- venlafaxine hydrochloride
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Major depressive episodesThe recommended starting dose of immediate-release venlafaxine is 75mg/day in two or three divided doses taken with food. Patients not responding to the initial 75mg/day dose may benefit from dose increases up to a maximum dose of 375mg/day. Dosage increases can be made at intervals of 2 weeks or more. If clinically warranted due to symptom severity, dose increases can be made at more frequent intervals, but not less than 4 days.Because of the risk of dose-related adverse effects, dose increments should be made only after a clinical evaluation (see section 4.4). The lowest effective dose should be maintained.Patients should be treated for a sufficient period of time, usually several months or longer. Treatment should be reassessed regularly on a case-by-case basis. Longer-term treatment may also be appropriate for prevention of recurrence of major depressive episodes (MDE). In most of the cases, the recommended dose in prevention of recurrence of MDE is the same as the one used during the current episode.Antidepressive medicinal products should continue for at least six months following remission.
Use in elderly patientsNo specific dose adjustments of venlafaxine are considered necessary based on patient age alone.However, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (e.g., due to the possibility of renal impairment, the potential for changes in neurotransmitter sensitivity and affinity occurring with aging). The lowest effective dose should always be used, and patients should be carefully monitored when an increase in the dose is required.
Use in children and adolescents under the age of 18 yearsVenlafaxine is not recommended for use in children and adolescents.Controlled clinical studies in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder failed to demonstrate efficacy and do not support the use of venlafaxine in these patients (see sections 4.4 and 4.8).The efficacy and safety of venlafaxine for other indications in children and adolescents under the age of 18 have not been established.
Use in patients with hepatic impairmentIn patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment, in general a 50% dose reduction should be considered. However, due to inter-individual variability in clearance, individualisation of dosage may be desirable.There are limited data in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Caution is advised, and a dose reduction by more than 50% should be considered. The potential benefit should be weighed against the risk in the treatment of patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Use in patients with renal impairmentAlthough no change in dosage is necessary for patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between 30-70ml/minute, caution is advised. For patients that require haemodialysis and in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR < 30ml/min), the dose should be reduced by 50%. Because of inter-individual variability in clearance in these patients, individualisation of dosage may be desirable.
Withdrawal symptoms seen on discontinuation of venlafaxineAbrupt discontinuation should be avoided. When stopping treatment with venlafaxine, the dose should be gradually reduced over a period of at least one to two weeks in order to reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions (see sections 4.4 and 4.8). If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose, but at a more gradual rate.For oral use.It is recommended that venlafaxine immediate-release tablets be taken with food, at approximately the same time each day.Patients treated with venlafaxine immediate-release tablets may be switched to venlafaxine prolonged-release capsules at the nearest equivalent daily dosage. For example, venlafaxine immediate-release tablets 37.5mg twice daily may be switched to venlafaxine prolonged-release capsules 75mg once daily. Individual dosage adjustments may be necessary.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)
Irreversible non-selective MAOIsVenlafaxine must not be used in combination with irreversible non-selective MAOIs. Venlafaxine must not be initiated for at least 14 days after discontinuation of treatment with an irreversible non-selective MAOI. Venlafaxine must be discontinued for at least 7 days before starting treatment with an irreversible non-selective MAOI (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
Reversible, selective MAO-A inhibitor (moclobemide)Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, the combination of venlafaxine with a reversible and selective MAOI, such as moclobemide, is not recommended. Following treatment with a reversible MAO-inhibitor, a shorter withdrawal period than 14 days may be used before initiation of venlafaxine treatment. It is recommended that venlafaxine should be discontinued for at least 7 days before starting treatment with a reversible MAOI (see section 4.4).
Reversible, non-selective MAOI (linezolid)The antibiotic linezolid is a weak reversible and non-selective MAOI and should not be given to patients treated with venlafaxine (see section 4.4).Severe adverse reactions have been reported in patients who have recently been discontinued from an MAOI and started on venlafaxine, or have recently had venlafaxine therapy discontinued prior to initiation of an MAOI. These reactions have included tremor, myoclonus, diaphoresis, nausea, vomiting, flushing, dizziness, and hyperthermia with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome, seizures, and death.
Serotonin syndromeAs with other serotonergic agents, serotonin syndrome may occur with venlafaxine treatment, particularly with concomitant use of other agents that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system (including triptans, SSRIs, SNRIs, lithium, sibutramine, tramadol, or St. John's Wort [Hypericum perforatum]), with medicinal agents which impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAOIs), or with serotonin precursors (such as tryptophan supplements).If concomitant treatment of venlafaxine with an SSRI, an SNRI or a serotonin receptor agonist (triptan) is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. The concomitant use of venlafaxine with serotonin precursors (such as tryptophan supplements) is not recommended (see section 4.4).
CNS-active substancesThe risk of using venlafaxine in combination with other CNS-active substances has not been systematically evaluated. Consequently, caution is advised when venlafaxine is taken in combination with other CNS-active substances.
EthanolVenlafaxine has been shown not to increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by ethanol. However, as with all CNS-active substances, patients should be advised to avoid alcohol consumption.
Effect of other medicinal products on venlafaxine
Ketoconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitor)A pharmacokinetic study with ketoconazole in CYP2D6 extensive (EM) and poor metabolisers (PM) resulted in higher AUC of venlafaxine (70% and 21% in CYP2D6 PM and EM subjects, respectively) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (33% and 23% in CYP2D6 PM and EM subjects, respectively) following administration of ketoconazole. Concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, ketoconazole, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin) and venlafaxine may increase levels of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine. Therefore, caution is advised if a patient's therapy includes a CYP3A4 inhibitor and venlafaxine concomitantly.
Effect of venlafaxine on other medicinal products
LithiumSerotonin syndrome may occur with the concomitant use of venlafaxine and lithium (see Serotonin syndrome).
DiazepamVenlafaxine has no effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diazepam and its active metabolite, desmethyldiazepam. Diazepam does not appear to affect the pharmacokinetics of either venlafaxine or O-desmethylvenlafaxine. It is unknown whether a pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction with other benzodiazepines exists.
ImipramineVenlafaxine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of imipramine and 2-OH-imipramine. There was a dose-dependent increase of 2-OH-desipramine AUC by 2.5 to 4.5-fold when venlafaxine 75mg to 150mg daily was administered. Imipramine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine. The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown. Caution should be exercised with co-administration of venlafaxine and imipramine.
HaloperidolA pharmacokinetic study with haloperidol has shown a 42% decrease in total oral clearance, a 70% increase in AUC, an 88% increase in Cmax, but no change in half-life for haloperidol. This should be taken into account in patients treated with haloperidol and venlafaxine concomitantly. The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown.
RisperidoneVenlafaxine increased the risperidone AUC by 50%, but did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic profile of the total active moiety (risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone). The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown.
MetoprololConcomitant administration of venlafaxine and metoprolol to healthy volunteers in a pharmacokinetic interaction study for both medicinal products resulted in an increase of plasma concentrations of metoprolol by approximately 30-40% without altering the plasma concentrations of its active metabolite, α-hydroxymetoprolol. The clinical relevance of this finding in hypertensive patients is unknown. Metoprolol did not alter the pharmacokinetic profile of venlafaxine or its active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine. Caution should be exercised with co-administration of venlafaxine and metoprolol.
IndinavirA pharmacokinetic study with indinavir has shown a 28% decrease in AUC and a 36% decrease in Cmax for indinavir. Indinavir did not affect the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine. The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown.
PregnancyThere are no adequate data from the use of venlafaxine in pregnant women.Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Venlafaxine must only be administered to pregnant women if the expected benefits outweigh any possible risk.As with other serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs/SNRIs), discontinuation symptoms may occur in the newborns if venlafaxine is used until or shortly before birth. Some newborns exposed to venlafaxine late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring tube-feeding, respiratory support or prolonged hospitalisation. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery.The following symptoms may be observed in neonates if the mother has used an SSRI/SNRI late in pregnancy: irritability, tremor, hypotonia, persistent crying, and difficulty in sucking or in sleeping. These symptoms may be due to either serotonergic effects or exposure symptoms. In the majority of cases, these complications are observed immediately or within 24 hours after partus.Epidemiological data have suggested that the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, particularly in late pregnancy, may increase the risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn (PPHN). Although no studies have investigated an association of PPHN to SNRI treatment, this potential risk cannot be ruled out with venlafaxine taking into account the related mechanism of action (inhibition of the re-uptake of serotonin).
LactationVenlafaxine and its active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, are excreted in breast milk. There have been post-marketing reports of breast-fed infants who experienced crying, irritability, and abnormal sleep patterns. Symptoms consistent with venlafaxine drug discontinuation have also been reported after stopping breast-feeding. A risk to the suckling child cannot be excluded. Therefore, a decision to continue/discontinue breast-feeding or to continue/discontinue therapy with venlafaxine should be made, taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding to the child and the benefit of venlafaxine therapy to the woman.
|Body System||Very Common||Common||Uncommon||Rare||Not Known|
|Haematological / Lymphatic||Ecchymosis, Gastrointestinal haemorrhage||Mucous membrane bleeding, Prolonged bleeding time, Thrombocytopaenia, Blood dyscrasias, (including agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, neutropaenia and pancytopaenia)|
|Metabolic/ Nutritional||Serum cholesterol increased, Weight loss||Weight gain||Abnormal liver function tests, Hyponatraemia, Hepatitis, Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH), Prolactin increased|
|Nervous||Dry mouth (10.0%), Headache (30.3%)*||Abnormal dreams, Decreased libido, Dizziness, Increased muscle tonus (hypertonia), Insomnia, Nervousness, Paresthesia, Sedation, Tremor, Confusion, Depersonalisation||Apathy, Hallucinations, Myoclonus, Agitation, Impaired coordination and balance||Akathisia/ Psychomotor restlessness, Convulsion, Manic reaction||Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS), Serotonergic syndrome, Delirium, Extrapyramidal reactions (including dystonia and dyskinaesia), Tardive dyskinaesia, Suicidal ideation and behaviours** Vertigo, Aggression***|
|Special Senses||Abnormality of accommodation, Mydriasis, Visual disturbance||Altered taste sensation, Tinnitus||Angle-closure glaucoma|
|Cardiovascular||Hypertension, Vasodilatation (mostly hot flashes/flushes), Palpitations||Postural hypotension, Syncope, Tachycardia||Hypotension, QT prolongation, Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular tachycardia (including torsade de pointes)|
|Digestive||Nausea (20.0%)||Appetite decreased (anorexia), Constipation, Vomiting||Bruxism, Diarrhoea||Pancreatitis|
|Skin||Sweating (including night sweats) [12.2%]||Rash, Alopecia||Erythema multiforme, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Pruritus, Urticaria|
|Urogenital||Abnormal ejaculation/orgasm (males), Anorgasmia, Erectile dysfunction (impotence), Urination impaired (mostly hesitancy), Menstrual disorders associated with increased bleeding or increased irregular bleeding (e.g., menorrhagia, metrorrhagia), Pollakiuria||Abnormal orgasm (females), Urinary retention||Urinary incontinence||Urogenital|
|Body as a Whole||Asthenia (fatigue), Chills||Angioedema, Photosensitivity reaction||Anaphylaxis|
Paediatric patientsIn general, the adverse reaction profile of venlafaxine (in placebo-controlled clinical trials) in children and adolescents (ages 6 to 17) was similar to that seen for adults. As with adults, decreased appetite, weight loss, increased blood pressure, and increased serum cholesterol were observed (see section 4.4).In paediatric clinical trials the adverse reaction suicidal ideation was observed. There were also increased reports of hostility and, especially in major depressive disorder, self-harm.Particularly, the following adverse reactions were observed in paediatric patients: abdominal pain, agitation, dyspepsia, ecchymosis, epistaxis, and myalgia.Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme; website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
Recommended treatmentGeneral supportive and symptomatic measures are recommended; cardiac rhythm and vital signs must be monitored. When there is a risk of aspiration, induction of emesis is not recommended. Gastric lavage may be indicated if performed soon after ingestion or in symptomatic patients. Administration of activated charcoal may also limit absorption of the active substance. Forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidotes for venlafaxine are known.
Major depressive episodesThe efficacy of venlafaxine immediate-release as a treatment for major depressive episodes was demonstrated in five randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, short-term trials ranging from 4 to 6 weeks duration, for doses up to 375mg/day. The efficacy of venlafaxine prolonged-release as a treatment for major depressive episodes was established in two placebo-controlled, short-term studies for 8 and 12 weeks duration, which included a dose range of 75 to 225mg/day.In one longer-term study, adult outpatients who had responded during an 8-week open trial on venlafaxine prolonged-release (75, 150, or 225mg) were randomised to continuation of their same venlafaxine prolonged-release dose or to placebo, for up to 26 weeks of observation for relapse.In a second longer-term study, the efficacy of venlafaxine in prevention of recurrent depressive episodes for a 12-month period was established in a placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial in adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive episodes who had responded to venlafaxine treatment (100 to 200mg/day, on a b.i.d. schedule) on the last episode of depression.
AbsorptionAt least 92% of venlafaxine is absorbed following single oral doses of immediate-release venlafaxine. Absolute bioavailability is 40% to 45% due to presystemic metabolism. After immediate-release venlafaxine administration, the peak plasma concentrations of venlafaxine and ODV occur in 2 and 3 hours, respectively. Following the administration of venlafaxine prolonged-release capsules, peak plasma concentrations of venlafaxine and ODV are attained within 5.5 hours and 9 hours, respectively. When equal daily doses of venlafaxine are administered as either an immediate-release tablet or prolonged-release capsule, the prolonged-release capsule provides a slower rate of absorption, but the same extent of absorption compared with the immediate-release tablet. Food does not affect the bioavailability of venlafaxine and ODV.
DistributionVenlafaxine and ODV are minimally bound at therapeutic concentrations to human plasma proteins (27% and 30%, respectively). The volume of distribution for venlafaxine at steady-state is 4.4±1.6 L/kg following intravenous administration.
MetabolismVenlafaxine undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that venlafaxine is biotransformed to its major active metabolite, ODV, by CYP2D6. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that venlafaxine is metabolised to a minor, less active metabolite, N-desmethylvenlafaxine, by CYP3A4. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that venlafaxine is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. Venlafaxine did not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, or CYP3A4.
EliminationVenlafaxine and its metabolites are excreted primarily through the kidneys. Approximately 87% of a venlafaxine dose is recovered in the urine within 48 hours as either unchanged venlafaxine (5%), unconjugated ODV (29%), conjugated ODV (26%), or other minor inactive metabolites (27%).Mean ± SD plasma steady-state clearances of venlafaxine and ODV are 1.3±0.6L/h/kg and 0.4±0.2L/h/kg, respectively.
Age and genderSubject age and gender do not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine and ODV.
CYP2D6 extensive/poor metabolisersPlasma concentrations of venlafaxine are higher in CYP2D6 poor metabolisers than extensive metabolisers. Because the total exposure (AUC) of venlafaxine and ODV is similar in poor and extensive metabolisers, there is no need for different venlafaxine dosing regimens for these two groups.
Patients with hepatic impairmentIn Child-Pugh A (mildly hepatically impaired) and Child-Pugh B (moderately hepatically impaired) subjects, venlafaxine and ODV half-lives were prolonged compared to normal subjects. The oral clearance of both venlafaxine and ODV was reduced. A large degree of intersubject variability was noted. There are limited data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.2).
Patients with renal impairmentIn dialysis patients, venlafaxine elimination half-life was prolonged by about 180% and clearance reduced by about 57% compared to normal subjects, while ODV elimination half-life was prolonged by about 142% and clearance reduced by about 56%. Dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with severe renal impairment and in patients that require haemodialysis (see section 4.2).
Tablet Core:Lactose monohydrateMicrocrystalline celluloseCroscarmellose sodiumPovidone K30Magnesium stearate
Tablet Coating:Opadry 03B23319 Orange containing;Hypromellose 6 cPTitanium dioxide (E171)Macrogol / PEG 400Sunset yellow FCF lake (E110)