This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

DAPSONE TABLETS BP 50mg

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each tablet contains 50mg Dapsone PhEur.

3. Pharmaceutical form

White uncoated tablets.

White, circular, biconvex uncoated tablets impressed "C" on one face and the identifying letters "DP" on either side of a central division line on the reverse.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

1) As part of a multi-drug regimen in the treatment of all forms of leprosy.

2) Treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis and other dermatoses.

3) Prophylaxis of malaria in combination with pyrimethamine.

4) Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunodeficient subjects, especially AIDS patients.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults and children over 12 years:

Multibacillary leprosy (3-drug regimen): 100mg daily for at least two years.

Paucibacillary leprosy (2-drug regimen): 100mg daily for at least six months.

Malaria prophylaxis: 100mg weekly with 12.5mg pyrimethamine.

Dermatitis herpetiformis: Initially 50mg daily, gradually increased to 300mg daily if required. Once lesions have begun to subside, the dose should be reduced to a minimum as soon as possible, usually 25-50mg daily, which may be continued for a number of years. Maintenance dosage can often be reduced in patients receiving a gluten-free diet.

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: In combination with trimethoprim, 50-100mg daily; 100mg twice weekly or 200mg once weekly.

Children 6-12 years:

Multibacillary leprosy (3-drug regimen): 50mg daily for at least two years.

Paucibacillary leprosy (2-drug regimen): 50mg daily for at least six months.

Elderly: Dosage should be reduced in the elderly where there is an impairment of hepatic function.

Method of Administration

For oral administration.

4.3 Contraindications

Known hypersensitivity to sulfonamides, sulfones, or any of the excipients; severe anaemia; porphyria; severe glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Dapsone contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactose deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Dapsone should be used with caution in patients with cardiac or pulmonary disease.

It is recommended that regular blood counts be performed during treatment with dapsone. Patients deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, or methaemoglobin reductase, or with haemoglobin M are more susceptible to the haemolytic effects of dapsone.

Dapsone should be used with caution in anaemia. Severe anaemia should be treated before starting Dapsone.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Excretion of dapsone is reduced and plasma concentrations are increased by concurrent administration of probenecid. Rifampicin has been reported to increase the plasma clearance of dapsone.

Increased dapsone and trimethoprim concentrations have been reported following concurrent administration in AIDs patients.

4.6 Pregnancy and lactation

It is now generally considered that the benefits of dapsone in the treatment of leprosy outweigh any potential risk to the pregnant patient. Some leprologists recommend 5mg folic acid daily for leprosy patients receiving dapsone during pregnancy.

Dapsone diffuses into breast milk and there has been a report of haemolytic anaemia in a breast fed infant. While some feel that dapsone should not be used in lactating mothers, in general treatment for leprosy is continued in such patients.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

None known.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Dapsone should be discontinued or reduced in dosage if severe lepra reactions affecting the eyes or nerve trunks occur.

Varying degrees of dose-related haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia are the most frequently reported adverse effects of dapsone and occur in most subjects given more than 200mg daily; doses of up to 100mg daily do not cause significant haemolysis but subjects deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are affected by doses above about 50mg daily. Hypoalbuminaemia and haemolytic anaemia has also been reported.

Although agranulocytosis has been reported rarely with dapsone when used alone, reports have been more common when dapsone has been used with other agents in the prophylaxis of malaria.

Rash, photosensitivity and pruritis may develop. Serious cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions occur rarely and include maculopapular rash, exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Fixed drug eruptions have occurred.

A "dapsone syndrome" may occur after 3-6 weeks therapy; symptoms include rash, which is always present, fever, and eosinophilia. If dapsone is not stopped immediately, the syndrome may progress to exfoliative dermatitis, hepatitis, albuminuria and psychosis. Deaths have been recorded. Most patients require steroid therapy for several weeks, possibly due to the prolonged elimination time of the drug.

Peripheral neuropathy with motor loss has been reported in patients on dapsone for dermatological conditions. Peripheral neuropathy may occur as part of leprosy reaction states and it is not an indication to discontinue dapsone. Other adverse effects occur infrequently and include anorexia, headache, hepatitis, jaundice, changes in liver function tests, insomnia, nausea, psychosis, tachycardia and vomiting.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme; website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms are hypoxia, methaemoglobinaemia and haemolytic anaemia. In severe overdosage the stomach should be emptied by gastric lavage. Administration of activated charcoal by mouth has been shown to enhance the elimination of dapsone and its monoacetyl metabolite. Methaemoglobinaemia has been treated with slow IV injections of methylene blue 1-2mg/kg bodyweight, repeated after one hour if necessary. Methylene blue should not be administered to patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency since it will not be effective. Haemolysis has been treated by infusion of concentrated human red blood cells to replace the damaged cells.

Supportive therapy includes oxygen to alleviate hypoxia, and administration of fluids to maintain renal flow and promote the elimination of dapsone.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Dapsone is a sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria.

Dapsones mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the sulfonamides which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is usually considered to be bacteriostatic against M leprae although it may also possess weak bactericidal activity. It is also active against Plasmodium and Pneumocystis carinii. As with sulfonamides, antibacterial activity is inhibited by p-aminobenzoic acid.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Dapsone is almost completely absorbed from the GI tract with peak plasma concentrations occurring about 2-8 hours after a dose. Steady-state concentrations are not obtained until after at least 8 days of daily administration; doses of 100mg daily provide trough concentrations of 0.5 micrograms/ml. About 50-80% of dapsone in the circulation is bound to plasma proteins and nearly 100% of its monoacetylated metabolite is bound. Dapsone undergoes enterohepatic recycling. It is widely distributed; is present in saliva, breast milk and crosses the placenta. The half-life ranges from 10-80 hours. Dapsone is acetylated to monoacetyldapsone, the major metabolite, and other mono and diacetyl derivatives. Acetylation exhibits genetic polymorphism. Hydroxylation is the other major metabolite pathway resulting in hydroxylamine dapsone which may be responsible for dapsone-associated methaemoglobinaemia and haemolysis. Dapsone is mainly excreted in the urine, only 20% of a dose as unchanged drug.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

There are no pre-clinical data of relevance to the prescriber which are additional to that already included in other sections of the SPC.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Also contains:

Lactose

Magnesium stearate

Maize starch

Sodium lauryl sulfate

6.2 Incompatibilities

None known.

6.3 Shelf life

PVC Blister Packs

Three years.

All other packs

Eighteen months.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store below 25°C in a dry place.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

The product containers are rigid injection moulded polypropylene or injection blow-moulded polyethylene containers with polyfoam wad or polyethylene ullage filler and snap-on polyethylene lids; in case any supply difficulties should arise the alternative is amber glass containers with screw caps and polyfoam wad or cotton wool.

The product may also be supplied in blister packs in cartons:

a) Carton: Printed carton manufactured from white folding box board.

b) Blister pack: (i) 250µm white rigid PVC. (ii) Surface printed 20µm hard temper aluminium foil with 5-7g/M2 PVC and PVdC compatible heat seal lacquer on the reverse side.

Pack sizes: 7s, 10s, 14s, 21s, 28s, 30s, 56s, 60s, 84s, 100s, 112s, 250s, 500s, 1000s, 5000s.

Product may also be supplied in bulk packs, for reassembly purposes only, in polybags contained in tins, skillets or polybuckets filled with suitable cushioning material. Bulk packs are included for temporary storage of the finished product before final packaging into the proposed marketing containers.

Maximum size of bulk packs: 200,000.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Not applicable.

Administrative Data

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Accord-UK Ltd

(Trading style: Accord)

Whiddon Valley

Barnstaple

Devon

EX32 8NS

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 0142/6609 R

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

November 1988; November 1993

Renewed: 17.11.93, 28.1.99

10. Date of revision of the text

30/08/2019