POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
|200 mg capsules, hard|
|lactose (anhydrous)||47 mg|
PosologyAs the cardiovascular risks of celecoxib may increase with dose and duration of exposure, the shortest duration possible and the lowest effective daily dose should be used. The patient's need for symptomatic relief and response to therapy should be re- evaluated periodically, especially in patients with osteoarthritis (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.8 and 5.1).Osteoarthritis: The usual recommended daily dose is 200 mg taken once daily or in two divided doses. In some patients, with insufficient relief from symptoms, an increased dose of 200 mg twice daily may increase efficacy. In the absence of an increase in therapeutic benefit after two weeks, other therapeutic options should be considered.Rheumatoid arthritis: The initial recommended daily dose is 200 mg taken in two divided doses. The dose may, if needed, later be increased to 200 mg twice daily. In the absence of an increase in therapeutic benefit after two weeks, other therapeutic options should be considered.Ankylosing Spondylitis: The recommended daily dose is 200 mg taken once daily or in two divided doses. In a few patients, with insufficient relief from symptoms, an increased dose of 400 mg once daily or in two divided doses may increase efficacy. In the absence of an increase in therapeutic benefit after two weeks, other therapeutic options should be considered.The maximum recommended daily dose is 400 mg for all indications.Elderly patients: (>65 years) As in younger adults, 200 mg per day should be used initially. The dose may, if needed, later be increased to 200 mg twice daily. Particular caution should be exercised in elderly with a body weight less than 50 kg. (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).Patients with hepatic impairment: Treatment should be initiated at half the recommended dose in patients with established moderate liver impairment with a serum albumin of 25-35 g/l. Experience in such patients is limited to cirrhotic patients (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2).Patients with renal impairment: Experience with celecoxib in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment is limited; therefore such patients should be treated with caution. (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2).Paediatric population: Celecoxib is not indicated for use in children.CYP2C9 Poor Metabolizers: Patients who are known, or suspected to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers based on genotyping or previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates should be administered celecoxib with caution as the risk of dose- dependent adverse effects is increased. Consider reducing the dose to half the lowest recommended dose. (see section 5.2)
Method of administration
Oral useCapsules should be swallowed whole with a drink of water.Celecoxib may be taken with or without food.
Pharmacodynamic interactionsAnticoagulant activity should be monitored particularly in the first few days after initiating or changing the dose of celecoxib in patients receiving warfarin or other anticoagulants since these patients have an increased risk of bleeding complications. Therefore, patients receiving oral anticoagulants should be closely monitored for their prothrombin time INR, particularly in the first few days when therapy with celecoxib is initiated or the dose of celecoxib is changed (see section 4.4). Bleeding events in association with increases in prothrombin time have been reported, predominantly in the elderly, in patients receiving celecoxib concurrently with warfarin, some of them fatal.NSAIDs may reduce the effect of diuretics and antihypertensive medicinal products. As for NSAIDs, the risk of acute renal insufficiency, which is usually reversible, may be increased in some patients with compromised renal function (e.g. dehydrated patients, patients on diuretics or elderly patients) when ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists are combined with NSAIDs, including celecoxib (see section 4.4). Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly. Patients should be adequately hydrated and consideration should be given to monitoring of renal function after initiation of concomitant therapy, and periodically thereafter.In a 28-day clinical study in patients with lisinopril-controlled Stage I and II hypertension, administration of celecoxib 200 mg BID resulted in no clinically significant increases, when compared to placebo treatment, in mean daily systolic or diastolic blood pressure as determined using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Among patients treated with celecoxib 200 mg BID, 48% were considered unresponsive to lisinopril at the final clinic visit (defined as either cuff diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg or cuff diastolic blood pressure increased >10% compared to baseline), compared to 27% of patients treated with placebo; this difference was statistically significant.Coadministration of NSAIDs and ciclosporin or tacrolimus have been suggested to increase the nephrotoxic effect of ciclosporin and tacrolimus. Renal function should be monitored when celecoxib and any of these drugs are combined.Celecoxib can be used with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid but is not a substitute for acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular prophylaxis. In the submitted studies, as with other NSAIDs, an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration or other gastrointestinal complications compared to use of celecoxib alone was shown for concomitant administration of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (see section 5.1).
Effects of celecoxib on other drugsCelecoxib is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. During celecoxib treatment, the plasma concentrations of the CYP2D6 substrate dextromethorphan were increased by 136%. The plasma concentrations of drugs that are substrates of this enzyme may be increased when celecoxib is used concomitantly. Examples of drugs which are metabolised by CYP2D6 are antidepressants (tricyclics and SSRIs), neuroleptics, anti-arrhythmic drugs, etc. The dose of individually dose-titrated CYP2D6 substrates may need to be reduced when treatment with celecoxib is initiated or increased if treatment with celecoxib is terminated.In vitro studies have shown some potential for celecoxib to inhibit CYP2C19 catalysed metabolism. The clinical significance of this in vitro finding is unknown. Examples of drugs which are metabolised by CYP2C19 are diazepam, citalopram and imipramine.In an interaction study, celecoxib had no clinically relevant effects on the pharmacokinetics of oral contraceptives (1 mg norethistherone /35 microg ethinylestradiol).Celecoxib does not affect the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide (CYP2C9 substrate), or glibenclamide to a clinically relevant extent.In patients with rheumatoid arthritis celecoxib had no statistically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics (plasma or renal clearance) of methotrexate (in rheumatologic doses). However, adequate monitoring for methotrexate-related toxicity should be considered when combining these two drugs.In healthy subjects, co-administration of celecoxib 200 mg twice daily with 450 mg twice daily of lithium resulted in a mean increase in Cmax of 16% and in AUC of 18% of lithium. Therefore, patients on lithium treatment should be closely monitored when celecoxib is introduced or withdrawn.
Effects of other drugs on celecoxibIn individuals who are CYP2C9 poor metabolisers and demonstrate increased systemic exposure to celecoxib, concomitant treatment with CYP2C9 inhibitors could result in further increases in celecoxib exposure. Such combinations should be avoided in known CYP2C9 poor metabolisers (see sections 4.2 and 5.2).Since celecoxib is predominantly metabolised by CYP2C9 it should be used at half the recommended dose in patients receiving fluconazole. Concomitant use of 200 mg single dose of celecoxib and 200 mg once daily of fluconazole, a potent CYP2C9 inhibitor, resulted in a mean increase in celecoxib Cmax of 60% and in AUC of 130%. Concomitant use of inducers of CYP2C9 such as rifampicin, carbamazepine and barbiturates may reduce plasma concentrations of celecoxib.Ketoconazole or antacids have not been observed to affect the pharmacokinetics of celecoxib.
PregnancyNo clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available for celecoxib. Studies in animals (rats and rabbits) have shown reproductive toxicity, including malformations (see sections 4.3 and 5.3). The potential for human risk in pregnancy is unknown, but cannot be excluded. Celecoxib, as with other drugs inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, may cause uterine inertia and premature closure of the ductus arteriosus during the last trimester. Celecoxib is contraindicated in pregnancy and in women who can become pregnant (see sections 4.3 and 4.4). If a woman becomes pregnant during treatment, celecoxib should be discontinued.
Breast-feedingCelecoxib is excreted in the milk of lactating rats at concentrations similar to those in plasma. Administration of celecoxib to a limited number of lactating women has shown a very low transfer of celecoxib into breast milk. Women who take celecoxib should not breastfeed.
Table. Adverse Drug Reactions in Celecoxib Clinical Trials and Surveillance Experience (MedDRA Preferred Terms)1,2
|Very Common||Common||Uncommon||Rare||Not known (Post- marketing experience)3|
|Infections and infestations||Sinusitis, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders||Anemia||Leucopenia, thrombocytopenia||Pancytopenia|
|Immune system disorders||Allergy aggravated||Serious allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock, anaphylaxis|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders||Hyperkalaemia|
|Psychiatric disorders||Insomnia||Anxiety, depression, tiredness||Confusion||Hallucinations|
|Nervous system disorders||Dizziness, hypertonia||Paraesthesia, somnolence, cerebral infarction1||Ataxia, taste alteration||Headache, aggravated epilepsy, meningitis aseptic, ageusia, anosmia, fatal intracranial haemorrhage|
|Eye disorders||Blurred vision||Conjunctivitis, ocular haemorrhage, retinal artery or vein occlusion|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders||Tinnitus, hypoacusis1|
|Cardiac disorders||Myocardial infarction1||Heart failure, palpitations, tachycardia||Arrhythmia|
|Vascular disorders||Hypertension1||Hypertension aggravated||Flushing, vasculitis, pulmonary embolism|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders||Pharyngitis, rhinitis, cough, dyspnoea1||Bronchospasm|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting1dysphagia1||Constipation, eructation, gastritis, stomatitis, aggravation of gastrointestinal inflammation||Duodenal, gastric, oesophageal, intestinal, and colonic ulceration; intestinal perforation; oesophagitis, melaena; pancreatitis||Nausea, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, colitis/colitis aggravated|
|Hepatobiliary disorders||Abnormal hepatic function, increased SGOT and SGPT||Elevation of hepatic enzymes||Hepatic failure (sometimes fatal or requiring liver transplant), fulminant hepatitis (some with fatal outcome), liver necrosis, hepatitis jaundice|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||Rash, pruritus||Urticaria||Alopecia, photosensitivity||Ecchymosis, bullous eruption, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or hypersensitivity syndrome, angioedema, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders||Leg cramps||Arthralgia, myositis|
|Renal and urinary disorders||Increased creatinine, BUN increased||Acute renal failure, interstitial nephritis, hyponatraemia|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders||Menstrual disorder NOS|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||Flu-like symptoms, peripheral oedema/fluid retention||Chest pain|
|1 Adverse drug reactions that occurred in polyp prevention trials, representing subjects treated with celecoxib 400 mg daily in 2 clinical trials of duration up to 3 years (the APC and PreSAP trials). The adverse drug reactions listed above for the polyp prevention trials are only those that have been previously recognized in the post- marketing surveillance experience, or have occurred more frequently than in the arthritis trials.|
|2 Furthermore, the following previously unknown adverse reactions occurred in polyp prevention trials, representing subjects treated with celecoxib 400 mg daily in 2 clinical trials of duration up to 3 years (the APC and PreSAP trials): Common: angina pectoris, irritable bowel syndrome, nephrolithiasis, blood creatinine increased, benign prostatic hyperplasia, weight increased. Uncommon: helicobacter infection, herpes zoster, erysipelas, bronchopneumonia, labyrinthitis, gingival infection, lipoma, vitreous floaters, conjunctival haemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, dysphonia, haemorrhoidal haemorrhage, frequent bowel movements, mouth ulceration, allergic dermatitis, ganglion, nocturia, vaginal haemorrhage, breast tenderness, lower limb fracture, blood sodium increased.|
|3 Adverse drug reactions spontaneously reported to the safety surveillance database over a period in which an estimated >70 million patients were treated with celecoxib (various doses, durations, and indications). As a result, the frequencies of these adverse drug reactions cannot be reliably determined. Adverse drug reactions listed for the post-marketing population are only those that are not already listed for the arthritis trials or the polyp prevention trials.|
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:Yellow Card Scheme, Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
ManagementIn the event of suspected overdose, appropriate supportive medical care should be provided e.g. by eliminating the gastric contents, clinical supervision and, if necessary, the institution of symptomatic treatment. Dialysis is unlikely to be an efficient method of drug removal due to high protein binding.
Mechanism of actionCelecoxib is an oral, selective, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor within the clinical dose range (200-400 mg daily). No statistically significant inhibition of COX-1 (assessed as ex vivo inhibition of thromboxane B2 [TxB2] formation) was observed in this dose range in healthy volunteers.Cyclooxygenase is responsible for generation of prostaglandins. Two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, have been identified. COX-2 is the isoform of the enzyme that has been shown to be induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli and has been postulated to be primarily responsible for the synthesis of prostanoid mediators of pain, inflammation, and fever. COX-2 is also involved in ovulation, implantation and closure of the ductus arteriosus, regulation of renal function, and central nervous system functions (fever induction, pain perception and cognitive function). It may also play a role in ulcer healing. COX-2 has been identified in tissue around gastric ulcers in man but its relevance to ulcer healing has not been established.The difference in antiplatelet activity between some COX-1 inhibiting NSAIDs and COX-2 selective inhibitors may be of clinical significance in patients at risk of thrombo-embolic reactions. COX-2 selective inhibitors reduce the formation of systemic (and therefore possibly endothelial) prostacyclin without affecting platelet thromboxane.Celecoxib is a diaryl-substituted pyrazole, chemically similar to other non-arylamine sulfonamides (e.g. thiazides, furosemide) but differs from arylamine sulfonamides (e.g. sulfamethoxizole and other sulfonamide antibiotics).A dose dependent effect on TxB2 formation has been observed after high doses of celecoxib. However, in healthy subjects, in small multiple dose studies with 600 mg BID (three times the highest recommended dose) celecoxib had no effect on platelet aggregation and bleeding time compared to placebo.Several clinical studies have been performed confirming efficacy and safety in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Celecoxib was evaluated for the treatment of the inflammation and pain of OA of the knee and hip in approximately 4200 patients in placebo and active controlled trials of up to 12 weeks duration. It was also evaluated for treatment of the inflammation and pain of RA in approximately 2100 patients in placebo and active controlled trials of up to 24 weeks duration. Celecoxib at daily doses of 200 mg 400 mg provided pain relief within 24 hours of dosing. Celecoxib was evaluated for the symptomatic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in 896 patients in placebo and active controlled trials of up to 12 weeks duration. Celecoxib at doses of 100 mg BID, 200 mg QD, 200 mg BID and 400 mg QD in these studies demonstrated significant improvement in pain, global disease activity and function in ankylosing spondylitis.Five randomised double-blind controlled studies have been conducted including scheduled upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in approximately 4500 patients free from initial ulceration (celecoxib doses from 50 mg-400 mg BID). In twelve week endoscopy studies celecoxib (100-800 mg per day) was associated with a significantly lower risk of gastroduodenal ulcers compared with naproxen (1000 mg per day) and ibuprofen (2400 mg per day). The data were inconsistent in comparison with diclofenac (150 mg per day). In two of the 12-week studies the percentage of patients with endoscopic gastroduodenal ulceration were not significantly different between placebo and celecoxib 200 mg BID and 400 mg BID.In a prospective long-term safety outcome study (6 to 15 month duration, CLASS study), 5,800 OA and 2,200 RA patients received celecoxib 400 mg BID (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg TID or diclofenac 75 mg BID (both at therapeutic doses). Twenty-two percent of enrolled patients took concomitant low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (≤325 mg/day), primarily for cardiovascular prophylaxis. For the primary endpoint complicated ulcers (defined as gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation or obstruction) celecoxib was not significantly different than either ibuprofen or diclofenac individually. Also for the combined NSAID group there was no statically significant difference for complicated ulcers (relative risk 0,77, 95 % CI 0.41-1.46, based on entire study duration). For the combined endpoint, complicated and symptomatic ulcers, the incidence was significantly lower in the celecoxib group compared to the NSAID group, relative risk 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.97 but not between celecoxib and diclofenac. Those patients on celecoxib and concomitant low-dose acetylsalicylic acid experienced 4 fold higher rates of complicated ulcers as compared to those on celecoxib alone. The incidence of clinically significant decreases in haemoglobin (>2 g/dL), confirmed by repeat testing, was significantly lower in patients on celecoxib compared to the NSAID group, relative risk 0.29, 95% CI 0.17- 0.48. The significantly lower incidence of this event with celecoxib was maintained with or without acetylsalicylic acid use.In a prospective randomised 24 week safety study in patients who were aged ≥60 years or had a history of gastroduodenal ulcers (users of ASA excluded), the percentages of patients with decreases in haemoglobin (≥2 g/dL) and/or haematocrit (≥10%) of defined or presumed GI origin were lower in patients treated with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily (N=2238) compared to patients treated with diclofenac SR 75 mg twice daily plus omeprazole 20 mg once daily (N=2246) (0.2% vs. 1.1% for defined GI origin, p = 0.004; 0.4% vs. 2.4% for presumed GI origin, p = 0.0001). The rates of clinically manifest GI complications such as perforation, obstruction or haemorrhage were very low with no differences between the treatment groups (4-5 per group).
Cardiovascular Safety Long-Term Studies Involving Subjects With Sporadic Adenomatous PolypsTwo studies involving subjects with sporadic adenomatous polyps were conducted with celecoxib i.e., the APC trial (Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib) and the PreSAP trial (Prevention of Spontaneous Adenomatous Polyps). In theAPC trial, there was a dose-related increase in the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (adjudicated) with celecoxib compared to placebo over 3 years of treatment. The PreSAP trial did not demonstrate a statistically significant increased risk for the same composite endpoint.In the APC trial, the relative risks compared to placebo for a composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were 3.4 (95% CI 1.4 - 8.5) with celecoxib 400 mg twice daily and 2.8 (95% CI 1.1 - 7.2) with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 3.0% (20/671 subjects) and 2.5% (17/685 subjects), respectively, compared to 0.9% (6/679 subjects) for placebo. The increases for both celecoxib dose groups versus placebo were mainly due to an increased incidence of myocardial infarction.In the PreSAP trial, the relative risk compared to placebo for this same composite endpoint (adjudicated) was 1.2 (95% CI 0.6 - 2.4) with celecoxib 400 mg once daily compared to placebo. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 2.3% (21/933 subjects) and 1.9% (12/628 subjects), respectively. The incidence of myocardial infarction (adjudicated) was 1.0% with (9/933 subjects) with celecoxib 400 mg once daily and 0.6% (4/628 subjects) with placebo.Data from a third long-term study, ADAPT (The Alzheimer's Disease Anti- inflammatory Prevention Trial), did not show a significantly increased cardiovascular risk with celecoxib 200mg BID compared to placebo. The relative risk compared to placebo for a similar composite endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke) was 1.14 (95% CI 0.61 - 2.12) with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily. The incidence of myocardial infarction was 1.1% (8/717 patients) with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily and 1.2% (13/1070 patients) with placebo.
AbsorptionCelecoxib is well absorbed reaching peak plasma concentrations after approximately 2-3 hours. Dosing with food (high fat meal) delays absorption by about 1 hour.
DistributionThe inter-subject variability in the exposure of celecoxib is about 10-fold. Celecoxib exhibits dose- and time-independent pharmacokinetics in the therapeutic dose range. Plasma protein binding is about 97% at therapeutic plasma concentrations and the drug is not preferentially bound to erythrocytes. Elimination half-life is 8-12 hours. Steady state plasma concentrations are reached within 5 days of treatment. Pharmacological activity resides in the parent drug. The main metabolites found in the circulation have no detectable COX-1 or COX-2 activity.
BiotransformationCelecoxib metabolism is primarily mediated via cytochrome P450 2C9. Three metabolites, inactive as COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors, have been identified in human plasma i.e., a primary alcohol, the corresponding carboxylic acid and its glucuronide conjugate.Cytochrome P450 2C9 activity is reduced in individuals with genetic polymorphisms that lead to reduced enzyme activity, such as those homozygous for the CYP2C9*3 polymorphism.In a pharmacokinetic study of celecoxib 200 mg administered once daily in healthy volunteers, genotyped as either CYP2C9*1/*1, CYP2C9*1/*3, or CYP2C9*3/*3, the median Cmax and AUC 0-24 of celecoxib on day 7 were approximately 4-fold and 7- fold, respectively, in subjects genotyped as CYP2C9*3/*3 compared to other genotypes. In three separate single dose studies, involving a total of 5 subjects genotyped as CYP2C9*3/*3, single-dose AUC 0-24 increased by approximately 3- fold compared to normal metabolizers. It is estimated that the frequency of the homozygous *3/*3 genotype is 0.3-1.0% among different ethnic groups.Patients who are known, or suspected to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers based on previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates should be administered celecoxib with caution (see section 4.2).
EliminationCelecoxib is mainly eliminated by metabolism. Less than 1% of the dose is excreted unchanged in urine.
Renal impairmentThere is little experience of celecoxib in renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of celecoxib has not been studied in patients with renal impairment but is unlikely to be markedly changed in these patients. Thus caution is advised when treating patients with renal impairment. Severe renal impairment is contraindicated.
Hepatic impairmentCompared to subjects with normal hepatic function, patients with mild hepatic impairment had a mean increase in Cmax of 53% and in AUC of 26% of celecoxib. The corresponding values in patients with moderate hepatic impairment were 41% and 146% respectively. The metabolic capacity in patients with mild to moderate impairment was best correlated to their albumin values. Treatment should be initiated at half the recommended dose in patients with moderate liver impairment (with serum albumin 25-35g/L). Patients with severe hepatic impairment (serum albumin <25 g/l) have not been studied and celecoxib is contraindicated in this patient group.
ElderlyNo clinically significant differences were found in PK parameters of celecoxib between elderly African-Americans and Caucasians.The plasma concentration of celecoxib is approximately 100% increased in elderly women (>65 years).