This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Insuman Infusat 100 IU/ml solution for injection in a cartridge

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Insuman Infusat 100 IU/ml in a cartridge

Each ml contains 100 IU insulin human (equivalent to 3.5 mg).

Each cartridge contains 3.15 ml of solution for injection, equivalent to 315 IU insulin.

One IU (International Unit) corresponds to 0.035 mg of anhydrous human insulin*.

Insuman Infusat is a neutral insulin solution (regular insulin).

* Human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA technology in Escherichia coli.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Solution for injection .

Clear, colourless solution.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Diabetes mellitus where treatment with insulin is required.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Insuman Infusat has been specially designed for use in external portable insulin pumps. It is specially stabilised to minimise loss of efficacy which may result from mechanical and thermal stress in such pumps. Insuman Infusat is therefore also suitable for continuous insulin infusion with other, conventional injection syringe pumps.

The desired blood glucose levels and the insulin dose regimen must be determined individually and adjusted to suit the patient's diet, physical activity and life-style.

Daily doses and timing of administration

When used in external portable insulin pumps, part of the daily insulin dose is infused continuously ("basal rate"), and the rest is administered in the form of bolus injections before meals. Refer to the operating instructions for detailed information about the infusion pump, its functions and the necessary safety precautions.

There are no fixed rules for insulin dose regimen. However, the average insulin requirement is often 0.5 to 1.0 IU per kg body weight per day. The basal metabolic requirement is 40% to 60% of the total daily requirement. Consequently, about 40% to 60% of the daily dose is administered at a basal rate, and the rest is given as bolus injections before meals.

Secondary dose adjustment

Improved metabolic control may result in increased insulin sensitivity, leading to a reduced insulin requirement. Dose adjustment may also be required, for example, if

- the patient's weight changes,

- the patient's life-style changes,

- other circumstances arise that may promote an increased susceptibility to hypo- or hyperglycaemia (see section 4.4).

Special populations

Elderly population (≧65 years old)

In the elderly, progressive deterioration of renal function may lead to a steady decrease in insulin requirements.

Renal impairment

In patients with renal impairment, insulin requirements may be diminished due to reduced insulin metabolism.

Hepatic impairment

In patients with severe hepatic impairment, insulin requirements may be diminished due to reduced capacity for gluconeogenesis and reduced insulin metabolism.

Method of administration

Insuman Infusat must not be used in peristaltic pumps with silicone tubing. Refer to the technical manual for contraindications relating to the use of insulin pumps.

Insuman Infusat may be infused by the subcutaneous route. It is designed for use in the Hoechst Infusor and H-Tron insulin pumps.

Insuman Infusat in a cartridge may also be used in other insulin pumps for which it has been shown that they are suitable for this insulin and this type of cartridge (see pump manual)

Only tetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene catheters must be used.

Insulin must always be infused under aseptic conditions. This is facilitated by the special equipment available for the insulin pumps (e.g. catheters, cannulas).

Insulin absorption and hence the blood-glucose-lowering effect of a dose may vary from one injection area to another (e.g. the abdominal wall compared with the thigh). The puncture site within a given injection area must be changed regularly (generally, every 1 to 3 days) in order to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy and cutaneous amyloidosis (see section 4.4 and 4.8).

For further details on handling, see section 6.6.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Traceability

In order to improve the traceability of biological medicinal products, the name and the batch number of the administered product should be clearly recorded.

Patients hypersensitive to Insuman Infusat for whom no better tolerated preparation is available must only continue treatment under close medical supervision and – where necessary – in conjunction with anti-allergic treatment.

In patients with an allergy to animal insulin intradermal skin testing is recommended prior to a transfer to Insuman Infusat, since they may experience immunological cross-reactions.

In case of hypoglycaemia, the insulin pump should temporarily be turned off, at least until the patient has recovered complete consciousness.

In case of insufficient glucose control or a tendency to hyper- or hypoglycaemic episodes, the patient's adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen, injection sites and proper injection technique and all other relevant factors must be reviewed before dose adjustment is considered.

Transfer to Insuman Infusat

Transferring a patient to another type or brand of insulin should be done under strict medical supervision. Changes in strength, brand (manufacturer), type (regular, NPH, lente, long-acting, etc.), origin (animal, human, human insulin analogue) and/or method of manufacture may result in the need for a change in dose.

The need to adjust (e.g. reduce) the dose may become evident immediately after transfer. Alternatively, it may emerge gradually over a period of several weeks.

Following transfer from an animal insulin to human insulin, dose regimen reduction may be required in particular in patients who

- were previously already controlled on rather low blood glucose levels,

- have a tendency to hypoglycaemia,

- previously required high insulin doses due to the presence of insulin antibodies.

Close metabolic monitoring is recommended during the transition and in the initial weeks thereafter. In patients who require high insulin doses because of the presence of insulin antibodies, transfer under medical supervision in a hospital or similar setting must be considered.

Patients must be instructed to perform continuous rotation of the injection site to reduce the risk of developing lipodystrophy and cutaneous amyloidosis. There is a potential risk of delayed insulin absorption and worsened glycaemic control following insulin injections at sites with these reactions. A sudden change in the injection site to an unaffected area has been reported to result in hypoglycaemia. Blood glucose monitoring is recommended after the change in the injection site, and dose adjustment of antidiabetic medications may be considered.

Hypoglycaemia

Hypoglycaemia may occur if the insulin dose is too high in relation to the insulin requirement.

Particular caution should be exercised, and intensified blood glucose monitoring is advisable in patients in whom hypoglycaemic episodes might be of particular clinical relevance, such as in patients with significant stenoses of the coronary arteries or of the blood vessels supplying the brain (risk of cardiac or cerebral complications of hypoglycaemia) as well as in patients with proliferative retinopathy, particularly if not treated with photocoagulation (risk of transient amaurosis following hypoglycaemia).

Patients should be aware of circumstances where warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia are diminished. The warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia may be changed, be less pronounced or be absent in certain risk groups. These include patients:

- in whom glycaemic control is markedly improved,

- in whom hypoglycaemia develops gradually,

- who are elderly,

- after transfer from animal insulin to human insulin,

- in whom an autonomic neuropathy is present,

- with a long history of diabetes,

- suffering from a psychiatric illness,

- receiving concurrent treatment with certain other medicinal products (see section 4.5).

Such situations may result in severe hypoglycaemia (and possibly loss of consciousness) prior to the patient's awareness of hypoglycaemia.

If normal or decreased values for glycated haemoglobin are noted, the possibility of recurrent, unrecognised (especially nocturnal) episodes of hypoglycaemia must be considered.

Adherence of the patient to the dose regimen and dietary regimen, correct insulin administration and awareness of hypoglycaemia symptoms are essential to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia. Factors increasing the susceptibility to hypoglycaemia require particularly close monitoring and may necessitate dose adjustment. These include:

- change in the injection area,

- improved insulin sensitivity (e.g. by removal of stress factors),

- unaccustomed, increased or prolonged physical activity,

- intercurrent illness (e.g. vomiting, diarrhoea),

- inadequate food intake,

- missed meals,

- alcohol consumption,

- certain uncompensated endocrine disorders (e.g. in hypothyroidism and in anterior pituitary or adrenocortical insufficiency),

- concomitant treatment with certain other medicinal products (see section 4.5).

Insulin pump faults

Hyperglycaemia, ketoacidosis and coma may develop within hours if the pump catheter is obstructed completely. Whenever the patient notices a rapid increase in blood glucose which does not respond to a bolus dose, a check must be made for possible catheter obstruction.

In the event of a pump malfunction, patients must always have injection devices (injection syringe or pen) and insulin available for subcutaneous injection. For details on safety precautions in the use of insulin pumps, refer to the operator's manual.

Intercurrent illness

Intercurrent illness requires intensified metabolic monitoring. In many cases, urine tests for ketones are indicated, and often it is necessary to adjust the insulin dose. The insulin requirement is often increased. Patients with type 1 diabetes must continue to consume at least a small amount of carbohydrates on a regular basis, even if they are able to eat only little or no food, or are vomiting etc. and they must never omit insulin entirely.

Medication errors

Medication errors have been reported in which other Insuman formulations or other insulins have been accidentally administered. Insulin label must always be checked before each injection to avoid medication errors between insulin human and other insulins.

Combination of Insuman with pioglitazone

Cases of cardiac failure have been reported when pioglitazone was used in combination with insulin, especially in patients with risk factors for development of cardiac heart failure. This should be kept in mind if treatment with the combination of pioglitazone and Insuman is considered. If the combination is used, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure, weight gain and oedema. Pioglitazone should be discontinued if any deterioration in cardiac symptoms occurs.

Sodium

This medicine contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per dose, that is to say essentially 'sodium-free'.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

A number of substances affect glucose metabolism and may require dose adjustment of human insulin.

Substances that may enhance the blood-glucose-lowering effect and increase susceptibility to hypoglycaemia include oral antidiabetic medicinal products, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, pentoxifylline, propoxyphene, salicylates and sulphonamide antibiotics.

Substances that may reduce the blood-glucose-lowering effect include corticosteroids, danazol, diazoxide, diuretics, glucagon, isoniazid, oestrogens and progestogens (e.g. in oral contraceptives), phenothiazine derivatives, somatropin, sympathomimetic medicinal products (e.g. epinephrine [adrenaline], salbutamol, terbutaline), thyroid hormones, protease inhibitors and atypical antipsychotic medicinal products (e.g. olanzapine and clozapine).

Beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts or alcohol may either potentiate or weaken the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulin. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycaemia which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycaemia.

In addition, under the influence of sympatholytic medicinal products such as beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine and reserpine, the signs of adrenergic counter-regulation may be reduced or absent.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

For insulin human, no clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available. Insulin does not cross the placental barrier. Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant women.

It is essential for patients with pre-existing or gestational diabetes to maintain good metabolic control throughout pregnancy. Insulin requirements may decrease during the first trimester and generally increase during the second and third trimesters. Immediately after delivery, insulin requirements decline rapidly (increased risk of hypoglycaemia). Careful monitoring of glucose control is essential.

Breast-feeding

No effects on the suckling child are anticipated. Insuman Infusat can be used during breast-feeding. Breast-feeding women may require adjustments in insulin dose and diet.

Fertility

No clinical or animal data with insulin human on male or female fertility are available.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The patient's ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia or, for example, as a result of visual impairment. This may constitute a risk in situations where these abilities are of special importance (e.g. driving a car or using machines).

Patients should be advised to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia whilst driving. This is particularly important in those who have reduced or absent awareness of the warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia or have frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia. It should be considered whether it is advisable to drive or use machines in these circumstances.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

Hypoglycaemia, in general the most frequent adverse reaction of insulin therapy, may occur if the insulin dose is too high in relation to the insulin requirement. In clinical studies and during marketed use, the frequency varies with patient population and dose regimens. Therefore, no specific frequency can be presented.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The following related adverse reactions from clinical investigations are listed below by system organ class and in order of decreasing incidence: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

MedDRA system organ classes

Common

Uncommon

Not known

Immune system disorders

Shock

Immediate type allergic reactions (hypotension, angioneurotic oedema, bronchospasm, generalised skin reactions);

Anti-insulin antibodies

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Oedema

Hypoglycaemia;

Sodium retention

Eye disorders

Proliferative retinopathy;

Diabetic retinopathy;

Visual impairment

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Lipodystrophy;

Cutaneous amyloidosis

General disorders and administration site conditions

Injection site reactions

Injection site urticaria

Injection site inflammation;

Injection site pain;

Injection site pruritus;

Injection site erythema; Injection site swelling

Description of selected adverse reactions

Immune system disorders

Immediate type allergic reactions to insulin or to the excipients may be life-threatening.

Insulin administration may cause anti-insulin antibodies to form. In rare cases, the presence of such anti-insulin antibodies may necessitate adjustment of the insulin dose in order to correct a tendency to hyper- or hypoglycaemia.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Severe hypoglycaemic attacks, especially if recurrent, may lead to neurological damage.

Prolonged or severe hypoglycaemic episodes may be life-threatening.

In many patients, the signs and symptoms of neuroglycopenia are preceded by signs of adrenergic counter-regulation. Generally, the greater and more rapid the decline in blood glucose, the more marked is the phenomenon of counter-regulation and its symptoms.

Insulin may cause sodium retention and oedema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.

Eyes disorders

A marked change in glycaemic control may cause temporary visual impairment, due to temporary alteration in the turgidity and refractive index of the lens.

Long-term improved glycaemic control decreases the risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy. However, intensification of insulin therapy with abrupt improvement in glycaemic control may be associated with temporary worsening of diabetic retinopathy.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Lipodystrophy and cutaneous amyloidosis may occur at the injection site and delay local insulin absorption. Continuous rotation of the injection site within the given injection area may help to reduce or prevent these reactions (see section 4.4).

General disorders and administration site conditions

Most minor reactions to insulins at the injection site usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms

Insulin overdose may lead to severe and sometimes long-term and life-threatening hypoglycaemia.

Management

Mild episodes of hypoglycaemia can usually be treated with oral carbohydrates. Adjustments in dose regimen of the medicinal product, meal patterns, or physical activity may be needed.

More severe episodes with coma, seizure, or neurologic impairment may be treated with intramuscular/subcutaneous glucagon or concentrated intravenous glucose. Sustained carbohydrate intake and observation may be necessary because hypoglycaemia may recur after apparent clinical recovery.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs used in diabetes, insulins and analogues for injection, fast-acting, ATC Code: A10AB01.

Mechanism of action

Insulin

- lowers blood glucose and promotes anabolic effects as well as decreasing catabolic effects,

- increases the transport of glucose into cells as well as the formation of glycogen in themuscles and the liver, and improves pyruvate utilisation. It inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis,

- increases lipogenesis in the liver and adipose tissue and inhibits lipolysis,

- promotes the uptake of amino acids into cells and promotes protein synthesis,

- enhances the uptake of potassium into cells.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Insuman Infusat is an insulin with rapid onset and short duration of action.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

In healthy subjects, the serum half-life of insulin is approximately 4 to 6 minutes. It is longer in patients with severe renal insufficiency. However, it must be noted that the pharmacokinetics of insulin do not reflect its metabolic action.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

The acute toxicity was studied following subcutaneous administration in rats. No evidence of toxic effects was found. Local tolerability studies following subcutaneous and intramuscular administration in rabbits gave no remarkable findings. Studies of pharmacodynamic effects following subcutaneous administration in rabbits and dogs revealed the expected hypoglycaemic reactions.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Phenol,

zinc chloride,

trometamol,

poloxamer 171,

glycerol,

sodium hydroxide,

hydrochloric acid (for pH adjustment),

water for injections.

6.2 Incompatibilities

This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in section 6.6.

Insuman Infusat must not be mixed with solutions containing reducing substances such as thioles and sulphites.

Mixing of insulins

Insuman Infusat must not be mixed with any other insulin or with insulin analogues.

Care must be taken to ensure that no alcohol or other disinfectants enter the insulin solution.

6.3 Shelf life

Insuman Infusat 100 IU/ml in a cartridge

2 years.

Shelf life after first use of the cartridge

The product (cartridges in-use in the pump) may be stored for a maximum of 2 weeks.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Unopened cartridges

Store in a refrigerator (2°C - 8°C).

Do not freeze.

Do not put Insuman Infusat next to the freezer compartment or a freezer pack.

Keep the cartridge in the outer carton in order to protect from light.

In-use cartridges

For storage conditions after first opening of the medicinal product, see section 6.3.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Insuman Infusat 100 IU/ml in a cartridge

3.15 ml solution in a cartridge (type 1 colourless glass) with a plunger (fluoropolymer coated rubber (type 1, mixture of chlorobutyl and natural rubber)), a flanged cap (aluminium) and a stopper with hole (bromobutyl rubber (type 1), a Luer cone attachment (colourless polyethylene) and a Luer cap (colourless polyethylene).

Packs of 5 cartridges are available.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Insuman Infusat 100 IU/ml in a cartridge

Insuman Infusat must only be used if the solution is clear, colourless, with no solid particles visible, and if it is of a water-like consistency.

Before use, Insuman Infusat must be kept at room temperature for 1 to 2 hours. Air bubbles must be removed before starting the infusion (see the operator's manual for the pump).

If the infusion pump malfunctions, the solution may be drawn from the cartridge into an injection syringe (suitable for an insulin with 100 IU/ml) and injected.

Insuman Infusat must not be used in peristaltic pumps with silicone tubing. Refer to the technical manual for contraindications relating to the use of insulin pumps.

It must be remembered that neutral regular insulin precipitates out at a pH of approximately 4.5 to 6.5.

Insulin label must always be checked before each injection to avoid medication errors between insulin human and other insulins (see section 4.4).

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, D-65926 Frankfurt am Main, Germany

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

EU/1/97/030/054

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation: 21 February 1997

Date of latest renewal: 21 February 2007

10. Date of revision of the text

10 August 2020

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu