Oruvail 200 mg Prolonged-Release Capsules, Hard
Ketoprofen 200 mg
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
Controlled release capsules
Oruvail is recommended in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute articular and peri-articular disorders, (bursitis, capsulitis, synovitis, tendinitis), cervical spondylitis, low back pain (strain, lumbago, sciatica, fibrositis), painful musculo-skeletal conditions, acute gout, dysmenorrhoea and control of pain and inflammation following orthopaedic surgery.
Oruvail reduces joint pain and inflammation and facilitates increase in mobility and functional independence. As with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, it does not cure the underlying disease.
Adults: 100 – 200 mg once daily, depending on patient weight and on severity of symptoms.
The maximum daily dose is 200 mg. The balance of risks and benefits should be carefully considered before commencing treatment with 200 mg daily, and higher doses are not recommended (see also section 4.4).
Elderly: The elderly are at increased risk of the serious consequences of adverse reactions. If an NSAID is considered necessary, the lowest effective dose should be used and for the shortest possible duration. The patient should be monitored regularly for GI bleeding during NSAID therapy.
Paediatric population: Dosage not established.
Oruvail capsules are for oral administration. To be taken preferably with or after food.
Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.4).
Ketoprofen is contraindicated in:
• Patients with hypersensitivity to any of the excipients of the drug (see section 6.1).
• Patients who have a history of hypersensitivity reactions such as bronchospasm, asthmatic attacks, rhinitis, angioedema, urticaria or other allergic-type reactions to ketoprofen, any other ingredients in this medicine, ASA or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic reactions have been reported in such patients (see section 4.8).
• The third trimester of pregnancy.
• Severe heart failure
• active peptic ulcer, or any history of gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration or perforation
• haemorrhagic diathesis
• severe hepatic insufficiency
• severe renal insufficiency
Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.2 and GI and cardiovascular risks below).
The use of ketoprofen with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors should be avoided (see section 4.5).
The elderly have an increased risk of adverse reactions to NSAIDs, especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal (see section 4.2).
Cardiovascular, renal and hepatic impairment
At the start of treatment, renal function must be carefully monitored in patients with heart impairment, heart failure, liver dysfunction, cirrhosis and nephrosis, in patients receiving diuretic therapy, in patients with chronic renal impairment, particularly if the patient is elderly. In these patients, administration of ketoprofen may induce a reduction in renal blood flow caused by prostaglandin inhibition and lead to renal decomposition (see section 4.3).
NSAIDs have also been reported to cause nephrotoxicity in various forms and this can lead to interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and renal failure.
Cases of acute renal failure after initiation of high dose or multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported in patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and with risk factors for renal dysfunction. If tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is co-administered with an NSAID, renal function should be monitored adequately.
Hyperkalaemia may occur in patients with underlying diabetes, renal disorders, and/or receiving concomitant treatment with hyperkalaemia promoting agents (see section 4.5). Caution should be exercised when treating such patients and they must be monitored when receiving ketoprofen
In patients with abnormal liver function tests or with a history of liver disease, transaminase levels should be evaluated periodically, particularly during long-term therapy. Rare cases of jaundice and hepatitis have been described with ketoprofen.
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects
Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.
Clinical studies and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long-term treatment) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke). There are insufficient data to exclude such a risk for ketoprofen.
As with all NSAIDs, careful consideration should be given when treating patients with existing uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure, established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease, as well as before initiating long-term treatment in patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking).
An increased risk for arterial thrombotic events has been reported in patients treated with non-aspirin NSAIDs (e.g. parecoxib and valdecoxib) for perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). This effect has not been observed with ketoprofen.
Patients with asthma combined with chronic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, and/or nasal polyposis have a higher risk of allergy to aspirin and/or NSAIDs than the rest of the population. Administration of this medicinal product can cause asthma attacks or bronchospasm, particularly in subjects allergic to aspirin or NSAIDs (see section 4.3).
Gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation
GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at any time during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events.
Some epidemiological evidence suggests that ketoprofen may be associated with a high risk of serious gastrointestinal toxicity, relative to some other NSAIDs, especially at high doses (see also section 4.2 and 4.3).
The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAlD doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation, and in the elderly. Elderly patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available. Combination therapy with protective agents (e.g. misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors) should be considered for these patients, and also for patients requiring concomitant low dose aspirin, or other drugs likely to increase gastrointestinal risk (see below and section 4.5). Ketoprofen should not be used in patients with any history of peptic ulceration (see section 4.3).
NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as these conditions may be exacerbated (see section 4.8).
Patients with a history of gastrointestinal toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding), particularly in the initial stages of treatment.
Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, or anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin (see section 4.5).
When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving ketoprofen, the treatment should be withdrawn.
SLE and mixed connective tissue disease
In patients with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders, there may be an increased risk of aseptic meningitis (see section 4.8).
The use of ketoprofen, as with other NSAIDs, may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulty conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of ketoprofen should be considered.
Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs. Patients appear to be at highest risk of these reactions early in the course of therapy, the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Treatment should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
As with other NSAIDs, in the presence of an infectious disease, it should be noted that the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and the antipyretic properties of ketoprofen may mask the usual signs of infection progression such as fever.
If visual disturbances such as blurred vision occur, treatment should be discontinued.
Masking of symptoms of underlying infections
Ketoprofen can mask symptoms of infection, which may lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment and thereby worsening the outcome of the infection. This has been observed in bacterial community acquired pneumonia and bacterial complications to varicella. When ketoprofen is administered for fever or pain relief in relation to infection, monitoring of infection is advised. In non-hospital settings, the patient should consult a doctor if symptoms persist or worsen.
Increased risk of bleeding (see section 4.4)
• Vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin)
• Platelet aggregation inhibitors (such as ticlopidine, clopidogrel)
• Thrombin inhibitors (such as dabigatran)
• Direct factor Xa inhibitors (such as apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban)
If coadministration is unavoidable, patient should be closely monitored.
Risk of elevation of lithium plasma levels, sometimes reaching toxic levels due to decreased lithium renal excretion. Where necessary, plasma lithium levels should be closely monitored, and the lithium dosage levels adjusted during and after NSAIDs therapy.
Other analgesics/NSAIDs (including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors) and high dose salicylates
Avoid concomitant use of two or more NSAIDs (including aspirin) as this may increase the risk of adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding (see section 4.4).
Serious interactions have been recorded after the use of high dose methotrexate with NSAIDs, including ketoprofen, due to decreased elimination of methotrexate.
• At doses greater than 15 mg/week: Increased risk of haematologic toxicity of methotrexate, particularly if administered at high doses (>15 mg/week), possibly related to displacement of protein-bound methotrexate and to its decreased renal clearance.
• At doses lower than 15 mg/week: During the first weeks of combination treatment, full blood count should be monitored weekly. If there is any alteration of the renal function or if the patient is elderly, monitoring should be done more frequently.
NSAIDs should not be used for 8 – 12 days after mifepristone administration as NSAIDs can reduce the effect of mifepristone.
There is an increased risk of bleeding. More frequent clinical monitoring and monitoring of bleeding time is required.
Concomitant administration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and NSAIDs may increase the risk of renal failure.
In patients concomitantly receiving Nicorandil and NSAIDs, there is an increased risk for severe complications such as gastrointestinal ulceration, perforation and haemorrhage (see section 4.4).
Antihypertensive agents (beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics)
Risk of decreased antihypertensive potency (inhibition of vasodilator prostaglandins by NSAIDs).
Risk of reduced diuretic effect. Patients and particularly dehydrated patients taking diuretics are at a greater risk of developing renal failure secondary to a decrease in renal blood flow caused by prostaglandin inhibition. Such patients should be rehydrated before initiating coadministration therapy and renal function monitored when the treatment is started (see section 4.4).
NSAIDs may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce GFR and increase plasma glycoside levels. A pharmacokinetic interaction between ketoprofen and digoxin has not been demonstrated. However, caution is advised, in particular in patients with renal impairment, since NSAIDs may reduce renal function and decrease renal clearance of cardiac glycosides.
Increased risk of nephrotoxicity, particularly in elderly subjects.
Medicinal products and therapeutic categories that can promote hyperkalaemia (i.e. potassium salts, potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists, NSAIDs, heparins (low molecular-weight or unfractioned), cyclosporine, tacrolimus and trimethoprim)
The risk of hyperkaelemia can be enhanced when the drugs mentioned above are administered concomitantly (see section 4.4).
Increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding (see section 4.4).
Animal data indicate that NSAIDs can increase the risk of convulsions associated with quinolone antibiotics. Patients taking NSAIDs and quinolones may have an increased risk of developing convulsions.
Possible increased risk of nephrotoxicity when NSAIDs are given with tacrolimus, particularly in elderly subjects.
Increased risk of bleeding.
Concomitant administration of probenecid may markedly reduce the plasma clearance of ketoprofen.
Anti-platelet agents and Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (see section 4.4).
ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II Antagonists
In patients with compromised renal function (e.g. dehydrated patients or elderly patients the co-administration of an ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin II antagonist and agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase may result in further deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure.
Increased risk of haematological toxicity when NSAIDs are given with zidovudine. There is evidence of an increased risk of haemarthroses and haematoma in HIV(+) haemophiliacs receiving concurrent treatment with zidovudine and ibuprofen.
Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis may adversely affect the pregnancy and/or the embryo/fetal development. Data from epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of miscarriage and of cardiac malformation and gastroschisis after use of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in early pregnancy. The absolute risk for cardiovascular malformation was increased from less than 1%, up to approximately 1.5%. The risk is believed to increase with dose and duration of therapy.
In animals, administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor has been shown to result in increased pre- and post-implantation loss and embryo-fetal lethality. In addition, increased incidences of various malformations, including cardiovascular, have been reported in animals given a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor during the organogenetic period.
From the 20th week of pregnancy onward, ketoprofen use may cause oligohydramnios resulting from fetal renal dysfunction. This may occur shortly after treatment initiation and is usually reversible upon discontinuation. In addition, there have been reports of ductus arteriosus constriction following treatment in the second trimester, most of which resolved after treatment cessation. Therefore, during the first and second trimester of pregnancy, ketoprofen should not be given unless clearly necessary. If ketoprofen is used by a woman attempting to conceive, or during the first and second trimester of pregnancy, the dose should be kept as low and duration of treatment as short as possible. Antenatal monitoring for oligohydramnios and ductus arteriosus constriction should be considered after exposure to ketoprofen for several days from gestational week 20 onward. Ketoprofen should be discontinued if oligohydramnios or ductus arteriosus constriction are found.
During the third trimester of pregnancy, all prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose
• the fetus to:
o cardiopulmonary toxicity (premature constriction/closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension);
o renal dysfunction (see above);
• the mother and the neonate, at the end of the pregnancy, to:
o possible prolongation of bleeding time, an anti-aggregating effect which may occur even at very low doses;
o Inhibition of uterine contractions resulting in delayed or prolonged labour.
Consequently, ketoprofen is contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.3).
No data are available on excretion of ketoprofen in human milk. Ketoprofen is not recommended in nursing mothers.
Patients should be warned about the potential for somnolence, dizziness or convulsions, drowsiness, fatigue and visual disturbances and be advised not to drive or operate machinery if these symptoms occur.
The following CIOMS frequency rating is used, when applicable: Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
The following adverse reactions have been reported with Ketoprofen in adults:
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Rare: haemorrhagic anaemia, anaemia due to bleeding
Not known: agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, bone marrow failure, haemolytic anaemia, leucopenia, neutropenia
Immune system disorders
Rare: anaphylactic reactions (including shock)
Not known: depression, hallucinations, confusion, mood altered
Nervous system disorders
Uncommon: headache, dizziness, somnolence
Not known: convulsions, dysgeusia, vertigo, malaise, drowsiness, reports of aseptic meningitis (especially in patients with existing auto-immune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosis, mixed connective tissue disease) with symptoms such as stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation (see section 4.4).
Rare: visual disturbances such as blurred vision (see section 4.4)
Not known: optic neuritis
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Not known: exacerbation of heart failure, oedema
Not known: hypertension, vasodilatation, vasculitis (including leucocytoclastic vasculitis)
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Rare: asthma, asthmatic attack
Not known: bronchospasm (particularly in patients with known hypersensitivity to ASA and other NSAIDs), rhinitis, non-specific allergic reactions, dyspnoea
Common: dyspepsia, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting
Uncommon: constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence, gastritis
Rare: stomatitis, peptic ulcer
Very rare: pancreatitis (very rare reports of pancreatitis have been noted with NSAIDs)
Not known: exacerbation of colitis and Crohn's disease, gastrointestinal haemorrhage and perforation, gastralgia, melaena, haematemesis
Gastrointestinal bleeding may sometimes be fatal, particularly in the elderly (see section 4.4).
Rare: hepatitis, transaminases increased, elevated serum bilirubin due to hepatitis disorders
Not known: abnormal liver function, jaundice
Skin and subcutaneous disorders
Uncommon: rash, pruritis
Not known: photosensitivity reactions, alopecia, urticaria, angioedema, bullous eruption including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, exfoliative and bullous dermatoses (including epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme), purpura
Renal and urinary disorders
Not known: renal failure acute, tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephritic syndrome, renal function tests abnormal
General disorders and administration site conditions
Uncommon: oedema, fatigue
Not known: headache, taste perversion
Metabolism and nutritional disorders
Not known: hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia (see sections 4.4 and 4.5)
Rare: weight increased
Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long term treatment) may be associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke) (see section 4.4).
In all cases of major adverse effects Oruvail should be withdrawn at once.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
Cases of overdose have been reported with doses up to 2.5 g of ketoprofen. In most instances, the symptoms have been benign and limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and epigastric pain. Headache, rarely diarrhoea, disorientation, excitation, coma, dizziness, tinnitus, fainting, occasionally convulsions may also occur. Adverse effects seen after overdose with propionic acid derivatives such as hypotension, bronchospasm and gastro-intestinal haemorrhage should be anticipated.
In cases of significant poisoning, acute renal failure and liver damage are possible.
If renal failure is present, haemodialysis may be useful to remove circulating medicinal product.
There are no specific antidotes to ketoprofen overdosages. In cases of suspected massive overdosages, a gastric lavage is recommended, and symptomatic and supportive treatment should be instituted to compensate for dehydration, to monitor urinary excretion and to correct acidosis, if present.
Owing to the slow-release characteristics of Oruvail, it should be expected that ketoprofen will continue to be absorbed for up to 16 hours after ingestion.
Within one hour of ingestion, consideration should be given to administering activated charcoal in an attempt to reduce absorption of slowly-released ketoprofen.
Alternatively, in adults, gastric lavage, aimed at recovering pellets that may still be in the stomach, should be considered if the patient presents within 1 hour of ingesting a potentially toxic amount.
It should be possible to identify the pellets in the gastric contents. Correction of severe electrolyte abnormalities may need to be considered.
Good urine output should be ensured. Renal and liver function should be closely monitored.
Patients should be observed for at least four hours after ingestion of potentially toxic amounts.
Frequent or prolonged convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam.
The benefit of gastric decontamination is uncertain.
Other measures may be indicated by the patient's clinical condition.
Ketoprofen overall has the properties of a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. It has the following pharmacological effects:
It inhibits the development of carageenan-induced abscesses in rats at 1 mg/kg, UV-radiation induced erythema in guinea pigs at 6 mg/kg. It is also a potent inhibitor of PGE2 and PFG2 synthesis in guinea pig and human chopped lung preparations.
Ketoprofen effectively reduced visceral pain in mice caused by phenyl benzoquinone or by bradykinin following p.o. Administration at about 6 mg/kg.
Ketoprofen (2 and 6 mg/kg) inhibited hyperthermia caused by s.c injection of brewer's yeast in rats and, at 1mg/kg hyperthermia caused by i.v. administration of anticoagulant vaccine to rabbits.
Ketoprofen at 10 mg/kg i.v. did not affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, central nervous system or autonomic nervous systems.
Ketoprofen is slowly but completely absorbed from Oruvail capsules. Maximum plasma concentration occurs after 6 – 8 hours. It declines thereafter with a half-life of about 8 hours. There is no accumulation on continued daily dosing. Ketoprofen is very highly bound to plasma protein
No additional data of relevance to the prescriber.
Colloidal anhydrous silica
Capsule shell – body
Capsule shell – cap
Titanium dioxide (E171)
Securitainer / HDPE bottle: Store below 30°C in a dry place.
Blister pack: Store below 25°C in a dry place and protect from light.
Securitainer or HDPE bottle containing 100 capsules.
UPVC/Aluminium foil blister or UPVC coated with PVDC aluminium foil blister containing either 28 or 4 capsules
Aventis Pharma Limited
410 Thames Valley Park Drive
410 Thames Valley Park Drive
Date of first authorisation: 26 November 1984
Date of latest renewal: 21 September 2006