Maxolon Tablets 10mg

Summary of Product Characteristics Updated 27-Feb-2019 | ADVANZ Pharma

1. Name of the medicinal product

Maxolon 10mg Tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each tablet contains Metoclopramide Hydrochloride BP 10mg equivalent to 10mg of the anhydrous substance.

Excipients with known effect:

Lactose: contains 125.00 mg of lactose per tablet

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1

3. Pharmaceutical form

White to ivory-white circular double convex tablet with a single break bar on one side.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Adult population

Maxolon is indicated in adults for:

- Prevention of delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)

- Prevention of radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (RINV).

- Symptomatic treatment of nausea and vomiting, including acute migraine induced nausea and vomiting. Metoclopramide can be used in combination with oral analgesics to improve the absorption of analgesics in acute migraine.

Diagnostic procedures:

Radiology,

Duodenal intubation

'Maxolon' speeds up the passage of a barium meal by increasing the rate of gastric emptying, co-ordinating peristalsis and dilating the duodenal bulb.

'Maxolon' also facilitates duodenal intubation procedures.

Paediatric population

Maxolon is indicated in children (aged 1-18 years) for:

- Prevention of delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) as a second line option

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology:

Adult patients

The recommended single dose is 10 mg, repeated up to three times daily.

The maximum recommended daily dose is 30 mg or 0.5mg/kg body weight.

The maximum recommended treatment duration is 5 days.

Paediatric population:

The safety and efficacy of Maxolon in children below 1 year has not yet been established (see section 4.3).

Prevention of delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) (paediatric patients aged 1-18 years)

The recommended dose is 0.1 to 0.15 mg/kg body weight, repeated up to three times daily by oral route. The maximum dose in 24 hours is 0.5mg/kg body weight.

Dosing table

Age

Body Weight

Dose

Frequency

1-3 years

10-14 kg

1 mg

Up to 3 times daily

3-5 years

15-19 kg

2 mg

Up to 3 times daily

5-9 years

20-29 kg

2.5 mg

Up to 3 times daily

9-18 years

30-60 kg

5 mg

Up to 3 times daily

15-18 years

Over 60kg

10 mg

Up to 3 times daily

The maximum treatment duration is 5 days for prevention of delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

Tablets are not suitable for use in children weighing less than 61 kg. Other pharmaceutical forms/strengths may be more appropriate for administration to this population.

A minimal interval of 6 hours between two administrations is to be respected, even in case of vomiting or rejection of the dose (see section 4.4).

Special population

Elderly

In elderly patients a dose reduction should be considered, based on renal and hepatic function and overall frailty.

Patients with Renal impairment:

In patients with end stage renal disease (Creatinine clearance ≤ 15 ml/min), the daily dose should be reduced by 75%.

In patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (Creatinine clearance 15-60 ml/min), the dose should be reduced by 50% (see section 5.2).

Patients with Hepatic impairment:

In patients with severe hepatic impairment, the dose should be reduced by 50% (see section 5.2).

Other pharmaceutical forms/strengths may be more appropriate for administration to these populations.

Diagnostic indications:

A single dose of 'Maxolon' may be given 5-10 minutes before the examination, subject to body weight consideration, (see above).

Method of administration:

For oral use only.

4.3 Contraindications

- Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1

- Gastrointestinal haemorrhage, mechanical obstruction or gastro-intestinal perforation for which the stimulation of gastrointestinal motility constitutes a risk

- Confirmed or suspected pheochromocytoma, due to the risk of severe hypertension episodes

- History of neuroleptic or metoclopramide-induced tardive dyskinesia

- Epilepsy (increased crises frequency and intensity)

- Parkinson's disease

- Combination with levodopa or dopaminergic agonists (see section 4.5)

- Known history of methaemoglobinaemia with metoclopramide or of NADH cytochrome-b5 deficiency.

- Use in children less than 1 year of age due to an increased risk of extrapyramidal disorders (see section 4.4)

'Maxolon' should not be used during the first three to four days following operations such as pyloroplasty or gut anastomosis as vigorous muscular contractions may not help healing.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Precautions:

If vomiting persists the patient should be reassessed to exclude the possibility of an underlying disorder e.g. cerebral irritation.

Neurological Disorders

Extrapyramidal disorders may occur, particularly in children and young adults, and/or when high doses are used. These reactions occur usually at the beginning of the treatment and can occur after a single administration. Metoclopramide should be discontinued immediately in the event of extrapyramidal symptoms. These effects are generally completely reversible after treatment discontinuation, but may require a symptomatic treatment (benzodiazepines in children and/or anticholinergic anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products in adults).

The time interval of at least 6 hours specified in the section 4.2 should be respected between each metoclopramide administration, even in case of vomiting and rejection of the dose, in order to avoid overdose.

Prolonged treatment with metoclopramide may cause tardive dyskinesia, potentially irreversible, especially in the elderly. Treatment should not exceed 3 months because of the risk of tardive dyskinesia (see section 4.8). Treatment must be discontinued if clinical signs of tardive dyskinesia appear.

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome has been reported with metoclopramide in combination with neuroleptics as well as with metoclopramide monotherapy (see section 4.8). Metoclopramide should be discontinued immediately in the event of symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and appropriate treatment should be initiated.

Special care should be exercised in patients with underlying neurological conditions and in patients being treated with other centrally-acting drugs (see section 4.3)

Symptoms of Parkinson's disease may also be exacerbated by metoclopramide.

Methaemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia which could be related to NADH cytochrome b5 reductase deficiency has been reported. In such cases, metoclopramide should be immediately and permanently discontinued and appropriate measures initiated (such as treatment with methylene blue).

Cardiac Disorders

There have been reports of serious cardiovascular undesirable effects including cases of circulatory collapse, severe bradycardia, cardiac arrest and QT prolongation following administration of metoclopramide by injection, particularly via the intravenous route (see section 4.8).

Special care should be taken when administering metoclopramide, particularly via the intravenous route to the elderly population, to patients with cardiac conduction disturbances (including QT prolongation), patients with uncorrected electrolyte imbalance, bradycardia and those taking other drugs known to prolong QT interval. Intravenous doses should be administered as a slow bolus (at least over 3 minutes) in order to reduce the risk of adverse effects (e.g. hypotension, akathisia).

Renal and Hepatic Impairment

In patients with renal impairment or with severe hepatic impairment, a dose reduction is recommended (see section 4.2).

Metoclopramide may cause elevation of serum prolactin levels.

Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactose deficiency of glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Care should be exercised when using Maxolon in patients with a history of atopy (including asthma) or porphyria.

Metoclopramide should not be used in the immediate post-operative period (up to 3-4 days) following pyloroplasty or gut anastomosis, as vigorous gastrointestinal contractions may adversely affect healing.

Special care should be taken when administering Maxolon intravenously to patients with “sick sinus syndrome” or other cardiac conduction disturbances.

There have been very rare reports of abnormalities of cardiac conduction with intravenous metoclopramide. Maxolon should be used with care with other drugs affecting cardiac conduction.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Contraindicated combination

Levodopa or dopaminergic agonists and metoclopramide have a mutual antagonism (see section 4.3).

Combination to be avoided

Alcohol potentiates the sedative effect of metoclopramide.

Combination to be taken into account

Due to the prokinetic effect of metoclopramide, the absorption of certain drugs may be modified.

Anticholinergics and morphine derivatives

Anticholinergics and morphine derivatives may have both a mutual antagonism with metoclopramide on the digestive tract motility.

Central nervous system depressants (morphine derivatives, anxiolytics, sedative H1 antihistamines, sedative antidepressants, barbiturates, clonidine and related)

Sedative effects of Central Nervous System depressants and metoclopramide are potentiated.

Neuroleptics

Metoclopramide may have an additive effect with other neuroleptics on the occurrence of extrapyramidal disorders.

Serotonergic drugs

The use of metoclopramide with serotonergic drugs such as SSRIs may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.

Digoxin

Metoclopramide may decrease digoxin bioavailability. Careful monitoring of digoxin plasma concentration is required.

Cyclosporine

Metoclopramide increases cyclosporine bioavailability (Cmax by 46% and exposure by 22%). Careful monitoring of cyclosporine plasma concentration is required. The clinical consequence is uncertain.

Mivacurium and suxamethonium

Metoclopramide injection may prolong the duration of neuromuscular block (through inhibition of plasma cholinesterase).

Strong CYP2D6 inhibitors

Metoclopramide exposure levels are increased when co-administered with strong CYP2D6 inhibitors such as fluoxetine and paroxetine. Although the clinical significance is uncertain, patients should be monitored for adverse reactions.

'Maxolon' may reduce plasma concentrations of atovaquone.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

A large amount of data on pregnant women (more than 1000 exposed outcomes) indicates no malformative toxicity nor foetotoxicity. Metoclopramide can be used during pregnancy if clinically needed. Due to pharmacological properties (as other neuroleptics), in case of metoclopramide administration at the end of pregnancy, extrapyramidal syndrome in new born cannot be excluded.

Metoclopramide should be avoided at the end of pregnancy. If metoclopramide is used, neonatal monitoring should be undertaken.

Breast-feeding

Metoclopramide is excreted in breast milk at low level. Adverse reactions in the breast-fed baby cannot be excluded. Therefore metoclopramide is not recommended during breastfeeding. Discontinuation of metoclopramide in breast-feeding women should be considered.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Maxolon has moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Metoclopramide may cause drowsiness, dizziness, dyskinesia and dystonias which could affect the vision and also interfere with the ability to drive and operate machinery.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Adverse reactions listed by System Organ Class. Frequencies are defined using the following convention: very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1000 to<1/100), rare (≥1/10000 to<1/1000), very rare (<1/10000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse reactions

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Not known

Methaemoglobinaemia, which could be related to NADH cytochrome b5 reductase deficiency, particularly in neonates (see section 4.4);

Sulfhaemoglobinaemia, mainly with concomitant administration of high doses of sulphur-releasing medicinal products

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon

Bradycardia, particularly with intravenous formulation

Not known

Cardiac arrest, occurring shortly after injectable use, and which can be subsequent to bradycardia (see section 4.4);

Atrioventricular block, Sinus arrest particularly with intravenous formulation;

Electrocardiogram QT prolonged; Torsade de Pointes;

Endocrine disorders*

Uncommon

Amenorrhoea, Hyperprolactinaemia,

Rare

Galactorrhoea

Not known

Gynaecomastia

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Diarrhoea

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common

Asthenia

Immune system disorders

Uncommon

Hypersensitivity

Not known

Anaphylactic reaction (including anaphylactic shock particularly with intravenous formulation

Nervous system disorders

Very common

Somnolence

Common

Extrapyramidal disorders (particularly in children and young adults and/or when the recommended dose is exceeded, even following administration of a single dose of the drug) (see section 4.4), Parkinsonism, Akathisia

Uncommon

Dystonia including oculogyric crisis, Dyskinesia, Depressed level of consciousness

Rare

Convulsion especially in epileptic patients

Not known

Tardive dyskinesia which may be persistent, during or after prolonged treatment, particularly in elderly patients (see section 4.4), Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (see section 4.4)

Psychiatric disorders

Common

Depression

Uncommon

Hallucination

Rare

Confusional state

Vascular disorder

Common:

Hypotension, particularly with intravenous formulation

Not known

Shock, syncope after injectable use, Acute hypertension in patients with phaeochromocytoma (see section 4.3) Transient increase in blood pressure

* Endocrine disorders during prolonged treatment in relation with hyperprolactinaemia (amenorrhoea, galactorrhoea, gynaecomastia).

The following reactions, sometimes associated, occur more frequently when high doses are used:

- Extrapyramidal symptoms: acute dystonia and dyskinesia, parkinsonian syndrome, akathisia, even following administration of a single dose of the medicinal product, particularly in children and young adults (see section 4.4).

- Drowsiness, decreased level of consciousness, confusion and hallucination.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/ risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via-

Yellow Card Scheme Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms

Extrapyramidal disorders, drowsiness, decreased level of consciousness, confusion, hallucination, and cardio-respiratory arrest may occur.

Management

In case of extrapyramidal symptoms related or not to overdose, the treatment is only symptomatic (benzodiazepines in children and/or anticholinergic anti-parkinsonian medicinal products in adults).

A symptomatic treatment and a continuous monitoring of the cardiovascular and respiratory functions should be carried out according to clinical status.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

ATC Code: A03FA01 (Drugs For Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders- Propulsives)

Mechanism of action

The action of metoclopramide is closely associated with parasympathetic nervous control of the upper gastro-intestinal tract where it has the effect of encouraging normal peristaltic action. This provides for a fundamental approach to the control of those conditions where disturbed gastrointestinal motility is a common underlying factor.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Metoclopramide is metabolised in the liver and the predominant route of elimination of metoclopramide and its metabolites is via the kidney.

Renal impairment

The clearance of metoclopramide is reduced by up to 70% in patients with severe renal impairment, while the plasma elimination half-life is increased (approximately 10 hours for a creatinine clearance of 10-50 mL/minute and 15 hours for a creatinine clearance <10 mL/minute).

Hepatic impairment

In patients with cirrhosis of the liver, accumulation of metoclopramide has been observed, associated with a 50% reduction in plasma clearance.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

No additional data available.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Maize starch (dried)

Colloidal silicon dioxide

Magnesium stearate

Pregelatinised maize starch

Lactose.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

Sixty months.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 30°C

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Standard aluminium containers of 3, 6, 9, 12, 100 or 500 tablets.

Plastic reclosable containers packed into carton of 42, 84, 100 or 500 tablets.

Amber glass bottles of 100 or 500 tablets.

PVC blister (300 microns) of 20, 21, 42 or 84 tablets backed with aluminium foil (20 microns). The underside of the foils is coated with vinyl based laquer.

PVC (200 microns) / PVDC (60gsm) blister of 20, 21, 42 or 84 tablets.

Standard aluminium canister for 12 tablets packed with one ampoule of Maxolon injection as a home visit pack.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special requirements for disposal.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Amdipharm UK Limited

Capital House, 85 King William Street,

London EC4N 7BL, UK

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 20072/0048

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

16 June 1995

10. Date of revision of the text

December 2018

Company Contact Details
ADVANZ Pharma
Address

Capital House, 1st Floor, 85 King William Street, London, EC4N 7BL, UK

Telephone

+44 (0)208 588 9131

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08700 70 30 33

Customer Care direct line

+44 (0)208 588 9273

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www.advanzpharma.com

Fax

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