This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

ReoPro 2 mg/mL solution for injection or infusion.

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

ReoPro 2 mg/mL contains 10 mg abciximab in 5 mL water for injection. Abciximab is the Fab fragment of a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody manufactured from a recombinant cell line cultured by continuous perfusion.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Solution for injection or infusion

ReoPro is a colourless and clear liquid.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

ReoPro is indicated in adults as an adjunct to heparin and acetylsalicylic acid for:

Percutaneous coronary intervention

The prevention of ischemic cardiac complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (balloon angioplasty, atherectomy and stent) (see section 5.1)

Unstable angina

The short-term (1-month) reduction of the risk of myocardial infarction, in patients with unstable angina, not responding to full conventional therapy who have been scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults

The recommended dose of ReoPro is a 0.25 mg/kg intravenous bolus immediately followed by a 0.125 µg/kg/min (to a maximum of 10 µg/min) continuous intravenous infusion.

For the stabilisation of unstable angina patients, the bolus dose followed by the infusion should be started up to 24 hours prior to the possible intervention and concluded 12 hours after the intervention.

For the prevention of ischemic cardiac complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and who are not currently receiving a ReoPro infusion, the bolus should be administered 10 to 60 minutes prior to the intervention followed by the infusion for 12 hours.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of ReoPro in children aged less than 18 years have not been established.

No data are available.

Method of administration

ReoPro is for intravenous administration in adults.

ReoPro should only be administered in conjunction with extensive specialist medical and nursing care. In addition, there must be availability of laboratory tests of haematology function and facilities for administration of blood products.

For instructions on dilution of the medicinal product before administration, see section 6.6.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1 or to murine monoclonal antibodies or to papain. Trace amounts of papain resulting from the production process may be present.

Because inhibition of platelet aggregation increases the risk of bleeding, ReoPro is contraindicated in the following clinical situations: active internal bleeding; history of cerebrovascular accident within two years; recent (within two months) intracranial or intraspinal surgery or trauma; recent (within two months) major surgery; intracranial neoplasm, arteriovenous malformation or aneurysm; known bleeding diathesis or severe uncontrolled hypertension; pre-existing thrombocytopenia; vasculitis; hypertensive retinopathy; severe hepatic failure.

Since there are only limited data available, use of ReoPro in severe renal failure patients requiring haemodialysis is contraindicated (see section 4.4, paragraph on Renal disease).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Careful assessment of risk:benefit should be made in individual patients before commencing therapy with ReoPro. A favourable risk:benefit has not been established in low risk patients > 65 years of age.

Concomitant acetylsalicylic acid and heparin therapy

ReoPro should be used as an adjunct to acetylsalicylic acid and heparin therapy

Concomitant acetylsalicylic acid therapy

Acetylsalicylic acid should be administered orally at a daily dose of approximately but not less than 300 mg.

Concomitant heparin therapy for percutaneous coronary intervention

Heparin bolus Pre-PTCA

If a patient's activated clotting time (ACT) is less than 200 seconds prior to the start of the PTCA procedure, an initial bolus of heparin should be given upon gaining arterial access according to the following algorithm:

ACT < 150 seconds: administer 70 U/kg

ACT 150-199 seconds: administer 50 U/kg

The initial heparin bolus dose should not exceed 7,000 U.

ACT should be checked a minimum of 2 minutes after the heparin bolus. If the ACT is < 200 seconds, additional heparin boluses of 20 U/kg may be administered. Should the ACT remain < 200 seconds, additional 20 U/kg boluses are to be given until an ACT ≥ 200 seconds is achieved.

Should a situation arise where higher doses of heparin are considered clinically necessary in spite of the possibility of a greater bleeding risk, it is recommended that heparin be carefully titrated using weight-adjusted boluses and that the target ACT not exceed 300 seconds.

Heparin bolus during PTCA

During the PTCA procedure, ACT should be checked every 30 minutes. If ACT is < 200 seconds, additional heparin boluses of 20 U/kg may be administered. Should the ACT remain < 200 seconds, additional 20 U/kg boluses may be given until an ACT ≥ 200 seconds is achieved. ACT should be checked prior to and a minimum of 2 minutes after each heparin bolus.

As an alternative to giving additional boluses as described above, a continuous heparin infusion may be initiated after the initial heparin bolus doses achieve the ACT target ≥ 200 seconds at a rate of 7 U/kg/hour and continued for the duration of the procedure.

Heparin infusion after PTCA

Discontinuation of heparin immediately following completion of the procedure, with removal of the arterial sheath within 6 hours, is strongly recommended. In individual patients, if prolonged heparin therapy after PTCA or later sheath removal is used, then an initial infusion rate of 7 U/kg/hr is recommended (see paragraph on Bleeding Precautions - Femoral artery access site). In all circumstances, heparin should be discontinued at least 2 hours prior to arterial sheath removal.

Concomitant heparin therapy for stabilisation of unstable angina

Anticoagulation should be initiated with heparin to a target APTT of 60-85 seconds. The heparin infusion should be maintained during the ReoPro infusion. Following angioplasty, heparin management is outlined as described in the paragraph on Concomitant heparin therapy for percutaneous coronary intervention.

Bleeding precautions

Administration of ReoPro may be associated with an increase in bleeding events, rarely including those with a fatal outcome.

Potential bleeding sites

Careful attention should be paid to all potential bleeding sites, including arterial and venous puncture sites, catheter insertion sites, cut down sites, and needle puncture sites.

Femoral artery access site

ReoPro is associated with an increase in bleeding rate particularly at the site of arterial access for femoral artery sheath placement. The following are specific recommendations for access site care:

• Femoral artery sheath insertion

o When appropriate, place only an arterial sheath for vascular access (avoid venous sheath placement).

o Puncture only the anterior wall of the artery or vein when establishing vascular access.

o The use of a through and through technique to identify the vascular structure is strongly discouraged.

• While femoral artery sheath is in place

o Check sheath insertion site and distal pulses of affected leg(s) every 15 minutes for 1 hour, then hourly for 6 hours.

o Maintain complete bed rest with head of bed ≤ 30°.

o Maintain affected leg(s) straight via sheet tuck method or soft restraint.

o Medicate for back/groin pain as necessary.

o Educate patient on post-PTCA care via verbal instructions.

• Femoral artery sheath removal

o Heparin should be discontinued at least 2 hours prior to arterial sheath removal.

o Check APTT or ACT prior to arterial sheath removal: do not remove sheath unless APTT ≤ 50 seconds or ACT ≤ 175 seconds.

o Apply pressure to access site for at least 30 minutes following sheath removal, using either manual compression or a mechanical device.

o Apply pressure dressing after haemostasis has been achieved.

• After femoral artery sheath removal

o Check groin for bleeding/haematoma and distal pulses every 15 minutes for the first hour or until stable, then hourly for 6 hours following sheath removal.

o Continue complete bed rest with head of bed ≤ 30° and affected leg(s) straight for 6-8 hours following femoral artery sheath removal, 6-8 hours following discontinuation of ReoPro or 4 hours following discontinuation of heparin, whichever is later.

o Remove pressure dressing prior to ambulation.

o Continue to medicate for discomfort.

• Management of femoral access site bleeding/haematoma formation:

o In the event of groin bleeding with or without haematoma formation, the following procedures are recommended:

o Lower head of bed to 0°

o Apply manual pressure/compression device until haemostasis has been achieved.

o Any haematoma should be measured and monitored for enlargement.

o Change pressure dressing as needed.

o If heparin is being given, obtain APTT and adjust heparin as needed.

o Maintain intravenous access if sheath has been removed.

If groin bleed continues or the haematoma expands during ReoPro infusion despite the above measures, the ReoPro infusion should be immediately discontinued and the arterial sheath removed according to the guidelines listed above. After sheath removal intravenous access should be maintained until bleeding is controlled (see paragraph on Transfusion to restore platelet function).

Retroperitoneal bleeding

ReoPro is associated with an increased risk of retroperitoneal bleeding in association with femoral vascular puncture. The use of venous sheaths should be minimised and only the anterior wall of the artery or vein should be punctured when establishing vascular access (see paragraph on Bleeding Precautions - Femoral Artery Access Site).

Pulmonary (mostly alveolar) haemorrhage

ReoPro has rarely been associated with pulmonary (mostly alveolar) haemorrhage. This can present with any or all of the following in close association with ReoPro administration: hypoxemia, alveolar infiltrates on chest x-ray, haemoptysis, or an unexplained drop in haemoglobin. If confirmed, ReoPro and all anticoagulant and other antiplatelet medicinal products should immediately be discontinued.

GI bleeding prophylaxis

In order to prevent spontaneous GI bleeding it is recommended that patients are pretreated with H2-histamine receptor antagonists or liquid antacids. Antiemetics should be given as needed to prevent vomiting.

General nursing care

Unnecessary arterial and venous punctures, intramuscular injections, routine use of urinary catheters, nasotracheal intubation, nasogastric tubes and automatic blood pressure cuffs should be avoided. When obtaining intravenous access, non-compressible sites (e.g. subclavian or jugular veins) should be avoided. Sodium chloride solution or heparin locks should be considered for blood drawing. Vascular puncture sites should be documented and monitored. Gentle care should be provided when removing dressings.

Patient monitoring

Before administration of ReoPro, platelet count, ACT, prothrombin time (PT) and APTT should be measured to identify pre-existing coagulation abnormalities. Additional platelet counts should be taken 2-4 hours following the bolus dose and at 24 hours. Haemoglobin and haematocrit measurements should be obtained prior to the ReoPro administration, at 12 hours following the ReoPro bolus injection, and again at 24 hours following the bolus injection. Twelve lead electrocardiograms (ECG) should be obtained prior to the bolus injection of ReoPro, and repeated once the patient has returned to the hospital ward from the catheterization laboratory, and at 24 hours after the bolus injection of ReoPro. Vital signs (including blood pressure and pulse) should be obtained hourly for the first 4 hours following the ReoPro bolus injection, and then at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours following the ReoPro bolus injection.

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia, including severe thrombocytopenia, has been observed with ReoPro administration (See section 4.8). In clinical studies, most cases of severe thrombocytopenia (< 50,000 cells/μL) occurred within the first 24 hours of ReoPro administration.

To evaluate the possibility of thrombocytopenia, platelet counts should be monitored prior to treatment, 2 to 4 hours following the bolus dose of ReoPro and at 24 hours. If a patient experiences an acute platelet decrease, additional platelet counts should be determined. These platelet counts should be drawn in three separate tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citrate and heparin, respectively, to exclude pseudothrombocytopenia, due to in vitro anticoagulant interaction. If true thrombocytopenia is verified, ReoPro should be immediately discontinued and the condition appropriately monitored and treated. A daily platelet count should be obtained until it returns to normal. If a patient's platelet count drops to 60,000 cells/µL, heparin and acetylsalicylic acid should be discontinued. If a patient's platelet count drops below 50,000 cells/µL, transfusion of platelets should be considered, especially if the patient is bleeding and/or invasive procedures are planned or ongoing. If the patient's platelet count drops below 20,000 cells/µL, platelets should be transfused. The decision to use platelet transfusion should be based upon clinical judgment on an individual basis. Thrombocytopenia has been observed at higher rates following readministration (see paragraph on Readministration).

Transfusion to restore platelet function

In the event of serious uncontrolled bleeding or the need for emergency surgery, ReoPro should be discontinued.

In the majority of patients, bleeding time returns to normal within 12 hours. If bleeding time remains prolonged and/or there is a marked inhibition of platelet function and/or if rapid haemostasis is required and/or in case(s) where haemostasis is not adequately restored, consideration should be given to seeking advice of a haematologist experienced in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Transfusion of donor platelets has been shown to restore platelet function following ReoPro administration in animal studies and transfusions of fresh random donor platelets have been given empirically to restore platelet function in humans.

When considering the need to transfuse patients, the patient's intravascular volume should be assessed. If hypovolaemic, then the intravascular volume should be adequately restored with crystalloids. In asymptomatic patients, normovolaemic anaemia (haemoglobin 7-10 g/dL) can be well tolerated; transfusion is not indicated unless a deterioration in vital signs is seen or unless the patient develops signs and symptoms. In symptomatic patients (e.g., syncope, dyspnoea, postural hypotension, tachycardia), crystalloids should be used to replace intravascular volume.

If symptoms persist, the patient should receive transfusions with packed red blood cells or whole blood on a unit-by-unit basis to relieve symptoms; one unit may be sufficient.

If rapid haemostasis is required, therapeutic doses of platelets may be administered (at least 5.5 x 1011 platelets). Redistribution of ReoPro from endogenous platelet receptors to platelets, which have been transfused, may take place. A single transfusion may be sufficient to reduce receptor blockade to 60% to 70% at which level platelet function is restored. Repeat platelet transfusions may be required to maintain haemostasis.

Specific guidelines for access site bleeding are given above under the paragraph on Bleeding precautions - Femoral artery access site.

Use of thrombolytics, anticoagulants and other antiplatelet agents

Because ReoPro inhibits platelet aggregation, caution should be employed when used with other medicinal products affecting haemostasis such as heparin or low molecular weight dextrans, oral anticoagulants such as warfarin, thrombolytics and antiplatelet agents other than acetylsalicylic acid, such as P2Y12 inhibitors (e.g., ticlopidine, clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor) and dipyridamole (see section 4.5).

Data in patients receiving thrombolytics suggest an increase in the risk of bleeding when ReoPro is administered to patients treated with thrombolytics at doses sufficient to produce a systemic fibrinolytic state. Therefore, the use of ReoPro therapy for rescue angioplasty in those patients that have received systemic thrombolytic therapy should only be considered after careful consideration of the risks and benefits for each patient. The risk of bleeding and ICH appears higher the sooner ReoPro is administered after the application of the thrombolytic (see section 4.8, paragraph on Other vascular disorders).

If urgent intervention is required for refractory symptoms in a patient receiving ReoPro (or who has received the medicinal product in the previous 48 hours), it is recommended that PTCA be attempted first to salvage the situation. Prior to further surgical interventions, the bleeding time should be determined and should be 12 minutes or less. Should PTCA and any other appropriate procedures fail, and should the angiographic appearance suggest that the aetiology is due to thrombosis, consideration may be given to the administration of adjunctive thrombolytic therapy via the intracoronary route. A systemic fibrinolytic state should be avoided if at all possible.

Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity reactions should be anticipated whenever protein solutions such as ReoPro are administered. Adrenaline, dopamine, theophylline, antihistamines and corticosteroids should be available for immediate use. If symptoms of an allergic reaction or anaphylaxis appear, the infusion should be stopped immediately. Subcutaneous administration of 0.3 to 0.5 mL of aqueous adrenaline (1:1000 dilution), and use of corticosteroids, respiratory assistance and other resuscitative measures are essential.

Hypersensitivity or allergic reactions have been observed rarely following treatment with ReoPro. Anaphylactic reactions (sometimes fatal) have been reported very rarely and may potentially occur at any time during administration.

Readministration

Administration of ReoPro may result in the formation of human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA) that could potentially cause allergic or hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis), thrombocytopenia or diminished benefit upon readministration (see section 4.8, paragraph on Readministration).

Available evidence suggests that human antibodies to other monoclonal antibodies do not cross-react with ReoPro.

Thrombocytopenia was observed at higher rates in a readministration study than in the phase III studies of first-time administration, suggesting that readministration may be associated with an increased incidence and severity of thrombocytopenia (see section 4.8, paragraph on Readministration).

Renal Disease

Benefits may be reduced in patients with renal disease. The use of ReoPro in patients with severe renal failure should only be considered after careful appraisal of the risks and benefits. Because the potential risk of bleeding is increased in patients with severe renal disease, patients should be more frequently monitored for bleeding. In the event serious bleeding occurs platelet transfusion should be considered (see paragraph on Bleeding precautions - Transfusion to restore platelet function). In addition the bleeding precautions as described above should be taken into consideration.

Use of ReoPro in patients receiving dialysis is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

ReoPro has been formally studied as an adjunct to heparin and acetylsalicylic acid treatment. In the presence of ReoPro, heparin is associated with an increase in the incidence of bleeding. Limited experience with ReoPro in patients who have received thrombolytics suggests an increase in the risk of bleeding. Although there have been no formal studies of ReoPro with other commonly used cardiovascular medicinal products, in clinical studies there have been no adverse reactions associated with concomitant use of other medicinal products used in the treatment of angina, myocardial infarction or hypertension nor with common intravenous infusion fluids. These medicinal products have included warfarin (before and following but not during PTCA), beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, calcium channel antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and intravenous and oral nitrates.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

It is also not known whether abciximab can cause foetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. ReoPro should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.

Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding of infants should be discontinued in breastfeeding mothers since the secretion of abciximab in animal or human breast milk has not been studied.

Fertility

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with ReoPro. It is also not known whether abciximab can affect reproduction capacity.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Not relevant.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

The most frequent adverse reactions are bleeding, back pain, hypotension, nausea, chest pain, vomiting, headache, bradycardia, fever (pyrexia), puncture site pain and thrombocytopenia. Cardiac tamponade, pulmonary (mostly alveolar) haemorrhage and adult respiratory distress syndrome have been reported rarely.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The adverse reactions listed in Table 1 are based on experience from clinical studies and from world-wide post-marketing use of abciximab. Within the organ system classes, adverse reactions are listed under headings of frequency using the following convention: Very common ((≥ 1/10); Common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); Uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); Rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); Very rare (< 1/10,000); Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Table 1

Tabulated list of ADRs*

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Common:

Thrombocytopenia

Immune system disorders

Rare:

Anaphylactic reaction, hypersensitivity/allergic reactions,

Nervous system disorders

Common:

Headache

Cardiac disorders

Common:

Bradycardia

Rare:

Cardiac tamponade

Vascular disorders

Common:

Bleeding, hypotension, peripheral oedema

Uncommon:

Intracranial haemorrhage

Rare:

Fatal bleeding

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Rare:

Adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary haemorrhage

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common:

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage, nausea, vomiting

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Common:

Back pain

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common:

Chest pain, pyrexia, puncture site pain, abdominal pain

* See section 4.4

Description of selected adverse reactions

Bleeding

In the EPIC study, in which a non-weight-adjusted, standard heparin dose regimen was used, the most common complication during ReoPro therapy was bleeding during the first 36 hours. The incidences of major bleeding, minor bleeding and transfusion of blood products were approximately doubled. In patients who had major bleeding, 67% had bleeding associated with the arterial access site in the groin.

Major and minor bleeding are defined as follows:

Major bleeding: Decrease in haemoglobin > 5 g/dL

Minor bleeding: Spontaneous gross haematuria or haematemesis, or observed blood loss with a haemoglobin decrease > 3 g/dL, or a decrease in haemoglobin ≥ 4 g/dL with no observed blood loss.

In a subsequent clinical study, EPILOG, using the heparin regimen, sheath removal and femoral access care guidelines outlined in section 4.4, paragraph on Bleeding precautions, the incidence of major bleeding not associated with CABG surgery in patients treated with ReoPro (1.1%) was not different from patients receiving placebo (1.1%) and there was no significant increase in the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage. The reduction in major bleeding observed in the EPILOG study was achieved without loss of efficacy. Likewise, in the EPISTENT study, the incidence of major bleeding not associated with CABG surgery in patients receiving ReoPro plus balloon angioplasty (0.6%) or ReoPro with stent placement (0.8%) was not significantly different from patients receiving placebo with stent placement (1.0%). In the CAPTURE study, which did not use the low-dose heparin regimen, the incidence of major bleeding not associated with CABG surgery was higher in patients receiving ReoPro (3.8%) than in patients receiving placebo (1.9%).

Although data are limited, ReoPro treatment was not associated with excess major bleeding in patients who underwent CABG surgery. Some patients with prolonged bleeding times received platelet transfusions to correct the bleeding time prior to surgery (see section 4.4, paragraph on Transfusion to restore platelet function).

Other vascular disorders

Clinical studies suggest that adherence to the currently recommended, weight adjusted heparin regimen is associated with a lower risk of intracranial haemorrhage than previous (higher dose, non-weight-adjusted) protocols. The total incidence of intracranial haemorrhage and non-haemorrhagic stroke in all 4 pivotal studies was similar, 9/3023 (0.30%) for placebo patients and 15/4680 (0.32%) for ReoPro treated patients. The incidence of intracranial haemorrhage was 0.10% in placebo patients and 0.15% in ReoPro patients.

The GUSTO V study randomised 16,588 patients with acute myocardial infarction to treatment with combined ReoPro and half-dose reteplase or full dose reteplase alone. The incidence of moderate or severe non-intracranial bleeding was increased in those patients receiving ReoPro and half-dose reteplase versus those receiving reteplase alone (4.6% versus 2.3% respectively).

Thrombocytopenia

Patients treated with ReoPro were more likely to experience thrombocytopenia (platelet counts less than 100,000 cells/μL) than placebo patients. The incidence in the EPILOG and EPISTENT studies using ReoPro with the recommended low-dose, weight-adjusted heparin regimen was 2.8% and 1.1% in placebo-treated patients. Thrombocytopenia has been observed at higher rates following readministration (see paragraph below on Readministration).

Readministration

Human antichimeric antibody (HACA) formation appeared, generally as a low titre, in approximately 5% to 6% of patients 2 to 4 weeks after receiving a first exposure to ReoPro in the Phase III clinical studies.

Readministration of ReoPro to patients undergoing PTCA was assessed in a registry that included 1342 treatments in 1286 patients. Most patients were receiving their second ReoPro exposure; 15% were receiving the third or subsequent exposure. The overall rate of HACA positivity prior to the readministration was 6% and increased to 27% post-readministration.

In a readministration registry study of patients receiving a second or subsequent exposure to ReoPro, the incidence of any degree of thrombocytopenia was 5%, with an incidence of profound thrombocytopenia of 2% (< 20,000 cell/μL). Factors associated with an increased risk of thrombocytopenia were a history of thrombocytopenia on previous ReoPro exposure, readministration within 30 days, and a positive HACA assay prior to the readministration.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

4.9 Overdose

There has been no experience of adverse events associated with overdose.

However, in the event of acute allergic reactions, thrombocytopenia or uncontrolled bleeding the administration of ReoPro should be immediately discontinued (see section 4.4, paragraphs on Hypersensitivity and Thrombocytopenia). In the event of thrombocytopenia or uncontrolled bleeding, platelet transfusion is recommended (see section 4.4, paragraph on Transfusion to restore platelet function).

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: antithrombotic agents, platelet aggregation inhibitors excl. heparin, ATC code: B01A C13.

Mechanism of action

ReoPro is the Fab fragment of the chimeric monoclonal antibody 7E3. It is directed against the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (αIIbß3) receptor located on the surface of human platelets. ReoPro inhibits platelet aggregation by preventing the binding of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and other adhesive molecules to GPIIb/IIIa receptor sites on activated platelets. ReoPro also binds to the vitronectin receptor (αvß3) found on platelets and endothelial cells.

The vitronectin receptor mediates the pro-coagulant properties of platelets and proliferative properties of vessel wall endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Because of its dual specificity, ReoPro more effectively blocks the burst of thrombin generation that follows platelet activation than agents which inhibit GPIIb/IIIa alone.

Clinical efficacy

In a phase I clinical study intravenous administration in humans of single bolus doses of ReoPro from 0.15 mg/kg to 0.30 mg/kg produced rapid dose-dependent inhibition of platelet function as measured by ex vivo platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or by prolongation of bleeding time. At the two highest doses (0.25 and 0.30 mg/kg) at 2 hours post injection, over 80% of the GPIIb/IIIa receptors were blocked and platelet aggregation in response to 20 µM ADP was almost abolished. Published data have shown that this level of platelet inhibition was established within 10 minutes of administration. In the phase I study, the median bleeding time increased to over 30 minutes at both doses compared with a baseline value of approximately 5 minutes. The 80% level of receptor blockade was selected as a target for pharmacological efficacy because animal models of severe coronary stenosis have shown that platelet inhibition associated with this degree of blockade prevents platelet thrombosis.

Intravenous administration in humans of a single bolus dose of 0.25 mg/kg followed by a continuous infusion of 10 µg/min for periods of 12 to 96 hours produced sustained high-grade GPIIb/IIIa receptor blockade (≥ 80%) and inhibition of platelet function (ex vivo platelet aggregation in response to 20 µM ADP less than 20% of baseline and bleeding time greater than 30 minutes) for the duration of the infusion in most patients. Equivalent results were obtained when a weight adjusted infusion dose (0.125 µg/kg/min to a maximum of 10 µg/min) was used in patients up to 80 kg. Results in patients who received the 0.25 mg/kg bolus followed by a 5 µg/min infusion for 24 hours showed a similar initial receptor blockade and inhibition of platelet aggregation, but the response was not maintained throughout the infusion period. Although low levels of GPIIb/IIIa receptor blockade are present for more than 10 days following cessation of the infusion, platelet function typically returned to normal over a period of 24 to 48 hours.

In clinical studies, ReoPro has demonstrated marked effects in reducing the thrombotic complications of coronary interventions such as balloon angioplasty, atherectomy and stent placement. These effects were observed within hours of the intervention and sustained for 30 days in the EPIC, EPILOG, EPISTENT and CAPTURE studies. In the EPIC study, which enrolled high-risk angioplasty patients, and in the two intervention studies which enrolled mainly high-risk angioplasty patients EPILOG (36% low risk and 64% high risk) and EPISTENT (27% low risk and 73% high risk), the infusion dose was continued for 12 hours after the procedure and the reduction in the composite endpoint of death, MI or repeat intervention was sustained for the period of follow up, 3 years (EPIC) 1 year (EPILOG) and 1 year (EPISTENT), respectively. In the EPIC study, the reduction in the composite endpoint was derived primarily from the effect on MI and both urgent and non-urgent revascularizations. In the EPILOG and EPISTENT studies, the reduction in the composite endpoint was derived primarily from the effect on non-Q-wave MI (identified by cardiac enzyme increases) and urgent revascularizations. In the CAPTURE study in patients with unstable angina not responding to medical therapy, ReoPro was administered as a bolus plus infusion starting up to 24 hours before the procedure until 1 hour after completion of the procedure. This regimen demonstrated stabilization of patients prior to angioplasty, as shown for example by a reduction in MIs, and the reduction in thrombotic complications was sustained at the 30-day endpoint but not at 6 months.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Distribution/Elimination

Following intravenous bolus administration of ReoPro, free plasma concentrations decrease very rapidly with an initial half-life of less than 10 minutes and a second phase half-life of about 30 minutes, probably related to rapid binding to the platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptors. Platelet function generally recovers over the course of 48 hours, although ReoPro remains in the circulation for 15 days or more in a platelet-bound state. Intravenous administration of a 0.25 mg/kg bolus dose of ReoPro followed by continuous infusion of 10 µg/min (or a weight adjusted infusion of 0.125 µg/kg/min to a maximum of 10 µg/min) produces relatively constant free plasma concentrations throughout the infusion. At the termination of the infusion period, free plasma concentrations fall rapidly for approximately 6 hours then decline at a slower rate.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Available non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Water for Injection

Disodium phosphate dihydrate

Sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate

Sodium chloride

Polysorbate 80

6.2 Incompatibilities

This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in section 6.6.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years

Chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated for 24 hours at room temperature (25 °C).

From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2 °C to 8 °C, unless dilution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in a refrigerator (2°C – 8°C). Do not freeze. Do not shake.

For storage conditions of the diluted medicinal product, see section 6.3.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

ReoPro is supplied as a 5 mL solution in a type I borosilicate glass vial with a Teflon-coated rubber stopper and an aluminium crimp protected by a plastic cap in a pack size of one.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Do not shake vials. ReoPro does not contain a preservative and is for single use only. For administration instructions see section 4.2.

ReoPro is for intravenous administration in adults.

Adults:

The recommended dose of ReoPro is a 0.25 mg/kg intravenous bolus immediately followed by a 0.125 μg/kg/min (to a maximum of 10 μg/min) continuous intravenous infusion.

Instructions for dilution:

1. Parenteral medicinal products should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. Preparations of ReoPro containing visibly opaque particles should NOT be used.

2. As with all parenteral medicinal products, aseptic procedures should be used during the administration of ReoPro.

3. Preparation of Bolus Injection: Withdraw the necessary amount of ReoPro for the bolus injection into a syringe. Filter the bolus injection using a sterile non-pyrogenic, low protein binding 0.2 / 0.22 μm or 5.0 μm syringe filter. The bolus should be administered over one (1) minute.

4. Preparation of intravenous infusion: Withdraw the necessary amount of ReoPro for the continuous infusion into a syringe. Inject into an appropriate container of sterile sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection or 5% glucose solution and infuse at the calculated rate via a continuous infusion pump. The continuous infusion should be filtered either upon admixture using a sterile, non-pyrogenic low protein binding 0.2 / 0.22 μm or 5.0 μm syringe filter or upon administration using an in-line, sterile, non-pyrogenic, low protein-binding 0.2 μm or 0.22 μm filter. Discard the unused portion at the end of the infusion period.

5. No incompatibilities have been shown with intravenous infusion fluids or commonly used cardiovascular medicinal products. Nevertheless, it is recommended that ReoPro be administered in a separate intravenous line whenever possible and not mixed with other medicinal products.

6. No incompatibilities have been observed with glass bottles or polyvinyl chloride bags or administration sets.

7. Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Janssen Biologics B.V.

Einsteinweg 101

2333 CB Leiden

The Netherlands

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 08563/0015

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation: 23 March 1995.

Date of last renewal: 22 March 2010.

10. Date of revision of the text

December 2016