This information is intended for use by health professionals
1. Name of the medicinal product
Cetirizine Hydrochloride 1mg /ml Oral SolutionGalpharm Hayfever and Allergy Relief SyrupTesco Family Allergy Relief SyrupPiriteze Allergy SyrupSainsbury's Family Hayfever and Allergy Relief LiquidSuperdrug Family Hayfever and Allergy Relief LiquidASDA 6 Year + Allergy Relief LiquidWilko Hayfever & Allergy Relief SyrupBoots Hayfever and allergy relief Syrup
2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
One ml of solution contains 1 mg of cetirizine hydrochloride.Excipients: - one ml of solution contains 450 mg sorbitol (solution at 70 %, non crystallizing)- one ml of solution contains 1.35 mg methylparahydroxybenzoate- one ml of solution contains 0.15 mg propylparahydroxybenzoateFor a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3. Pharmaceutical form
Oral solution.Clear colourless solution with a banana odour.
4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications
In adults and children 6 years and above:- Cetirizine is indicated for the relief of nasal symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis.- Cetirizine is indicated for the relief of symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Children under 6 years: Not recommended.Children aged from 6 to 12 years: 5 mg twice daily (5 ml oral solution bid (a full spoon twice daily)).Adults and adolescents over 12 years of age: 10 mg once daily (10 ml oral solution (2 full spoons)).The solution can be swallowed as such. Elderly patients: data do not suggest that the dose needs to be reduced in elderly patients provided that the renal function is normal.Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment: there are no data to document the efficacy/safety ratio in patients with renal impairment. Since cetirizine is mainly eliminated via renal route (see section 5.2), in cases no alternative treatment can be used, the dosing intervals must be individualized according to renal function. Refer to the following table and adjust the dose as indicated. To use this dosing table, an estimate of the patient's creatinine clearance (CLcr) in ml/min is needed. The CLcr (ml/min) may be estimated from serum creatinine (mg/dl) determination using the following formula: Dosing adjustments for adult patients with impaired renal function
In paediatric patients suffering from renal impairment, the dose will have to be adjusted on an individual basis taking into account the renal clearance of the patient, his age and his body weight.Patients with hepatic impairment: no dose adjustment is needed in patients with solely hepatic impairment. Patients with hepatic impairment and renal impairment: dose adjustment is recommended (see Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment above).
|Group||Creatinine clearance (ml/min)||Dosage and frequency|
|Normal||≥80||10 mg once daily|
|Mild||50 79||10 mg once daily|
|Moderate||30 49||5 mg once daily|
|Severe||<30||5 mg once every 2 days|
|End-stage renal disease - Patients undergoing dialysis||<10||Contra-indicated|
History of hypersensitivity to the active substance, to any of the constituents of the formulation, to hydroxyzine or to any piperazine derivatives.Patients with severe renal impairment at less than 10 ml/min creatinine clearance.Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take cetirizine 1 mg/ml oral solution.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
At therapeutic doses, no clinically significant interactions have been demonstrated with alcohol (for a blood alcohol level of 0.5 g/L). Nevertheless, precaution is recommended if alcohol is taken concomitantly.Caution in epileptic patients and patients at risk of convulsions is recommended.Methyl parahydroxybenzoate and propyl parahydroxybenzoate included in the 1 mg/ml oral solution may cause allergic reactions (possibly delayed). Allergy skin tests are inhibited by antihistamines and a wash-out period (of 3 days) is required before performing them.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Due to the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and tolerance profile of cetirizine, no interactions are expected with this antihistamine. Actually, neither pharmacodynamic nor significant pharmacokinetic interaction was reported in drug-drug interactions studies performed, notably with pseudoephedrine or theophylline (400 mg/day). The extent of absorption of cetirizine is not reduced with food, although the rate of absorption is decreased.
4.6 Pregnancy and lactation
PregnancyFor cetirizine very rare clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/fetal development, parturition or postnatal development. Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant women.LactationCetirizine is excreted in human milk at concentrations representing 0.25 to 0.90 those measured in plasma, depending on sampling time after administration. Therefore, caution should be exercised when prescribing cetirizine to lactating women.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Objective measurements of driving ability, sleep latency and assembly line performance have not demonstrated any clinically relevant effects at the recommended dose of 10 mg. Patients intending to drive, engaging in potentially hazardous activities or operating machinery should not exceed the recommended dose and should take their response to the medicinal product into account. In these sensitive patients, concurrent use with alcohol or other CNS depressants may cause additional reductions in alertness and impairment of performance.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Clinical studies have shown that cetirizine at the recommended dosage has minor undesirable effects on the CNS, including somnolence, fatigue, dizziness and headache. In some cases, paradoxical CNS stimulation has been reported.Although cetirizine is a selective antagonist of peripheral H1-receptors and is relatively free of anticholinergic activity, isolated cases of micturition difficulty, eye accommodation disorders and dry mouth have been reported.Instances of abnormal hepatic function with elevated hepatic enzymes accompanied by elevated bilirubin have been reported. Mostly this resolves upon discontinuation of the treatment with cetirizine dihydrochloride.
Clinical trialsDouble blind controlled clinical or pharmacoclinical trials comparing cetirizine to placebo or other antihistamines at the recommended dosage (10 mg daily for cetirizine), of which quantified safety data are available, included more than 3200 subjects exposed to cetirizine.From this pooling, the following adverse events were reported for cetirizine 10 mg in the placebo-controlled trials at rates of 1.0 % or greater:
Although statistically more common than under placebo, somnolence was mild to moderate in the majority of cases. Objective tests as demonstrated by other studies have demonstrated that usual daily activities are unaffected at the recommended daily dose in healthy young volunteers.Adverse drug reactions at rates of 1 % or greater in children aged from 6 months to 12 years, included in placebo-controlled clinical or pharmacoclinical trials are:
|Adverse event (WHO-ART)||Cetirizine 10 mg (n= 3260)||Placebo (n = 3061)|
|Body as a whole general disorders Fatigue||1.63 %||0.95 %|
|Central and peripheral nervous system disordersDizziness Headache||1.10 %7.42 %||0.98 %8.07 %|
|Gastro-intestinal system disorders Abdominal pain Dry mouth Nausea||0.98 %2.09 %1.07 %||1.08 %0.82 %1.14 %|
|Psychiatric disorders Somnolence||9.63 %||5.00 %|
|Respiratory system disorders Pharyngitis||1.29 %||1.34 %|
|Adverse drug reactions (WHO-ART)||Cetirizine (n= 1656)||Placebo (n = 1294)|
|Gastro-intestinal system disorders Diarrhoea||1.0 %||0.6 %|
|Psychiatric disorders Somnolence||1.8 %||1. 4 %|
|Respiratory system disorders Rhinitis||1.4 %||1.1 %|
|Body as a whole general disorders Fatigue||1.0 %||0.3 %|
Post-marketing experienceIn addition to the adverse effects reported during clinical studies and listed above, isolated cases of the following adverse drug reactions have been reported in post-marketing experience. Undesirable effects are described according to MedDRA System Organ Class and by estimated frequency based on post-marketing experience.Frequencies are defined as follows:Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)• Blood and lymphatic disorders: Very rare: thrombocytopenia• Immune system disorders: Rare: hypersensitivityVery rare: anaphylactic shock• Psychiatric disorders: Uncommon: agitationRare: aggression, confusion, depression, hallucinations, insomniaVery rare: tics• Nervous system disorders: Uncommon: paraesthesiaRare: convulsions, movement disordersVery rare: dysgeusia, syncope, tremor, dystonia, dyskinesiaNot known: amnesia, memory impairment• Eye disorders: Very rare: accommodation disorder, blurred vision, oculogyration• Cardiac disorders: Rare: tachycardia• Gastrointestinal disorders: Uncommon: diarrhoea• Hepatobiliary disorders: Rare: hepatic function abnormal (increased transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, γ-GT and bilirubin)• Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Uncommon: pruritus, rashRare: urticariaVery rare: angioneurotic oedema, fixed drug eruption• Renal and urinary disorders: Very rare: dysuria, enuresis• General disorders and administration site conditions: Uncommon: asthenia, malaiseRare: oedema• Investigations: Rare: weight increased
a) SymptomsSymptoms observed after an overdose of cetirizine are mainly associated with CNS effects or with effects that could suggest an anticholinergic effect.Adverse events reported after an intake of at least 5 times the recommended daily dose are: confusion, diarrhoea, dizziness, fatigue, headache, malaise, mydriasis, pruritus, restlessness, sedation, somnolence, stupor, tachycardia, tremor, and urinary retention.
b) ManagementThere is no known specific antidote to cetirizine.Should overdose occur, symptomatic or supportive treatment is recommended. Gastric lavage should be considered following ingestion of a short occurrence.Cetirizine is not effectively removed by dialysis.
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Piperazine derivatives, ATC code: RO6AEO7Cetirizine, a human metabolite of hydroxyzine, is a potent and selective antagonist of peripheral H1-receptors. In vitro receptor binding studies have shown no measurable affinity for other than H1-receptors.In addition to its anti-H1 effect, cetirizine was shown to display anti-allergic activities: at a dose of 10 mg once or twice daily, it inhibits the late phase recruitment of eosinophils, in the skin and conjunctiva of atopic subjects submitted to allergen challenge.Studies in healthy volunteers show that cetirizine, at doses of 5 and 10 mg strongly inhibits the wheal and flare reactions induced by very high concentrations of histamine into the skin, but the correlation with efficacy is not established. In a 35-day study in children aged 5 to 12, no tolerance to the antihistaminic effect (suppression of wheal and flare) of cetirizine was found. When a treatment with cetirizine is stopped after repeated administration, the skin recovers its normal reactivity to histamine within 3 days.In a six-week, placebo-controlled study of 186 patients with allergic rhinitis and concomitant mild to moderate asthma, cetirizine 10 mg once daily improved rhinitis symptoms and did not alter pulmonary function. This study supports the safety of administering cetirizine to allergic patients with mild to moderate asthma.In a placebo-controlled study, cetirizine given at the high daily dose of 60 mg for seven days did not cause statistically significant prolongation of QT interval.At the recommended dosage, cetirizine has demonstrated that it improves the quality of life of patients with perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
The steady - state peak plasma concentrations is approximately 300 ng/ml and is achieved within 1.0 ± 0.5 h. No accumulation is observed for cetirizine following daily doses of 10 mg for 10 days. The distribution of pharmacokinetic parameters such as peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under curve (AUC), is unimodal in human volunteers.The extent of absorption of cetirizine is not reduced with food, although the rate of absorption is decreased. The extent of bioavailability is similar when cetirizine is given as solutions, capsules or tablets. The apparent volume of distribution is 0.50 l/kg. Plasma protein binding of cetirizine is 93 ± 0.3 %. Cetirizine does not modify the protein binding of warfarin.Cetirizine does not undergo extensive first pass metabolism. About two third of the dose are excreted unchanged in urine. The terminal half-life is approximately 10 hours.Cetirizine exhibits linear kinetics over the range of 5 to 60 mg.
Special populationsElderly: Following a single 10 mg oral dose, half-life increased by about 50 % and clearance decreased by 40 % in 16 elderly subjects compared to the normal subjects. The decrease in cetirizine clearance in these elderly volunteers appeared to be related to their decreased renal function. Children, infants and toddlers: The half-life of cetirizine was about 6 hours in children of 6-12 years and 5 hours in children 2-6 years. In infants and toddlers aged 6 to 24 months, it is reduced to 3.1 hours. Renally impaired patients: The pharmacokinetics of the drug were similar in patients with mild impairment (creatinine clearance higher than 40 ml/min) and healthy volunteers. Patients with moderate renal impairment had a 3-fold increase in half-life and 70 % decrease in clearance compared to healthy volunteers.Patients on hemodialysis (creatinine clearance less than 7 ml/min) given a single oral 10 mg dose of cetirizine had a 3-fold increase in half-life and a 70 % decrease in clearance compared to normals. Cetirizine was poorly cleared by haemodialysis. Dosing adjustment is necessary in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment (see section 4.2). Hepatically impaired patients: Patients with chronic liver diseases (hepatocellular, cholestatic, and biliary cirrhosis) given 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine as a single dose had a 50 % increase in half-life along with a 40 % decrease in clearance compared to healthy subjects.Dosing adjustment is only necessary in hepatically impaired patients if concomitant renal impairment is present.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction.
6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
GlycerolPropylene glycolSorbitol 70% solutionMethylparabenPropylparabenSodium acetateAcetic acid glacialSaccharin sodiumBanana flavourPurified water
6.3 Shelf life
6.4 Special precautions for storage
No special precautions for storage.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
70 ml fill bottles.Amber glass bottle, with child-resistant polypropylene screw cap incorporating a tamper evident seal (yellow polyethylene).Measuring device: 5 ml plastic PP measuring spoon graduated at 2.5 ml
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
No special requirements.
7. Marketing authorisation holder
Teva UK LimitedBrampton RoadHampden ParkEastbourneEast Sussex BN22 9AG
8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
27/01/04 / 09/08/2010
10. Date of revision of the text