- sildenafil citrate
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Use in adults:The recommended dose is 50 mg taken as needed approximately one hour before sexual activity. Based on efficacy and toleration, the dose may be increased to 100 mg or decreased to 25 mg. The maximum recommended dose is 100 mg. The maximum recommended dosing frequency is once per day. If Vizarsin is taken with food, the onset of activity may be delayed compared to the fasted state (see section 5.2).
Use in the elderly:Dosage adjustments are not required in elderly patients.
Use in patients with impaired renal function:The dosing recommendations described in 'Use in adults' apply to patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance = 30-80 ml/min).Since sildenafil clearance is reduced in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min) a 25 mg dose should be considered. Based on efficacy and toleration, the dose may be increased to 50 mg and 100 mg.
Use in patients with impaired hepatic function:Since sildenafil clearance is reduced in patients with hepatic impairment (e.g. cirrhosis) a 25 mg dose should be considered. Based on efficacy and toleration, the dose may be increased to 50 mg and 100 mg.
Use in children and adolescents:Vizarsin is not indicated for individuals below 18 years of age.
Use in patients using other medicines:With the exception of ritonavir for which co-administration with sildenafil is not advised (see section 4.4) a starting dose of 25 mg should be considered in patients receiving concomitant treatment with CYP3A4 inhibitors (see section 4.5).In order to minimise the potential for developing postural hypotension, patients should be stable on alpha-blocker therapy prior to initiating sildenafil treatment. In addition, initiation of sildenafil at a dose of 25 mg should be considered (see sections 4.4 and 4.5).
Effects of other medicinal products on sildenafilIn vitro studies:Sildenafil metabolism is principally mediated by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 3A4 (major route) and 2C9 (minor route). Therefore, inhibitors of these isoenzymes may reduce sildenafil clearance.In vivo studies:Population pharmacokinetic analysis of clinical trial data indicated a reduction in sildenafil clearance when co-administered with CYP3A4 inhibitors (such as ketoconazole, erythromycin, cimetidine). Although no increased incidence of adverse events was observed in these patients, when sildenafil is administered concomitantly with CYP3A4 inhibitors, a starting dose of 25 mg should be considered.Co-administration of the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir, which is a highly potent P450 inhibitor, at steady state (500 mg twice daily) with sildenafil (100 mg single dose) resulted in a 300% (4-fold) increase in sildenafil Cmax and a 1,000% (11-fold) increase in sildenafil plasma AUC. At 24 hours, the plasma levels of sildenafil were still approximately 200 ng/ml, compared to approximately 5 ng/ml when sildenafil was administered alone. This is consistent with ritonavir's marked effects on a broad range of P450 substrates. Sildenafil had no effect on ritonavir pharmacokinetics. Based on these pharmacokinetic results co-administration of sildenafil with ritonavir is not advised (see section 4.4) and in any event the maximum dose of sildenafil should under no circumstances exceed 25 mg within 48 hours.Co-administration of the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, at steady state (1200 mg three times a day) with sildenafil (100 mg single dose) resulted in a 140% increase in sildenafil Cmax and a 210% increase in sildenafil AUC. Sildenafil had no effect on saquinavir pharmacokinetics (see section 4.2). Stronger CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ketoconazole and itraconazole would be expected to have greater effects.When a single 100 mg dose of sildenafil was administered with erythromycin, a specific CYP3A4 inhibitor, at steady state (500 mg twice daily for 5 days), there was a 182% increase in sildenafil systemic exposure (AUC). In normal healthy male volunteers, there was no evidence of an effect of azithromycin (500 mg daily for 3 days) on the AUC, Cmax, tmax, elimination rate constant, or subsequent half-life of sildenafil or its principal circulating metabolite. Cimetidine (800 mg), a cytochrome P450 inhibitor and non-specific CYP3A4 inhibitor, caused a 56% increase in plasma sildenafil concentrations when co-administered with sildenafil (50 mg) to healthy volunteers.Grapefruit juice is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 gut wall metabolism and may give rise to modest increases in plasma levels of sildenafil.Single doses of antacid (magnesium hydroxide/aluminium hydroxide) did not affect the bioavailability of sildenafil.Although specific interaction studies were not conducted for all medicinal products, population pharmacokinetic analysis showed no effect of concomitant medication on sildenafil pharmacokinetics when grouped as CYP2C9 inhibitors (such as tolbutamide, warfarin, phenytoin), CYP2D6 inhibitors (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants), thiazide and related diuretics, loop and potassium sparing diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists or inducers of CYP450 metabolism (such as rifampicin, barbiturates).Nicorandil is a hybrid of potassium channel activator and nitrate. Due to the nitrate component it has the potential to have serious interaction with sildenafil.
Effects of sildenafil on other medicinal productsIn vitro studies:Sildenafil is a weak inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 (IC50 > 150 μM). Given sildenafil peak plasma concentrations of approximately 1 μM after recommended doses, it is unlikely that sildenafil will alter the clearance of substrates of these isoenzymes.There are no data on the interaction of sildenafil and non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as theophylline or dipyridamole.
In vivo studies:Consistent with its known effects on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway (see section 5.1), sildenafil was shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of nitrates, and its co-administration with nitric oxide donors or nitrates in any form is therefore contraindicated (see section 4.3).Concomitant administration of sildenafil to patients taking alpha-blocker therapy may lead to symptomatic hypotension in a few susceptible individuals. This is most likely to occur within 4 hours post sildenafil dosing (see sections 4.2 and 4.4). In three specific drug-drug interaction studies, the alpha-blocker doxazosin (4 mg and 8 mg) and sildenafil (25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg) were administered simultaneously to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stabilized on doxazosin therapy.In these study populations, mean additional reductions of supine blood pressure of 7/7 mmHg, 9/5 mmHg, and 8/4 mmHg, and mean additional reductions of standing blood pressure of 6/6 mmHg, 11/4 mmHg, and 4/5 mmHg, respectively, were observed. When sildenafil and doxazosin were administered simultaneously to patients stabilized on doxazosin therapy, there were infrequent reports of patients who experienced symptomatic postural hypotension. These reports included dizziness and light-headedness, but not syncope.No significant interactions were shown when sildenafil (50 mg) was co-administered with tolbutamide (250 mg) or warfarin (40 mg), both of which are metabolised by CYP2C9.Sildenafil (50 mg) did not potentiate the increase in bleeding time caused by acetyl salicylic acid (150 mg).Sildenafil (50 mg) did not potentiate the hypotensive effects of alcohol in healthy volunteers with mean maximum blood alcohol levels of 80 mg/dl.Pooling of the following classes of antihypertensive medication; diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, antihypertensive medicinal products (vasodilator and centrally-acting), adrenergic neurone blockers, calcium channel blockers and alpha-adrenoceptor blockers, showed no difference in the side effect profile in patients taking sildenafil compared to placebo treatment. In a specific interaction study, where sildenafil (100 mg) was co-administered with amlodipine in hypertensive patients, there was an additional reduction on supine systolic blood pressure of 8 mmHg. The corresponding additional reduction in supine diastolic blood pressure was 7 mmHg. These additional blood pressure reductions were of a similar magnitude to those seen when sildenafil was administered alone to healthy volunteers (see section 5.1).Sildenafil (100 mg) did not affect the steady state pharmacokinetics of the HIV protease inhibitors, saquinavir and ritonavir, both of which are CYP3A4 substrates.
|System Organ Class||Adverse Reactions|
|Immune system disorders|
|Nervous system disorders|
|Rare||Cerebrovascular accident, Syncope|
|Not known||Transient ischaemic attack, Seizure, Seizure recurrence|
|Common||Visual disorders, Visual colour distortion|
|Uncommon||Conjunctival disorders, Eye Disorders, Lacrimation Disorders, Other Eye Disorders|
|Not known||Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION), Retinal vascular occlusion, Visual field defect|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders|
|Rare||Myocardial infarction, Atrial fibrillation|
|Not known||Ventricular arrhythmia, Unstable angina, Sudden cardiac death|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|Uncommon||Vomiting, Nausea, Dry mouth|
|Skin, subcutaneous and soft tissue disorders|
|Not known||Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS), Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN)|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|Renal and urinary disorders|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders|
|Uncommon||Haematospermia, Penile haemorrhage|
|Not known||Priapism, Prolonged erection|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|Uncommon||Chest pain, Fatigue|
|Uncommon||Heart rate increased|
SymptomsIn single dose volunteer studies of doses up to 800 mg, adverse reactions were similar to those seen at lower doses, but the incidence rates and severities were increased. Doses of 200 mg did not result in increased efficacy but the incidence of adverse reactions (headache, flushing, dizziness, dyspepsia, nasal congestion, altered vision) was increased.
ManagementIn cases of overdose, standard supportive measures should be adopted as required. Renal dialysis is not expected to accelerate clearance as sildenafil is highly bound to plasma proteins and not eliminated in the urine.
Further information on clinical trialsIn clinical trials sildenafil was administered to more than 8000 patients aged 19-87. The following patient groups were represented: elderly (19.9%), patients with hypertension (30.9%), diabetes mellitus (20.3%), ischaemic heart disease (5.8%), hyperlipidaemia (19.8%), spinal cord injury (0.6%), depression (5.2%), transurethral resection of the prostate (3.7%), radical prostatectomy (3.3%). The following groups were not well represented or excluded from clinical trials: patients with pelvic surgery, patients post-radiotherapy, patients with severe renal or hepatic impairment and patients with certain cardiovascular conditions (see section 4.3).In fixed dose studies, the proportions of patients reporting that treatment improved their erections were 62% (25 mg), 74% (50 mg) and 82% (100 mg) compared to 25% on placebo. In controlled clinical trials, the discontinuation rate due to sildenafil was low and similar to placebo.Across all trials, the proportion of patients reporting improvement on sildenafil were as follows: psychogenic erectile dysfunction (84%), mixed erectile dysfunction (77%), organic erectile dysfunction (68%), elderly (67%), diabetes mellitus (59%), ischaemic heart disease (69%), hypertension (68%), TURP (61%), radical prostatectomy (43%), spinal cord injury (83%), depression (75%). The safety and efficacy of sildenafil was maintained in long term studies.
AbsorptionSildenafil is rapidly absorbed. Maximum observed plasma concentrations are reached within 30 to 120 minutes (median 60 minutes) of oral dosing in the fasted state. The mean absolute oral bioavailability is 41% (range 25-63%). After oral dosing of sildenafil AUC and Cmax increase in proportion with dose over the recommended dose range (25-100 mg).When sildenafil is taken with food, the rate of absorption is reduced with a mean delay in tmax of 60 minutes and a mean reduction in Cmax of 29%.
DistributionThe mean steady state volume of distribution (Vd) for sildenafil is 105 l, indicating distribution into the tissues. After a single oral dose of 100 mg, the mean maximum total plasma concentration of sildenafil is approximately 440 ng/ml (CV 40%). Since sildenafil (and its major circulating N-desmethyl metabolite) is 96% bound to plasma proteins, this results in the mean maximum free plasma concentration for sildenafil of 18 ng/ml (38 nM). Protein binding is independent of total drug concentrations.In healthy volunteers receiving sildenafil (100 mg single dose), less than 0.0002% (average 188 ng) of the administered dose was present in ejaculate 90 minutes after dosing.
BiotransformationSildenafil is cleared predominantly by the CYP3A4 (major route) and CYP2C9 (minor route) hepatic microsomal isoenzymes. The major circulating metabolite results from N-demethylation of sildenafil. This metabolite has a phosphodiesterase selectivity profile similar to sildenafil and an in vitro potency for PDE5 approximately 50% that of the parent drug. Plasma concentrations of this metabolite are approximately 40% of those seen for sildenafil. The N-desmethyl metabolite is further metabolised, with a terminal half-life of approximately 4 h.
EliminationThe total body clearance of sildenafil is 41 l/h with a resultant terminal phase half-life of 3-5 h. After either oral or intravenous administration, sildenafil is excreted as metabolites predominantly in the faeces (approximately 80% of administered oral dose) and to a lesser extent in the urine (approximately 13% of administered oral dose).
Pharmacokinetics in special patient groups
Elderly:Healthy elderly volunteers (65 years or over) had a reduced clearance of sildenafil, resulting in approximately 90% higher plasma concentrations of sildenafil and the active N-desmethyl metabolite compared to those seen in healthy younger volunteers (18-45 years). Due to age-differences in plasma protein binding, the corresponding increase in free sildenafil plasma concentration was approximately 40%.
Renal insufficiency:In volunteers with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance = 30-80 ml/min), the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil were not altered after receiving a 50 mg single oral dose. The mean AUC and Cmax of the N-desmethyl metabolite increased 126% and 73% respectively, compared to age-matched volunteers with no renal impairment. However, due to high inter-subject variability, these differences were not statistically significant. In volunteers with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min), sildenafil clearance was reduced, resulting in mean increases in AUC and Cmax of 100% and 88% respectively compared to age-matched volunteers with no renal impairment. In addition, N-desmethyl metabolite AUC and Cmax values were significantly increased 79% and 200% respectively.
Hepatic insufficiency:In volunteers with mild to moderate hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A and B) sildenafil clearance was reduced, resulting in increases in AUC (84%) and Cmax (47%) compared to age-matched volunteers with no hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in patients with severely impaired hepatic function have not been studied.
Tablet core:Microcrystalline cellulose (E460)Anhydrous calcium hydrogen phosphateCroscarmellose sodiumHypromellose (E464)Magnesium stearate (E572)
Film coating:Lactose monohydrateHypromellose (E464)Titanium dioxide (E171)Triacetin (E1518)