POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Xomolix® 2.5 mg/ml solution for injection
Each millilitre of the solution contains 2.5 mg droperidol.
Excipient with known effect: sodium < 23 mg per ml (see section 4.4 for further details).
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
Solution for injection.
Clear colourless solution, free from visible particles.
The pH of droperidol solution for injection is 3.0 – 3.8 and has an osmolarity of approximately 300 milliosmol /kg water.
Xomolix is indicated in:
• Prevention and treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in adults and, as second line, in children (2 to 11 years) and adolescents (12 to 18 years).
• Prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by morphine and derivatives during post-operative patient controlled analgesia (PCA) in adults.
Certain precautions are required when administering droperidol: see sections 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4.
Prevention and treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV).
Adults: 0.625 mg to 1.25 mg (0.25 to 0.5 ml).
Elderly (over 65 years): 0.625 mg (0.25 ml)
Renal/hepatic impairment: 0.625 mg (0.25 ml)
Children (2 to 11 years) and adolescents (12 to 18 years): 10 to 50 microgram/kg (up to a maximum of 1.25 mg).
Children (below the age of 2 years): not recommended.
Administration of droperidol is recommended 30 minutes before the anticipated end of surgery. Repeat doses may be given every 6 hours as required.
The dosage should be adapted to each individual case. The factors to be considered here include age, body weight, use of other medicinal products, type of anaesthesia and surgical procedure.
Prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by morphine and derivatives during post-operative patient controlled analgesia (PCA).
Adults: 15 to 50 micrograms droperidol per mg of morphine, up to a maximum daily dose of 5 mg droperidol.
Elderly (over 65 years), renal and hepatic impairment: no data in PCA available.
Children (2 to 11 years) and adolescents (12 to 18 years): not indicated in PCA.
Continuous pulse oximetry should be performed in patients with identified or suspected risk of ventricular arrhythmia and should continue for 30 minutes following single i.v. administration.
Method of administration
For intravenous use.
For instructions on dilution of the medicinal product before administration, see section 6.6.
See also sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1.
Xomolix is contraindicated in patients with:
• Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1;
• Hypersensitivity to butyrophenones;
• Known or suspected prolonged QT interval (QTc of > 450 msec in females and > 440 msec in males). This includes patients with congenitally long QT interval, patients who have a family history of congenital QT prolongation and those treated with medicinal products known to prolong the QT interval (see section 4.5);
• Hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia;
• Bradycardia (< 55 heartbeats per minute);
• Known concomitant treatment leading to bradycardia;
• Comatose states;
• Parkinson's Disease;
• Severe depression.
Central Nervous System
Droperidol may enhance CNS depression produced by other CNS-depressant drugs. Any patient subjected to anaesthesia and receiving potent CNS depressant medicinal products or showing symptoms of CNS depression should be monitored closely.
Concomitant use of metoclopramide and other neuroleptics may lead to an increase in extrapyramidal symptoms and should be avoided (see section 4.5).
Use with caution in patients with epilepsy (or a history of epilepsy) and conditions predisposing to epilepsy or convulsions.
Mild to moderate hypotension and occasionally (reflex) tachycardia have been observed following the administration of droperidol. This reaction usually subsides spontaneously. However, should hypotension persist, the possibility of hypovolaemia should be considered and appropriate fluid replacement administered.
Patients with, or suspected of having, the following risk factors for cardiac arrhythmia should be carefully evaluated prior to administration of droperidol:
- a history of significant cardiac disease including serious ventricular arrhythmia, second or third degree atrio-ventricular block, sinus node dysfunction, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease and left ventricular hypertrophy;
- family history of sudden death;
- renal failure (particularly when on chronic dialysis);
- significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory failure;
- risk factors for electrolyte disturbances, as seen in patients taking laxatives, glucocorticoids, potassium-wasting diuretics, in association with the administration of insulin in acute settings, or in patients with prolonged vomiting and/or diarrhoea.
Patients at risk for cardiac arrhythmia should have serum electrolytes and creatinine levels assessed and the presence of QT prolongation excluded prior to administration of droperidol.
Continuous pulse oximetry should be performed in patients with identified or suspected risk of ventricular arrhythmia and should continue for 30 minutes following single i.v. administration.
To prevent QT prolongation, caution is necessary when patients are taking medicinal products likely to induce electrolyte imbalance (hypokalaemia and/or hypomagnesaemia) e.g. potassium-wasting diuretics, laxatives and glucocorticoids.
Substances inhibiting the activity of cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes (CYP) CYP1A2, CYP3A4 or both could decrease the rate at which droperidol is metabolised and prolong its pharmacological action. Hence, caution is advised if droperidol is given concomitantly with strong CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 inhibitors (see section 4.5).
Patients who have, or are suspected of having, a history of alcohol abuse or recent high intakes, should be thoroughly assessed before droperidol is administered.
In case of unexplained hyperthermia, it is essential to discontinue treatment, since this sign may be one of the elements of malignant syndrome reported with neuroleptics.
Cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been reported with antipsychotic drugs. Since patients treated with antipsychotics often present with acquired risk factors for VTE, all possible risk factors for VTE should be identified before and during treatment with Xomolix and preventive measures undertaken.
The dose should be reduced in the elderly and those with impaired renal and hepatic function (see section 4.2).
This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per 1 ml, i.e. essentially 'sodium-free'.
Contraindicated for concomitant use
Medicinal products known to cause torsades de pointes through QT prolongation should not be concomitantly administered with droperidol. Examples include
- Class IA antiarrhythmics
- Class III antiarrhythmics
- macrolide antibiotics
- fluoroquinolone antibiotics
- certain antipsychotic medications
- anti-malaria agents
- cisapride, domperidone, methadone, pentamidine.
Concomitant use of medicinal products that induce extrapyramidal symptoms, e.g. metoclopramide and other neuroleptics, may lead to an increased incidence of these symptoms and should therefore be avoided.
Consumption of alcoholic beverages and medicines should be avoided.
Caution is advised for concomitant use
To reduce the risk of QT prolongation, caution is necessary when patients are taking medicinal products likely to induce electrolyte imbalance (hypokalaemia and/or hypomagnesaemia) e.g. potassium-wasting diuretics, laxatives and glucocorticoids.
Droperidol may potentiate the action of sedatives (barbiturates, benzodiazepines, morphine derivatives). The same applies to antihypertensive agents, so that orthostatic hypotension may ensue.
Like other sedatives, droperidol may potentiate respiratory depression caused by opioids.
Since droperidol blocks dopamine receptors, it may inhibit the action of dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, lisuride, and of L-dopa.
Substances inhibiting the activity of cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes (CYP) CYP1A2, CYP3A4 or both could decrease the rate at which droperidol is metabolised and prolong its pharmacological action. Hence, caution is advised if droperidol is given concomitantly with CYP1A2 inhibitors, CYP3A4 inhibitors or both.
A limited amount of clinical data have shown no increase of malformative risk.
Droperidol has not been shown to be teratogenic in rats. Animal studies are insufficient with respect to the effects on pregnancy and embryonal/foetal, parturition and postnatal development.
In newborn babies from mothers under long-term treatment and high doses of neuroleptics, temporary neurological disturbances of extrapyramidal nature have been described.
In practice, as a precautionary measure, it is preferable not to administer droperidol during pregnancy. In late pregnancy, if its administration is necessary, monitoring of the newborn's neurological functions is recommended.
Neuroleptics of the butyrophenone type are known to be excreted in breast milk; treatment with droperidol should be limited to a single administration. Repeat administration is not recommended.
There were no effects on fertility in studies conducted in male and female rats (see section 5.3). The clinical effect of droperidol on fertility has not been established.
Xomolix has major influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Patients should not drive or operate a machine for 24 hours after droperidol administration.
The most frequently reported events during clinical experience are incidents of drowsiness and sedation. In addition, less frequent reports of hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and symptoms associated with NMS, plus movement disorders, such as dyskinesias, plus incidents of anxiety or agitation have occurred.
System Organ Class
≥1/100 to < 1/10
≥1/1,000 to < 1/100
≥1/10,000 to < 1/1,000
(cannot be estimated from the available data)
Blood and lymphatic systems disorders
Immune system disorders
Anaphylactic reaction; Angioneurotic oedema; Hyper-sensitivity
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion
Confusional states; Agitation
Nervous system disorders
Extra-pyramidal disorder; Convulsions; Tremor
Epileptic fits; Parkinson's disease;
Cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular arrhythmias
Cardiac arrest; Torsades de pointes; Electrogram QT prolonged
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Skin and subcutaneous system disorders
General disorders and administration site conditions
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
Symptoms potentially associated with NMS have occasionally been reported i.e. changes in body temperature, stiffness and fever. An alteration in mental status with confusion or agitation and altered consciousness, have been seen. Autonomic instability may manifest as tachycardia, fluctuating blood pressure, excessive sweating/salivation and tremor. In extreme cases NMS may lead to coma, or renal and/or hepato-biliary problems.
Isolated cases of amenorrhoea, galactorrhoea, gynaecomastia, hyperprolactinaemia, oligomenorrhoea and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome have been associated with prolonged exposure in psychiatric indications.
Cases of venous thromboembolism, including cases of pulmonary embolism and cases of deep vein thrombosis have been reported with antipsychotic medicinal products - frequency unknown.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme, www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
The manifestations of droperidol overdose are an extension of its pharmacologic actions.
Symptoms of accidental overdose are psychic indifference with a transition to sleep, sometimes in association with lowered blood pressure.
At higher doses or in sensitive patients, extrapyramidal disorders may occur (salivation, abnormal movements, sometimes muscle rigidity). Convulsions may occur at toxic doses.
Cases of QT-interval prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death have been reported rarely.
No specific antidote is known. However, when extrapyramidal reactions occur, an anticholinergic should be administered.
Patients with droperidol overdose should be closely monitored for signs of QT interval prolongation.
Factors which predispose to torsades de pointes, e.g. electrolyte disturbances (especially hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia) and bradycardia should be taken into consideration.
Pronounced hypotension should be treated by boosting circulation volume and taking other appropriate measures. Clear airways and adequate oxygenation should be maintained; an oropharyngeal airway or endotracheal tube might be indicated.
If required, the patient should be observed carefully for 24 hours or longer; body warmth and adequate fluid intake should be maintained.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Butyrophenone derivatives. ATC code: N05AD08.
Droperidol is a butyrophenone neuroleptic. Its pharmacologic profile is characterised mainly by dopamine-blocking and weak α1-adrenolytic effects. Droperidol is devoid of anticholinergic and antihistaminic activity.
Droperidol's inhibitory action on dopaminergic receptors in the chemotrigger zone in the area postrema, gives it a potent antiemetic effect, especially useful for the prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting and/or nausea and vomiting induced by opioid analgesics.
At a dose of 0.15 mg/kg, droperidol induces a fall in mean blood pressure (MBP), due to a decrease in cardiac output in a first phase, and then subsequently due to a decrease in pre-load. These changes occur independently of any alteration in myocardial contractility or vascular resistance. Droperidol does not affect myocardial contractility or heart rate, therefore has no negative inotropic effect. Its weak α1-adrenergic blockade can cause a modest hypotension and decreased peripheral vascular resistance and may decrease pulmonary arterial pressure (particularly if it is abnormally high). It may also reduce the incidence of epinephrine-induced arrhythmia, but it does not prevent other forms of cardiac arrhythmia.
Droperidol has a specific antiarrhythmic effect at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg by an effect on myocardial contractility (prolongation of the refractory period) and a decrease in blood pressure.
Two studies (one placebo-controlled and one comparative active treatment-controlled) performed in the general anaesthesia setting and designed to better identify the QTc changes associated with postoperative nausea and vomiting treatment by small dose of droperidol (0.625 and 1.25 mg intravenous, and 0.75 mg intravenous, respectively) identified a QT interval prolongation at 3-6 min after administration of 0.625 and 1.25 mg droperidol (respectively 15 ± 40 and 22 ± 41 ms), but these changes did not differ significantly from that seen with saline (12 ± 35 ms). There were no statistically significant differences amongst the droperidol and saline groups in the number of patients with greater than 10% prolongation in QTc versus baseline. There was no evidence of droperidol-induced QTc prolongation after surgery.
No ectopic heartbeats were reported from the electrocardiographic records or 12-lead recordings during the perioperative period. The comparative active-treatment study with 0.75 mg intravenous droperidol identified a significant QTc interval prolongation (maximal of 17 ± 9 ms at the second minute after droperidol injection when compared with pre-treatment QTc measurement), with the QTc interval significantly lower after the 90th minute.
The action of a single intravenous dose commences 2-3 minutes following administration. The tranquillising and sedative effects tend to persist for 2 to 4 hours, although alertness may be affected for up to 12 hours.
Following intravenous administration, plasma concentrations fall rapidly during the first 15 minutes; this is metabolism independent, redistribution of the drug. Plasma protein binding amounts to 85–90%. The distribution volume is approximately 1.5 l/kg.
Droperidol is extensively metabolised in the liver, and undergoes oxidation, dealkylation, demethylation and hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 1A2 and 3A4, and to a lesser extent by 2C19. The metabolites are devoid of neuroleptic activity.
Elimination occurs mainly through metabolism; 75% is excreted via the kidneys. Only 1% of the active substance is excreted unchanged with urine, and 11% with faeces. Plasma clearance is 0.8 (0.4 - 1.8) l/min. The elimination half-life (t½ß) is 134 ± 13 min.
In a study of 12 children (age 3.5 to 12 years), the values for distribution volume and clearance reported were lower than those found in the adult population (0.58 ± 0.29 l/kg and 4.66 ± 2.28 ml/kg*min respectively) and decrease in parallel. The elimination half-life (101.5 ± 26.4 min) was similar to that found in adults.
Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of repeated dose toxicity, genotoxic or carcinogenic potential, and reproductive toxicity.
Electrophysiological in vitro and in vivo studies indicate an overall risk of droperidol to prolong the QT interval in humans.
In humans, the free peak plasma concentration is approximately 4-fold higher to 25-fold lower than the droperidol concentrations affecting the endpoints examined in the different in vitro and in vivo test systems used to assess the impact of this drug on cardiac repolarisation. Plasma levels fall by about one order of magnitude over the first twenty minutes after administration.
Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA)
This product is unlikely to represent a risk to the environment following its prescribed use in patients.
Sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment)
Water for injections
Incompatible with barbiturates. This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in section 6.6.
Unopened: 3 years.
After first opening: For immediate use.
Following dilution: Compatibility of droperidol with morphine sulphate in 0.9% sodium chloride (14 days at room temperature) has been demonstrated in plastic syringes. From a microbiological point of view, the diluted product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2 to 8 °C, unless dilution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.
Store in the original package in order to protect from light.
For storage conditions after dilution, and first opening of the medicinal product, see section 6.3.
Type I amber glass ampoules containing 1 ml solution for injection, in packs of 10 ampoules.
For single use only. Any unused solution should be discarded.
The solution should be inspected visually prior to use. Only clear and colourless solutions free from visible particles should be used.
For use in PCA: Draw droperidol and morphine into a syringe and make up the volume with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Kyowa Kirin Ltd
Galabank Business Park
Tel. +44 (0)1896 664000
11. LEGAL CLASSIFICATION
Galabank Business Park, Galashiels, TD1 1QH
+ 44 (0)1896 664 000