorders|
|migraine||frequency not known|
|dysgeusia||frequency not known|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders|
|tinnitus||frequency not known|
|(orthostatic) hypotension (including dose- related orthostatic effects)║||uncommon||common||common|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|cough||uncommon||frequency not known|
|diarrhoea||uncommon||frequency not known|
|pancreatitis||frequency not known|
|liver function abnormalities||frequency not known|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|urticaria||uncommon||frequency not known|
|pruritus||uncommon||frequency not known|
|rash||uncommon||uncommon||frequency not known|
|photosensitivity||frequency not known|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|myalgia||frequency not known|
|arthralgia||frequency not known|
|rhabdomyolysis||frequency not known|
|Renal and urinary disorders|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders|
|erectile dysfunction / impotence||frequency not known|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|malaise||frequency not known|
|increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) §||rare|
|increase in blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum potassium||common|
|hyponatraemia||frequency not known|
Paediatric populationThe adverse reaction profile for paediatric patients appears to be similar to that seen in adult patients. Data in the paediatric population are limited. Reporting of suspected adverse reactions Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
Symptoms of intoxicationLimited data are available with regard to overdose in humans. The most likely manifestation of overdose would be hypotension and tachycardia. Bradycardia could occur from parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation.
Treatment of intoxicationIf symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be instituted. Measures are depending on the time of medicinal product intake and kind and severity of symptoms. Stabilisation of the cardiovascular system should be given priority. After oral intake the administration of a sufficient dose of activated charcoal is indicated. Afterwards, close monitoring of the vital parameters should be performed. Vital parameters should be corrected if necessary.Neither losartan nor the active metabolite can be removed by haemodialysis.
Hypertension StudiesIn controlled clinical studies, once-daily administration of losartan to patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension produced statistically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Measurement of blood pressure 24 hours post-dose relative to 5 6 hours post-dose demonstrated blood pressure reduction over 24 hours; the natural diurnal rhythm was retained. Blood pressure reduction at the end of the dosing interval was 70 80 % of the effect seen 5-6 hours post-dose.Discontinuation of losartan in hypertensive patients did not result in an abrupt rise in blood pressure (rebound). Despite the marked decrease in blood pressure, losartan had no clinically significant effect on heart rate.Losartan is equally effective in males and females, and in younger (below the age of 65 years) and older hypertensive patients.
LIFE-StudyThe losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension [LIFE] study was a randomised, triple-blind, active-controlled study in 9193 hypertensive patients aged 55 to 80 years with ECG-documented left-ventricular hypertrophy. Patients were randomised to once daily losartan 50 mg or once daily atenolol 50 mg. If goal blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) was not reached, hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) was added first and, if needed, the dose of losartan or atenolol was then increased to 100 mg once daily. Other antihypertensives, with the exception of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists or beta-blockers were added if necessary to reach the goal blood pressure. The mean length of follow-up was 4.8 years.The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as measured by a reduction in the combined incidence of cardiovascular death, stroke and myocardial infarction. Blood pressure was significantly lowered to similar levels in the two groups. Treatment with losartan resulted in a 13.0 % risk reduction (p=0.021, 95 % confidence interval 0.77-0.98) compared with atenolol for patients reaching the primary composite endpoint. This was mainly attributable to a reduction of the incidence of stroke. Treatment with losartan reduced the risk of stroke by 25 % relative to atenolol (p=0.001, 95 % confidence interval 0.63-0.89). The rates of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction were not significantly different between the treatment groups.
RaceIn the LIFE-Study black patients treated with losartan had a higher risk of suffering the primary combined endpoint, i.e. a cardiovascular event (e.g. cardiac infarction, cardiovascular death) and especially stroke, than the black patients treated with atenolol. Therefore the results observed with losartan in comparison with atenolol in the LIFE study with regard to cardiovascular morbidity/mortality do not apply for black patients with hypertension and left-ventricular hypertrophy.
RENAAL-StudyThe Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist losartan RENAAL study was a controlled clinical study conducted worldwide in 1513 Type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria, with or without hypertension. 751 patients were treated with losartan.The objective of the study was to demonstrate a nephroprotective effect of losartan potassium over and above the benefit of lowering blood pressure. Patients with proteinuria and a serum creatinine of 1.3 3.0 mg/dl were randomised to receive losartan 50 mg once a day, titrated if necessary, to achieve blood pressure response, or to placebo, on a background of conventional antihypertensive therapy excluding ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists.Investigators were instructed to titrate the study medication to 100 mg daily as appropriate; 72 % of patients were taking the 100 mg daily dose for the majority of the time. Other antihypertensive agents (diuretics, calcium antagonists, alpha- and beta-receptor blockers and also centrally acting antihypertensives) were permitted as supplementary treatment depending on the requirement in both groups. Patients were followed up for up to 4.6 years (3.4 years on average). The primary endpoint of the study was a composite endpoint of doubling of the serum creatinine end-stage renal failure (need for dialysis or transplantation) or death.The results showed that the treatment with losartan (327 events) as compared with placebo (359 events) resulted in a 16.1 % risk reduction (p = 0.022) in the number of patients reaching the primary composite endpoint. For the following individual and combined components of the primary endpoint, the results showed a significant risk reduction in the group treated with losartan: 25.3 % risk reduction for doubling of the serum creatinine (p = 0.006); 28.6 % risk reduction for end-stage renal failure (p = 0.002); 19.9 % risk reduction for end-stage renal failure or death (p = 0.009); 21.0 % risk reduction for doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal failure (p = 0.01).All-cause mortality rate was not significantly different between the two treatment groups. In this study losartan was generally well tolerated, as shown by a therapy discontinuation rate on account of adverse reactions that was comparable to the placebo group.
HEAAL StudyThe Heart Failure Endpoint Evaluation of Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (HEAAL) study was a controlled clinical study conducted worldwide in 3834 patients aged 18 to 98 years with heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) who were intolerant of ACE inhibitor treatment. Patients were randomised to receive losartan 50 mg once a day or losartan 150 mg, on a background of conventional therapy excluding ACE-inhibitors.Patients were followed for over 4 years (median 4.7 years). The primary endpoint of the study was a composite endpoint of all-cause death or hospitalisation for heart failure.The results showed that treatment with 150 mg losartan (828 events) as compared with 50 mg losartan (889 events) resulted in a 10.1% risk reduction (p=0.027, 95% confidence interval 0.82-0.99) in the number of patients reaching the primary composite endpoint. This was mainly attributable to a reduction of the incidence of hospitalisation for heart failure. Treatment with 150 mg losartan reduced the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure by 13.5% relative to 50 mg losartan (p=0.025, 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98). The rate of all cause death was not significantly different between the treatment groups. Renal impairment, hypotension, and hyperkalaemia were more common in the 150 mg group than in the 50 mg group, but these adverse events did not lead to significantly more treatment discontinuations in the 150 mg group.
ELITE I and ELITE II StudiesIn the ELITE Study carried out over 48 weeks in 722 patients with heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV), no difference was observed between the patients treated with losartan and those treated with captopril was observed with regard to the primary endpoint of a long-term change in renal function. The observation of the ELITE Study, that compared with captopril, losartan reduced the mortality risk, was not confirmed in the subsequent ELITE II Study, which is described in the following.In the ELITE II Study losartan 50 mg once daily (starting dose 12.5 mg, increased to 25 mg, then 50 mg once daily) was compared with captopril 50 mg three times daily (starting dose 12.5 mg, increased to 25 mg and then to 50 mg three times daily). The primary endpoint of this prospective study was the all-cause mortality.In this study 3152 patients with heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) were followed for almost two years (median: 1.5 years) in order to determine whether losartan is superior to captopril in reducing all-cause mortality. The primary endpoint did not show any statistically significant difference between Losartan and captopril in reducing all-cause mortality.In both comparator-controlled (not placebo-controlled) clinical studies on patients with heart failure the tolerability of losartan was superior to that of captopril, measured on the basis of a significantly lower rate of discontinuations of therapy on account of adverse reactions and a significantly lower frequency of cough.An increased mortality was observed in ELITE II in the small subgroup (22 % of all HF patients) taking beta-blockers at baseline. Dual Blockade of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS) Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes)) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker. ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy. ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.
Paediatric HypertensionThe antihypertensive effect of losartan was established in a clinical study involving 177 hypertensive paediatric patients 6 to 16 years of age with a body weight > 20 kg and a glomerular filtration rate > 30 ml/ min/1.73 m2. Patients who weighed >20 kg to < 50 kg received either 2.5, 25 or 50 mg of losartan daily and patients who weighed > 50 kg received either 5, 50 or 100 mg of losartan daily. At the end of three weeks, losartan administration once daily lowered trough blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner.Overall, there was a dose-response. The dose-response relationship became very obvious in the low dose group compared to the middle dose group (period I: -6.2 mmHg vs. -11.65 mmHg), but was attenuated when comparing the middle dose group with the high dose group (period I: -11.65 mmHg vs. -12.21 mmHg). The lowest doses studied, 2.5 mg and 5 mg, corresponding to an average daily dose of 0.07 mg/ kg, did not appear to offer consistent antihypertensive efficacy.These results were confirmed during period II of the study where patients were randomized to continue losartan or placebo, after three weeks of treatment. The difference in blood pressure increase as compared to placebo was largest in the middle dose group (6.70 mmHg middle dose vs. 5.38 mmHg high dose). The rise in trough diastolic blood pressure was the same in patients receiving placebo and in those continuing losartan at the lowest dose in each group, again suggesting that the lowest dose in each group did not have significant antihypertensive effect.Long-term effects of losartan on growth, puberty and general development have not been studied. The long-term efficacy of antihypertensive therapy with losartan in childhood to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has also not been established.In hypertensive (n=60) and normotensive (n=246) children with proteinuria, the effect of losartan on proteinuria was evaluated in a 12-week placebo- and active-controlled (amlodipine) clinical study. Proteinuria was defined as urinary protein/creatinine ratio of ≥ 0.3. The hypertensive patients (ages 6 through 18 years) were randomised to receive either losartan (n=30) or amlodipine (n=30). The normotensive patients (ages 1 through 18 years) were randomised to receive either losartan (n=122) or placebo (n=124). Losartan was given at doses of 0.7 mg/kg to 1.4 mg/kg (up to maximum dose of 100 mg per day). Amlodipine was given at doses of 0.05 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg (up to a maximum dose of 5 mg per day).Overall, after 12 weeks of treatment, patients receiving losartan experienced a statistically significant reduction from baseline in proteinuria of 36% versus 1% increase in placebo/amlodipine group (p≤ 0.001). Hypertensive patients receiving losartan experienced a reduction from baseline proteinuria of -41.5% (95% CI -29.9; -51.1) versus +2.4% (95% CI -22.2; 14.1) in the amlodipine group. The decline in both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was greater in the losartan group (-5.5/-3.8 mmHg) versus the amlodipine group (-0.1/+0.8 mmHg). In normotensive children, a small decrease in blood pressure was observed in the losartan group (-3.7/-3.4 mmHg) compared to placebo. No significant correlation between the decline in proteinuria and blood pressure was noted, however it is possible that the decline in blood pressure was responsible, in part, for the decline in proteinuria in the losartan treated group. Long-term effects of losartan in children with proteinuria were studied for up to 3 years in the open-label safety extension phase of the same study, in which all patients completing the 12-week base study were invited to participate. A total of 268 patients entered the open-label extension phase and were re-randomized to losartan (N=134) or enalapril (N=134) and 109 patients had ≥3 years of follow-up (pre-specified termination point of ≥100 patients completing 3 years of follow-up in the extension period). The dose ranges of losartan and enalapril, given according to investigator discretion, were 0.30 to 4.42 mg/kg/day and 0.02 to 1.13 mg/kg/day, respectively. The maximum daily doses of 50 mg for <50 kg body weight and 100 mg>50 kg were not exceeded for most patients during the extension phase of the study.In summary, the results of the safety extension show that losartan was well-tolerated and led to sustained decreases in proteinuria with no appreciable change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over 3 years. For normotensive patients (n=205), enalapril had a numerically greater effect compared to losartan on proteinuria (-33.0% (95%CI -47.2;-15.0) vs -16.6% (95%CI -34.9; 6.8)) and on GFR (9.4(95%CI 0.4; 18.4) vs -4.0 (95%CI -13.1; 5.0) ml/min/1.73m2)). For hypertensive patients (n=49), losartan had a numerically greater effect on proteinuria (-44.5% (95%CI -64.8; -12.4) vs -39.5% (95%CI -62.5; -2.2)) and GFR (18.9 (95%CI 5.2; 32.5) vs -13.4 (95%CI -27.3; 0.6)) ml/min/1.73m2. An open label, dose-ranging clinical trial was conducted to study the safety and efficacy of losartan in paediatric patients aged 6 months to 6 years with hypertension. A total of 101 patients were randomized to one of three different starting doses of open-label losartan: a low dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day (N=33), a medium dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day (N=34), or a high dose of 0.7 mg/kg/day (N=34). Of these, 27 were infants which were defined as children aged 6 months to 23 months. Study medication was titrated to the next dose level at Weeks 3, 6, and 9 for patients that were not at blood pressure goal and not yet on the maximal dose (1.4 mg/kg/day, not to exceed 100 mg/day) of losartan. Of the 99 patients treated with study medication, 90 (90.9%) patients continued to the extension study with follow up visits every 3 months. The mean duration of therapy was 264 days. In summary, the mean blood pressure decrease from baseline was similar across all treatment groups (change from baseline to Week 3 in SBP was -7.3, -7.6, and -6.7 mmHg for the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups, respectively; the reduction from baseline to Week 3 in DBP was -8.2, -5.1, and -6.7 mmHg for the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups.); however, there was no statistically significant dose-dependent response effect for SBP and DBP. Losartan, at doses as high as 1.4 mg/kg, was generally well tolerated in hypertensive children aged 6 months to 6 years after 12 weeks of treatment. The overall safety profile appeared comparable between treatment groups.
AbsorptionFollowing oral administration, losartan is well absorbed and undergoes first-pass metabolism, forming an active carboxylic acid metabolite and other inactive metabolites. The systemic bioavailability of losartan tablets is approximately 33 %. Mean peak concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite are reached in 1 hour and in 3-4 hours, respectively.
DistributionBoth losartan and its active metabolite are ≥99 % bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin. The volume of distribution of losartan is 34 litres.
BiotransformationAbout 14 % of an intravenously- or orally-administered dose of losartan is converted to its active metabolite. Following oral and intravenous administration of 14C-labelled losartan potassium, circulating plasma radioactivity primarily is attributed to losartan and its active metabolite. Minimal conversion of losartan to its active metabolite was seen in about one percent of individuals studied.In addition to the active metabolite, inactive metabolites are formed.
EliminationPlasma clearance of losartan and its active metabolite is about 600 ml/min and 50 ml/min, respectively. Renal clearance of losartan and its active metabolite is about 74 ml/min and 26 ml/min, respectively. When losartan is administered orally, about 4 % of the dose is excreted unchanged in the urine, and about 6 % of the dose is excreted in the urine as active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite are linear with oral losartan potassium doses up to 200 mg.Following oral administration, plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite decline polyexponentially with a terminal half-life of about 2 hours and 6-9 hours, respectively. During once-daily dosing with 100 mg, neither losartan nor its active metabolite accumulates significantly in plasma. Both biliary and urinary excretions contribute to the elimination of losartan and its metabolites. Following an oral dose/intravenous administration of 14C-labelled losartan in man, about 35 % / 43 % of radioactivity is recovered in the urine and 58 %/ 50 % in the faeces.
Characteristics in patientsIn elderly hypertensive patients the plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite do not differ essentially from those found in young hypertensive patients.In female hypertensive patients the plasma levels of losartan were up to twice as high as in male hypertensive patients, while the plasma levels of the active metabolite did not differ between men and women.In patients with mild to moderate alcohol-induced hepatic cirrhosis, the plasma levels of losartan and its active metabolite after oral administration were respectively 5 and 1.7 times higher than in young male volunteers (see section 4.2 and 4.4).Plasma concentrations of Losartan are not altered in patients with a creatinine clearance above 10 ml/minute. Compared to patients with normal renal function, the AUC for losartan is about 2-times higher in haemodialysis patients. The plasma concentrations of the active metabolite are not altered in patients with renal impairment or in haemodialysis patients.Neither losartan nor the active metabolite can be removed by haemodialysis.
Pharmacokinetics in paediatric patientsThe pharmacokinetics of losartan have been investigated in 50 hypertensive paediatric patients > 1 month to < 16 years of age following once daily oral administration of approximately 0.54 to 0.77 mg/ kg of losartan (mean doses). The results showed that the active metabolite is formed from losartan in all age groups. The results showed roughly similar pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan following oral administration in infants and toddlers, preschool children, school-age children and adolescents. The pharmacokinetic parameters for the metabolite differed to a greater extent between the age groups. When comparing preschool children with adolescents these differences became statistically significant. Exposure in infants/ toddlers was comparatively high.
Powdermicrocrystalline cellulose (E460)lactose monohydratepregelatinized maize starch magnesium stearate (E572)hydroxypropyl cellulose (E463)hypromellose (E464)titanium dioxide (E171)
Solventmicrocrystalline cellulose carboxymethylcellulose sodiumcitric acid anhydrouspurified waterxantham gum (E415)methylhydroxybenzoate (E218)sodium phosphate monobasic monohydratepotassium sorbate (E202)carrageenan calcium sulfate, trisodium phosphateflavor berry citrus sweetglycerinpropylhydroxybenzoate (E216)sodium citrate anhydroussaccharin sodiumsorbitol (E420)antifoam AF emulsion (contains water, polydimethylsiloxane, C-14-18, mono- and di-glycerides, polyethylene glycol stearate, and polyethylene glycol.)
Reconstitution of COZAAR oral suspension [for 200 ml of a 2.5 mg/ml suspension]:Add 200 ml of solvent to the 240 ml polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle provided. Before opening the sachet gently tap on the side of the sachet to facilitate transfer of the material. Carefully add the complete contents of the sachet into the PET container bottle containing the solvent, tapping the side of the sachet and inverting as necessary. It is normal to have a small amount of residual powder adhering to the interior surfaces of the sachet. The sachet should NOT be rinsed. Place the screw cap on the bottle and shake the contents well to disperse. After reconstitution, losartan suspension is an off-white liquid. Remove the screw cap, place the push-in bottle neck adaptor on the bottle, and re-cap the bottle. The suspension should be stored in a refrigerator at 2-8°C for up to 4 weeks. Shake the suspension prior to each use and return promptly to the refrigerator.Discard the excess solvent not used in the preparation of the suspension.