This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Tenofovir disoproxil Milpharm 204 mg film-coated tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each film-coated tablet contains 204 mg of tenofovir disoproxil (as fumarate).

Excipient with known effect: Each tablet contains 93.22 mg lactose (as monohydrate).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablet.

White to off white, capsule shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets debossed with '250' on one side and 'T' on the other side. The size is 16.2 mm x 7.2 mm

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Tenofovir disoproxil Aurobindo 204 mg film-coated tabletsare indicated in combination with other antiretroviral medicinal products for the treatment of HIV-1 infected paediatric patients, with NRTI resistance or toxicities precluding the use of first line agents, aged 6 to < 12 years who weigh from 28 kg to less than 35 kg.

The choice of Tenofovir disoproxil Aurobindo to treat antiretroviral-experienced patients with HIV-1 infection should be based on individual viral resistance testing and/or treatment history of patients.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Therapy should be initiated by a physician experienced in the management of HIV infection.

Posology

The recommended dose for HIV-1 infected paediatric patients aged 6 to < 12 years weighing 28 kg to < 35 kg who are able to swallow film-coated tablets is one 204 mg tablet once daily taken orally with food.

Please refer to the Summaries of Product Characteristics for tenofovir disoproxil 123 mg and 163 mg film-coated tablets for the treatment of HIV-1 infected paediatric patients aged 6 to < 12 years weighing 17 kg to < 22 kg and 22 kg to < 28 kg, respectively.

For treatment of HIV-1 infected paediatric patients aged 2 to < 12 years who weigh < 17 kg or who are unable to swallow film-coated tablets other suitable formulations should be checked for their availability.

Missed dose

If a patient misses a dose of Tenofovir disoproxil Aurobindo within 12 hours of the time it is usually taken, the patient should take Tenofovir disoproxil Aurobindo with food as soon as possible and resume their normal dosing schedule. If a patient misses a dose of Tenofovir disoproxil Aurobindo by more than 12 hours and it is almost time for their next dose, the patient should not take the missed dose and simply resume the usual dosing schedule.

If the patient vomits within 1 hour of taking Tenofovir disoproxil Aurobindo, another tablet should be taken. If the patient vomits more than 1 hour after taking Tenofovir disoproxil Aurobindo they do not need to take another dose.

Special populations

Renal impairment

The use of tenofovir disoproxil is not recommended in paediatric patients with renal impairment (see section 4.4).

Hepatic impairment

No dose adjustment is required in patients with hepatic impairment (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).

If tenofovir disoproxil 204 mg film-coated tablets are discontinued in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV), these patients should be closely monitored for evidence of exacerbation of hepatitis (see section 4.4).

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil in HIV-1 infected children under 2 years of age have not been established. No data are available.

The safety and efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil in children with chronic hepatitis B aged 2 to < 12 years or weighing < 35 kg have not been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

Tenofovir disoproxil Aurobindo 204 mg film-coated tablets should be taken once daily, orally with food.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

General

While effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy has been proven to substantially reduce the risk of sexual transmission, a residual risk cannot be excluded. Precautions to prevent transmission should be taken in accordance with national guidelines.

Co-administration of other medicinal products

- Tenofovir disoproxil Milpharm should not be administered concomitantly with other medicinal products containing tenofovir disoproxil or tenofovir alafenamide.

- Tenofovir disoproxil Milpharm should not be administered concomitantly with adefovir dipivoxil.

- Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine is not recommended.

Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine results in a 40-60% increase in systemic exposure to didanosine that may increase the risk of didanosine-related adverse reactions (see section 4.5). Rarely, pancreatitis and lactic acidosis, sometimes fatal, have been reported. Co- administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine at a dose of 400 mg daily has been associated with a significant decrease in CD4 cell count, possibly due to an intracellular interaction increasing phosphorylated (i.e. active) didanosine. A decreased dosage of 250 mg didanosine co-administered with tenofovir disoproxil therapy has been associated with reports of high rates of virological failure within several tested combinations for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

Triple therapy with nucleosides/nucleotides

There have been reports of a high rate of virological failure and of emergence of resistance at an early stage in HIV patients when tenofovir disoproxil was combined with lamivudine and abacavir as well as with lamivudine and didanosine as a once-daily regimen.

Renal and bone effects in adult population

Renal effects

Tenofovir is principally eliminated via the kidney. Renal failure, renal impairment, elevated creatinine, hypophosphataemia and proximal tubulopathy (including Fanconi syndrome) have been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil in clinical practice (see section 4.8).

Renal impairment

Renal safety with tenofovir has only been studied to a very limited degree in adult patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance < 80 ml/min).

Bone effects

In HIV infected patients, in a 144-week controlled clinical study that compared tenofovir disoproxil with stavudine in combination with lamivudine and efavirenz in antiretroviral-naïve adult patients, small decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine were observed in both treatment groups. Decreases in BMD of spine and changes in bone biomarkers from baseline were significantly greater in the tenofovir disoproxil treatment group at 144 weeks. Decreases in BMD of hip were significantly greater in this group until 96 weeks. However, there was no increased risk of fractures or evidence for clinically relevant bone abnormalities over 144 weeks.

In other studies (prospective and cross-sectional), the most pronounced decreases in BMD were seen in patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil as part of a regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor. Alternative treatment regimens should be considered for patients with osteoporosis that are at a high risk for fractures.

Bone abnormalities (infrequently contributing to fractures) may be associated with proximal renal tubulopathy (see section 4.8).

Renal and bone effects in paediatric population

There are uncertainties associated with the long term effects of bone and renal toxicity. Moreover, the reversibility of renal toxicity cannot be fully ascertained. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended to adequately weigh on a case by case basis the benefit/risk balance of treatment, decide the appropriate monitoring during treatment (including decision for treatment withdrawal) and consider the need for supplementation.

Renal effects

Renal adverse reactions consistent with proximal renal tubulopathy have been reported in HIV-1 infected paediatric patients aged 2 to < 12 years in clinical study GS-US-104-0352 (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).

Renal monitoring

It is recommended that renal function (creatinine clearance and serum phosphate) is assessed in all patients prior to initiating therapy with tenofovir disoproxil and that it is also monitored after two to four weeks of treatment, after three months of treatment and every three to six months thereafter in patients without renal risk factors. In patients at risk for renal impairment, a more frequent monitoring of renal function is required.

Renal management

If serum phosphate is confirmed to be < 3.0 mg/dl (0.96 mmol/l) in any paediatric patient receiving tenofovir disoproxil, renal function should be re-evaluated within one week, including measurements of blood glucose, blood potassium and urine glucose concentrations (see section 4.8, proximal tubulopathy). If renal abnormalities are suspected or detected then consultation with a nephrologist should be obtained to consider interruption of tenofovir disoproxil treatment. Interrupting treatment with tenofovir disoproxil should also be considered in case of progressive decline of renal function when no other cause has been identified.

Co-administration and risk of renal toxicity

Use of tenofovir disoproxil should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic medicinal product (e.g. aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, foscarnet, ganciclovir, pentamidine, vancomycin, cidofovir or interleukin-2). If concomitant use of tenofovir disoproxil and nephrotoxic agents is unavoidable, renal function should be monitored weekly.

Cases of acute renal failure after initiation of high dose or multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported in patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil and with risk factors for renal dysfunction. If tenofovir disoproxil is co-administered with an NSAID, renal function should be monitored adequately.

A higher risk of renal impairment has been reported in patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil in combination with a ritonavir or cobicistat boosted protease inhibitor. A close monitoring of renal function is required in these patients (see section 4.5). In patients with renal risk factors, the co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil with a boosted protease inhibitor should be carefully evaluated.

Tenofovir disoproxil has not been clinically evaluated in patients receiving medicinal products which are secreted by the same renal pathway, including the transport proteins human organic anion transporter (hOAT) 1 and 3 or MRP 4 (e.g. cidofovir, a known nephrotoxic medicinal product). These renal transport proteins may be responsible for tubular secretion and in part, renal elimination of tenofovir and cidofovir. Consequently, the pharmacokinetics of these medicinal products, which are secreted by the same renal pathway including transport proteins hOAT 1 and 3 or MRP 4, might be modified if they are co-administered. Unless clearly necessary, concomitant use of these medicinal products which are secreted by the same renal pathway is not recommended, but if such use is unavoidable, renal function should be monitored weekly (see section 4.5).

Renal impairment

The use of tenofovir disoproxil is not recommended in paediatric patients with renal impairment (see section 4.2). Tenofovir disoproxil should not be initiated in paediatric patients with renal impairment and should be discontinued in paediatric patients who develop renal impairment during tenofovir disoproxil therapy.

Bone effects

Tenofovir disoproxil may cause a reduction in BMD. The effects of tenofovir disoproxil-associated changes in BMD on long-term bone health and future fracture risk are currently unknown (see section 5.1).

If bone abnormalities are detected or suspected in paediatric patients, consultation with an endocrinologist and/or nephrologist should be obtained.

Patients with HIV and hepatitis B or C virus co-infection

Patients with chronic hepatitis B or C and treated with antiretroviral therapy are at an increased risk for severe and potentially fatal hepatic adverse reactions.

Physicians should refer to current HIV treatment guidelines for the optimal management of HIV infection in patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV).

In case of concomitant antiviral therapy for hepatitis B or C, please refer also to the relevant Summary of Product Characteristics for these medicinal products.

Discontinuation of tenofovir disoproxil therapy in patients co-infected with HIV and HBV may be associated with severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis. Patients co-infected with HIV and HBV who discontinue tenofovir disoproxil should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least 6 months after stopping treatment. In patients with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, treatment discontinuation is not recommended since post-treatment exacerbation of hepatitis may lead to hepatic decompensation.

Use with certain hepatitis C virus antiviral agents

Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir or sofosbuvir/velpatasvir has been shown to increase plasma concentrations of tenofovir, especially when used together with an HIV regimen containing tenofovir disoproxil and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (ritonavir or cobicistat). The safety of tenofovir disoproxil in the setting of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir or sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and a pharmacokinetic enhancer has not been established. The potential risks and benefits associated with co-administration of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir or sofosbuvir/velpatasvir with tenofovir disoproxil given in conjunction with a boosted HIV protease inhibitor (e.g. atazanavir or darunavir) should be considered, particularly in patients at increased risk of renal dysfunction. Patients receiving ledipasvir/sofosbuvir or sofosbuvir/velpatasvir concomitantly with tenofovir disoproxil and a boosted HIV protease inhibitor should be monitored for adverse reactions related to tenofovir disoproxil.

Liver disease

Tenofovir and tenofovir disoproxil are not metabolised by liver enzymes. A pharmacokinetic study has been performed in non-HIV infected adult patients with various degrees of hepatic impairment. No significant pharmacokinetic alteration has been observed in these patients (see section 5.2).

Patients with pre-existing liver dysfunction, including chronic active hepatitis, have an increased frequency of liver function abnormalities during combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) and should be monitored according to standard practice. If there is evidence of worsening liver disease in such patients, interruption or discontinuation of treatment must be considered.

Weight and metabolic parameters

An increase in weight and in levels of blood lipids and glucose may occur during antiretroviral therapy. Such changes may in part be linked to disease control and life style. For lipids, there is in some cases evidence for a treatment effect, while for weight gain there is no strong evidence relating this to any particular treatment. For monitoring of blood lipids and glucose reference is made to established HIV treatment guidelines. Lipid disorders should be managed as clinically appropriate.

Mitochondrial dysfunction following exposure in utero

Nucleos(t)ide analogues may impact mitochondrial function to a variable degree, which is most pronounced with stavudine, didanosine and zidovudine. There have been reports of mitochondrial dysfunction in HIV negative infants exposed in utero and/or postnatally to nucleoside analogues; these have predominantly concerned treatment with regimens containing zidovudine. The main adverse reactions reported are haematological disorders (anaemia, neutropenia) and metabolic disorders (hyperlactatemia, hyperlipasemia). These events have often been transitory. Late onset neurological disorders have been reported rarely (hypertonia, convulsion, abnormal behaviour). Whether such neurological disorders are transient or permanent is currently unknown. These findings should be considered for any child exposed in utero to nucleos(t)ide analogues, who present with severe clinical findings of unknown etiology, particularly neurologic findings. These findings do not affect current national recommendations to use antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission of HIV.

Immune reactivation syndrome

In HIV infected patients with severe immune deficiency at the time of institution of CART, an inflammatory reaction to asymptomatic or residual opportunistic pathogens may arise and cause serious clinical conditions, or aggravation of symptoms. Typically, such reactions have been observed within the first few weeks or months of initiation of CART. Relevant examples are cytomegalovirus retinitis, generalised and/or focal mycobacterial infections, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Any inflammatory symptoms should be evaluated and treatment instituted when necessary.

Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease and autoimmune hepatitis) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reactivation; however, the reported time to onset is more variable and these events can occur many months after initiation of treatment.

Osteonecrosis

Although the aetiology is considered to be multifactorial (including corticosteroid use, alcohol consumption, severe immunosuppression, higher body mass index), cases of osteonecrosis have been reported, particularly in patients with advanced HIV disease and/or long-term exposure to CART. Patients should be advised to seek medical advice if they experience joint aches and pain, joint stiffness or difficulty in movement.

Tenofovir disoproxil Milpharm 204 mg film-coated tablets contain lactose monohydrate. Consequently, patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency, or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

Based on the results of in vitro experiments and the known elimination pathway of tenofovir, the potential for CYP450-mediated interactions involving tenofovir with other medicinal products is low.

Concomitant use not recommended

Tenofovir disoproxil Milpharm should not be administered concomitantly with other medicinal products containing tenofovir disoproxil or tenofovir alafenamide.

Tenofovir disoproxil should not be administered concomitantly with adefovir dipivoxil.

Didanosine

Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine is not recommended (see section 4.4 and Table 1).

Renally eliminated medicinal products

Since tenofovir is primarily eliminated by the kidneys, co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil with medicinal products that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion via transport proteins hOAT 1, hOAT 3 or MRP 4 (e.g. cidofovir) may increase serum concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered medicinal products.

Use of tenofovir disoproxil should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic medicinal product. Some examples include, but are not limited to, aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, foscarnet, ganciclovir, pentamidine, vancomycin, cidofovir or interleukin-2 (see section 4.4).

Given that tacrolimus can affect renal function, close monitoring is recommended when it is co-administered with tenofovir disoproxil.

Other interactions

Interactions between tenofovir disoproxil and other medicinal products are listed in Table 1 below (increase is indicated as “↑”, decrease as “↓”, no change as “↔”, twice daily as “b.i.d.”, and once daily as “q.d.”).

Table 1: Interactions between tenofovir disoproxil and other medicinal products

Medicinal product by therapeutic areas (dose in mg)

Effects on drug levels Mean percent change in AUC, Cmax, Cmin

Recommendation concerning co-administration with 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil (as fumarate)

ANTI-INFECTIVES

Antiretrovirals

Protease inhibitors

Atazanavir/Ritonavir

(300 q.d./100 q.d./300 q.d.)

Atazanavir:

AUC: ↓ 25%

Cmax: ↓ 28%

Cmin: ↓ 26%

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 37%

Cmax: ↑ 34%

Cmin: ↑ 29%

No dose adjustment is recommended. The increased exposure of tenofovir could potentiate tenofovir-associated adverse events, including renal disorders. Renal function should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).

Lopinavir/Ritonavir

(400 b.i.d./100 b.i.d./300 q.d.)

Lopinavir/ritonavir:

No significant effect on lopinavir/ritonavir

PK parameters.

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 32%

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 51%

No dose adjustment is recommended. The increased exposure of tenofovir could potentiate tenofovir-associated adverse events, including renal disorders. Renal function should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).

Darunavir/Ritonavir

(300/100 b.i.d./300 q.d.)

Darunavir:

No significant effect on darunavir/ritonavir

PK parameters.

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 22%

Cmin: ↑ 37%

No dose adjustment is recommended. The increased exposure of tenofovir could potentiate tenofovir-associated adverse events, including renal disorders. Renal function should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).

NRTIs

Didanosine

Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine results in a 40-60% increase in systemic exposure to didanosine that may increase the risk for didanosine-related adverse reactions. Rarely, pancreatitis and lactic acidosis, sometimes fatal, have been reported.

Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine at a dose of 400 mg daily has been associated with a significant decrease in CD4 cell count, possibly due to an intracellular interaction increasing phosphorylated (i.e. active) didanosine. A decreased dosage of 250 mg didanosine co-administered with tenofovir disoproxil therapy has been associated with reports of high rates of virological failure within several tested combinations for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine is not recommended (see section 4.4).

Adefovir dipivoxil

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Tenofovir disoproxil should not be administered concurrently with adefovir dipivoxil (see section 4.4).

Hepatitis C virus antiviral agents

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir

(90 mg/400 mg q.d.) +

Atazanavir/Ritonavir

(300 mg q.d./100 mg q.d.) +

Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(200 mg/300 mg q.d.)1

Ledipasvir:

AUC: ↑ 96%

Cmax: ↑ 68%

Cmin: ↑ 118%

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 42%

Atazanavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 63%

Ritonavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 45%

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↑ 47%

Cmin: ↑ 47%

Increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir resulting from co- administration of tenofovir disoproxil, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and atazanavir/ritonavir may increase adverse reactions related to tenofovir disoproxil, including renal disorders. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil when used with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring, if other alternatives are not available (see section 4.4).

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir

(90 mg/400 mg q.d.) +

Darunavir/Ritonavir

(800 mg q.d./100 mg q.d.) +

Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(200 mg/300 mg q.d.)1

Ledipasvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↓ 27%

Cmax: ↓ 37%

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Darunavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Ritonavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 48%

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 50%

Cmax: ↑ 64%

Cmin: ↑ 59%

Increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir resulting from co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and darunavir/ritonavir may increase adverse reactions related to tenofovir disoproxil, including renal disorders. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil when used with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring, if other alternatives are not available (see section 4.4).

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir

(90 mg/400 mg q.d.) +

Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(600 mg/200 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Ledipasvir:

AUC: ↓ 34%

Cmax: ↓ 34%

Cmin: ↓ 34%

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Efavirenz:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 98%

Cmax: ↑ 79%

Cmin: ↑ 163%

No dose adjustment is recommended. The increased exposure of tenofovir could potentiate adverse reactions associated with tenofovir disoproxil, including renal disorders. Renal function should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir

(90 mg/400 mg q.d.) +

Emtricitabine/Rilpivirine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(200 mg/25 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Ledipasvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Rilpivirine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 40%

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 91%

No dose adjustment is recommended. The increased exposure of tenofovir could potentiate adverse reactions associated with tenofovir disoproxil, including renal disorders. Renal function should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir

(90 mg/400 mg q.d.) +

Dolutegravir (50 mg q.d.) +

Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil (200 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

GS-3310072

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Ledipasvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Dolutegravir

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 65%

Cmax: ↑ 61%

Cmin: ↑ 115%

No dose adjustment is recommended. The increased exposure of tenofovir could potentiate adverse reactions associated with tenofovir disoproxil, including renal disorders.

Renal function should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).

Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir

(400 mg/100 mg q.d.) +

Atazanavir/Ritonavir

(300 mg q.d./100 mg q.d.) +

Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(200 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 42%

Velpatasvir:

AUC: ↑ 142%

Cmax: ↑ 55%

Cmin: ↑ 301%

Atazanavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 39%

Ritonavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↑ 29%

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↑ 55%

Cmin: ↑ 39%

Increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir resulting from co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and atazanavir/ritonavir may increase adverse reactions related to tenofovir disoproxil, including renal disorders. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil when used with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring (see section 4.4).

Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir

(400 mg/100 mg q.d.) +

Darunavir/Ritonavir

(800 mg q.d./100 mg q.d.) +

Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(200 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↓28%

Cmax: ↓ 38%

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Velpatasvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↓ 24%

Cmin: ↔

Darunavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Ritonavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 39%

Cmax: ↑ 55%

Cmin: ↑ 52%

Increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir resulting from co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and darunavir/ritonavir may increase adverse reactions related to tenofovir disoproxil , including renal disorders. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil when used with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring (see section 4.4).

Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir

(400 mg/100 mg q.d.) +

Lopinavir/Ritonavir

(800 mg/200 mg q.d.) +

Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(200 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↓ 29%

Cmax: ↓ 41%

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Velpatasvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↓ 30%

Cmin: ↑ 63%

Lopinavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Ritonavir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↑ 42%

Cmin: ↔

Increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir resulting from co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and lopinavir/ritonavir may increase adverse reactions related to tenofovir disoproxil , including renal disorders. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil when used with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring (see section 4.4).

Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir

(400 mg/100 mg q.d.) +

Raltegravir

(400 mg b.i.d) +

Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(200 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Velpatasvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Raltegravir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↓ 21%

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 40%

Cmax: ↑ 46%

Cmin: ↑ 70%

No dose adjustment is recommended. The increased exposure of tenofovir could potentiate adverse reactions associated with tenofovir disoproxil , including renal disorders.

Renal function should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).

Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir

(400 mg/100 mg q.d.) +

Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(600 mg/200 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↑ 38%

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Velpatasvir:

AUC: ↓ 53%

Cmax: ↓ 47%

Cmin: ↓ 57%

Efavirenz:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 81%

Cmax: ↑ 77%

Cmin: ↑ 121%

Concomitant administration of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and efavirenz is expected to decrease plasma concentrations of velpatasvir.

Co-administration of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir with efavirenz-containing regimens is not recommended.

Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir

(400 mg/100 mg q.d.) +

Emtricitabine/Rilpivirine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(200 mg/25 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Velpatasvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Rilpivirine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↑ 40%

Cmax: ↑ 44%

Cmin: ↑ 84%

No dose adjustment is recommended. The increased exposure of tenofovir could potentiate adverse reactions associated with tenofovir disoproxil, including renal disorders.

Renal function should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).

Sofosbuvir

(400 mg q.d.) +

Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil

(600 mg/200 mg/300 mg q.d.)

Sofosbuvir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↓ 19%

GS-3310072:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↓ 23%

Efavirenz:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Emtricitabine:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↔

Cmin: ↔

Tenofovir:

AUC: ↔

Cmax: ↑ 25%

Cmin: ↔

No dose adjustment is required.

1 Data generated from simultaneous dosing with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Staggered administration (12 hours apart) provided similar results.

2 The predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir.

Studies conducted with other medicinal products

There were no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions when tenofovir disoproxil was co-administered with emtricitabine, lamivudine, indinavir, efavirenz, nelfinavir, saquinavir (ritonavir boosted), methadone, ribavirin, rifampicin, tacrolimus, or the hormonal contraceptive norgestimate/ethinyl oestradiol.

Tenofovir disoproxil must be taken with food, as food enhances the bioavailability of tenofovir (see section 5.2).

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

A moderate amount of data on pregnant women (between 300-1,000 pregnancy outcomes) indicate no malformations or foetal/neonatal toxicity associated with tenofovir disoproxil. Animal studies do not indicate reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The use of tenofovir disoproxil may be considered during pregnancy, if necessary.

Breast-feeding

Tenofovir has been shown to be excreted in human milk. There is insufficient information on the effects of tenofovir in newborns/infants. Therefore tenofovir disoproxil should not be used during breast-feeding.

As a general rule, it is recommended that HIV infected women do not breast-feed their infants in order to avoid transmission of HIV to the infant.

Fertility

There are limited clinical data with respect to the effect of tenofovir disoproxil on fertility. Animal studies do not indicate harmful effects of tenofovir disoproxil on fertility.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, patients should be informed that dizziness has been reported during treatment with tenofovir disoproxil.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

In patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil, rare events of renal impairment, renal failure and uncommon events of proximal renal tubulopathy (including Fanconi syndrome) sometimes leading to bone abnormalities (infrequently contributing to fractures) have been reported. Monitoring of renal function is recommended for patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil (see section 4.4).

Approximately one third of patients can be expected to experience adverse reactions following treatment with tenofovir disoproxil in combination with other antiretroviral agents. These reactions are usually mild to moderate gastrointestinal events. Approximately 1% of tenofovir disoproxil-treated adult patients discontinued treatment due to the gastrointestinal events.

Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine is not recommended as this may result in an increased risk of adverse reactions (see section 4.5). Rarely, pancreatitis and lactic acidosis, sometimes fatal, have been reported (see section 4.4).

Discontinuation of tenofovir disoproxil in patients co-infected with HIV and HBV may be associated with severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis (see section 4.4).

Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

Assessment of adverse reactions for tenofovir disoproxil is based on safety data from clinical studies and post-marketing experience. All adverse reactions are presented in Table 2. Assessment of adverse reactions from HIV-1 clinical study data is based on experience in two studies in 653 treatment-experienced adult patients receiving treatment with tenofovir disoproxil (n = 443) or placebo (n = 210) in combination with other antiretroviral medicinal products for 24 weeks and also in a double-blind comparative controlled study in which 600 treatment-naïve adult patients received treatment with tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg) (n = 299) or stavudine (n = 301) in combination with lamivudine and efavirenz for 144 weeks.

The adverse reactions with suspected (at least possible) relationship to treatment are listed below by body system organ class and frequency. Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100) or rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000).

Table 2: Tabulated summary of adverse reactions associated with tenofovir disoproxil based on clinical study and post-marketing experience

Frequency

Tenofovir disoproxil

Metabolism and nutrition disorders:

Very common:

hypophosphataemia1

Uncommon:

hypokalaemia1

Rare:

lactic acidosis

Nervous system disorders:

Very common:

dizziness

Gastrointestinal disorders:

Very common:

diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea

Common:

flatulence

Uncommon:

pancreatitis

Hepatobiliary disorders:

Common:

increased transaminases

Rare:

hepatic steatosis, hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:

Very common:

rash

Rare:

angioedema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders:

Uncommon:

rhabdomyolysis1, muscular weakness1

Rare:

osteomalacia (manifested as bone pain and infrequently contributing to fractures)1, 2, myopathy1

Renal and urinary disorders:

Uncommon:

increased creatinine, proximal renal tubulopathy (including Fanconi syndrome)

Rare:

acute renal failure, renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, nephritis (including acute interstitial nephritis)2, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

General disorders and administration site conditions:

Very common:

asthenia

1 This adverse reaction may occur as a consequence of proximal renal tubulopathy. It is not considered to be causally associated with tenofovir disoproxil in the absence of this condition.

2 This adverse reaction was identified through post-marketing surveillance but not observed in randomised controlled clinical trials or the tenofovir disoproxil expanded access program. The frequency category was estimated from a statistical calculation based on the total number of patients exposed to tenofovir disoproxil in randomised controlled clinical trials and the expanded access program (n = 7,319).

Description of selected adverse reactions

Renal impairment

As tenofovir disoproxil may cause renal damage monitoring of renal function is recommended (see sections 4.4 and 4.8 Summary of the safety profile). Proximal renal tubulopathy generally resolved or improved after tenofovir disoproxil discontinuation. However, in some patients, declines in creatinine clearance did not completely resolve despite tenofovir disoproxil discontinuation. Patients at risk of renal impairment (such as patients with baseline renal risk factors, advanced HIV disease, or patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic medications) are at increased risk of experiencing incomplete recovery of renal function despite tenofovir disoproxil discontinuation (see section 4.4).

Interaction with didanosine

Co-administration of tenofovir disoproxil and didanosine is not recommended as it results in a 40-60% increase in systemic exposure to didanosine that may increase the risk of didanosine-related adverse reactions (see section 4.5). Rarely, pancreatitis and lactic acidosis, sometimes fatal, have been reported.

Metabolic parameters

Weight and levels of blood lipids and glucose may increase during antiretroviral therapy (see section 4.4).

Immune reactivation syndrome

In HIV infected patients with severe immune deficiency at the time of initiation of CART, an inflammatory reaction to asymptomatic or residual opportunistic infections may arise. Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease and autoimmune hepatitis) have also been reported; however, the reported time to onset is more variable and these events can occur many months after initiation of treatment (see section 4.4).

Osteonecrosis

Cases of osteonecrosis have been reported, particularly in patients with generally acknowledged risk factors, advanced HIV disease or long-term exposure to CART. The frequency of this is unknown (see section 4.4).

Paediatric population

Assessment of adverse reactions is based on two randomised trials (studies GS-US-104-0321 and GS- US-104-0352) in 184 HIV-1 infected paediatric patients (aged 2 to < 18 years) who received treatment with tenofovir disoproxil (n = 93) or placebo/active comparator (n = 91) in combination with other antiretroviral agents for 48 weeks (see section 5.1). The adverse reactions observed in paediatric patients who received treatment with tenofovir disoproxil were consistent with those observed in clinical studies of tenofovir disoproxil in adults (see section 4.8 Tabulated summary of adverse reactions and 5.1).

Reductions in BMD have been reported in paediatric patients. In HIV-1 infected adolescents, the BMD Z-scores observed in subjects who received tenofovir disoproxil were lower than those observed in subjects who received placebo. In HIV-1 infected children, the BMD Z-scores observed in subjects who switched to tenofovir disoproxil were lower than those observed in subjects who remained on their stavudine- or zidovudine-containing regimen (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

In study GS-US-104-0352, 4 out of 89 paediatric patients exposed to tenofovir disoproxil (median tenofovir disoproxil exposure 312 weeks) discontinued due to adverse reactions consistent with proximal renal tubulopathy. Seven patients had estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values between 70 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Among them, two patients experienced a clinically meaningful decline in estimated GFR which improved after discontinuation of tenofovir disoproxil.

Other special population(s)

Patients with renal impairment

The use of tenofovir disoproxil is not recommended in paediatric patients with renal impairment (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Exacerbations of hepatitis after discontinuation of treatment

In HIV infected patients co-infected with HBV, clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatitis have occurred after discontinuation of tenofovir disoproxil (see section 4.4).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms

If overdose occurs the patient must be monitored for evidence of toxicity (see sections 4.8 and 5.3), and standard supportive treatment applied as necessary.

Management

Tenofovir can be removed by haemodialysis; the median haemodialysis clearance of tenofovir is 134 ml/min. It is not known whether tenofovir can be removed by peritoneal dialysis.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antiviral for systemic use; nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, ATC code: J05AF07

Mechanism of action and pharmacodynamic effects

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is the fumarate salt of the prodrug tenofovir disoproxil. Tenofovir disoproxil is absorbed and converted to the active substance tenofovir, which is a nucleoside monophosphate (nucleotide) analogue. Tenofovir is then converted to the active metabolite, tenofovir diphosphate, an obligate chain terminator, by constitutively expressed cellular enzymes. Tenofovir diphosphate has an intracellular half-life of 10 hours in activated and 50 hours in resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Tenofovir diphosphate inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the HBV polymerase by direct binding competition with the natural deoxyribonucleotide substrate and, after incorporation into DNA, by DNA chain termination. Tenofovir diphosphate is a weak inhibitor of cellular polymerases α, β, and γ. At concentrations of up to 300 μmol/l, tenofovir has also shown no effect on the synthesis of mitochondrial DNA or the production of lactic acid in in vitro assays.

Data pertaining to HIV

HIV antiviral activity in vitro: The concentration of tenofovir required for 50% inhibition (EC50) of the wild-type laboratory strain HIV-1IIIB is 1-6 μmol/l in lymphoid cell lines and 1.1 μmol/l against primary HIV-1 subtype B isolates in PBMCs. Tenofovir is also active against HIV-1 subtypes A, C, D, E, F, G, and O and against HIVBaL in primary monocyte/macrophage cells. Tenofovir shows activity in vitro against HIV-2, with an EC50 of 4.9 μmol/l in MT-4 cells.

Resistance: Strains of HIV-1 with reduced susceptibility to tenofovir and a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase have been selected in vitro and in some patients (see Clinical efficacy and safety). Tenofovir disoproxil should be avoided in antiretroviral-experienced patients with strains harbouring the K65R mutation (see section 4.4). In addition, a K70E substitution in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase has been selected by tenofovir and results in low-level reduced susceptibility to tenofovir.

Clinical studies in treatment-experienced patients have assessed the anti-HIV activity of tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg) against strains of HIV-1 with resistance to nucleoside inhibitors. The results indicate that patients whose HIV expressed 3 or more thymidine-analogue associated mutations (TAMs) that included either the M41L or L210W reverse transcriptase mutation showed reduced response to tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg) therapy.

Clinical efficacy and safety

The effects of tenofovir disoproxil in treatment-experienced and treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected adults have been demonstrated in trials of 48 weeks and 144 weeks duration, respectively.

In study GS-99-907, 550 treatment-experienced adult patients were treated with placebo or tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg) for 24 weeks. The mean baseline CD4 cell count was 427 cells/mm3, the mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 3.4 log10 copies/ml (78% of patients had a viral load of < 5,000 copies/ml) and the mean duration of prior HIV treatment was 5.4 years. Baseline genotypic analysis of HIV isolates from 253 patients revealed that 94% of patients had HIV-1 resistance mutations associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 58% had mutations associated with protease inhibitors and 48% had mutations associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

At week 24 the time-weighted average change from baseline in log10 plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (DAVG24) was -0.03 log10 copies/ml and -0.61 log10 copies/ml for the placebo and tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg recipients (p < 0.0001). A statistically significant difference in favour of tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg was seen in the time-weighted average change from baseline at week 24 (DAVG24) for CD4 count (+13 cells/mm3 for tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg versus -11 cells/mm3 for placebo, p-value = 0.0008). The antiviral response to tenofovir disoproxil was durable through 48 weeks (DAVG48 was -0.57 log10 copies/ml, proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA below 400 or 50 copies/ml was 41% and 18% respectively). Eight (2%) tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg treated patients developed the K65R mutation within the first 48 weeks.

The 144-week, double-blind, active controlled phase of study GS-99-903 evaluated the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg versus stavudine when used in combination with lamivudine and efavirenz in HIV-1 infected adult patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. The mean baseline CD4 cell count was 279 cells/mm3, the mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.91 log10 copies/ml, 19% of patients had symptomatic HIV-1 infection and 18% had AIDS. Patients were stratified by baseline HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count. Forty-three percent of patients had baseline viral loads > 100,000 copies/ml and 39% had CD4 cell counts < 200 cells/ml.

By intent to treat analysis (missing data and switch in antiretroviral therapy (ART) considered as failure), the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA below 400 copies/ml and 50 copies/ml at 48 weeks of treatment was 80% and 76% respectively in the tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg arm, compared to 84% and 80% in the stavudine arm. At 144 weeks, the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA below 400 copies/ml and 50 copies/ml was 71% and 68% respectively in the tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg arm, compared to 64% and 63% in the stavudine arm.

The average change from baseline for HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count at 48 weeks of treatment was similar in both treatment groups (-3.09 and -3.09 log10 copies/ml; +169 and 167 cells/mm3 in the tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg and stavudine groups, respectively). At 144 weeks of treatment, the average change from baseline remained similar in both treatment groups (-3.07 and -3.03 log10 copies/ml; +263 and +283 cells/mm3 in the tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg and stavudine groups, respectively). A consistent response to treatment with tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg was seen regardless of baseline HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count.

The K65R mutation occurred in a slightly higher percentage of patients in the tenofovir disoproxil group than the active control group (2.7% versus 0.7%). Efavirenz or lamivudine resistance either preceded or was coincident with the development of K65R in all cases. Eight patients had HIV that expressed K65R in the tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg arm, 7 of these occurred during the first 48 weeks of treatment and the last one at week 96. No further K65R development was observed up to week 144. One patient in the tenofovir disoproxil arm developed the K70E substitution in the virus. From both the genotypic and phenotypic analyses there was no evidence for other pathways of resistance to tenofovir.

Data pertaining to HBV

The antiviral activity of tenofovir disoproxil against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been demonstrated in vitro and clinically in adults and adolescents. Please refer to the Summaries of Product Characteristics for tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg film-coated tablets and tenofovir disoproxil 33 mg/g granules.

Paediatric population

In study GS-US-104-0321, 87 HIV-1 infected treatment-experienced patients 12 to < 18 years of age were treated with tenofovir disoproxil (n = 45) or placebo (n = 42) in combination with an optimised background regimen (OBR) for 48 weeks. Due to limitations of the study, a benefit of tenofovir disoproxil over placebo was not demonstrated based on plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at week 24. However, a benefit is expected for the adolescent population based on extrapolation of adult data and comparative pharmacokinetic data (see section 5.2).

In patients who received treatment with tenofovir disoproxil or placebo, mean lumbar spine BMD Z-score was -1.004 and -0.809, and mean total body BMD Z-score was -0.866 and -0.584, respectively, at baseline. Mean changes at week 48 (end of double-blind phase) were -0.215 and -0.165 in lumbar spine BMD Z-score, and -0.254 and -0.179 in total body BMD Z-score for the tenofovir disoproxil and placebo groups, respectively. The mean rate of BMD gain was less in the tenofovir disoproxil group compared to the placebo group. At week 48, six adolescents in the tenofovir disoproxil group and one adolescent in the placebo group had significant lumbar spine BMD loss (defined as > 4% loss). Among 28 patients receiving 96 weeks of treatment with tenofovir disoproxil, BMD Z-scores declined by -0.341 for lumbar spine and -0.458 for total body.

In study GS-US-104-0352, 97 treatment-experienced patients 2 to < 12 years of age with stable, virologic suppression on stavudine- or zidovudine-containing regimens were randomised to either replace stavudine or zidovudine with tenofovir disoproxil (n = 48) or continue on their original regimen (n = 49) for 48 weeks. At week 48, 83% of patients in the tenofovir disoproxil treatment group and 92% of patients in the stavudine or zidovudine treatment group had HIV-1 RNA concentrations < 400 copies/ml. The difference in the proportion of patients who maintained < 400 copies/ml at week 48 was mainly influenced by the higher number of discontinuations in the tenofovir disoproxil treatment group. When missing data were excluded, 91% of patients in the tenofovir disoproxil treatment group and 94% of patients in the stavudine or zidovudine treatment group had HIV-1 RNA concentrations < 400 copies/ml at week 48.

Reductions in BMD have been reported in paediatric patients. In patients who received treatment with tenofovir disoproxil, or stavudine or zidovudine, mean lumbar spine BMD Z-score was -1.034 and -0.498, and mean total body BMD Z-score was -0.471 and -0.386, respectively, at baseline.

Mean changes at week 48 (end of randomised phase) were 0.032 and 0.087 in lumbar spine BMD Z-score, and -0.184 and -0.027 in total body BMD Z-score for the tenofovir disoproxil and stavudine or zidovudine groups, respectively. The mean rate of lumbar spine bone gain at week 48 was similar between the tenofovir disoproxil treatment group and the stavudine or zidovudine treatment group. Total body bone gain was less in the tenofovir disoproxil treatment group compared to the stavudine or zidovudine treatment group. One tenofovir disoproxil treated subject and no stavudine or zidovudine treated subjects experienced significant (> 4%) lumbar spine BMD loss at week 48. BMD Z-scores declined by -0.012 for lumbar spine and by -0.338 for total body in the 64 subjects who were treated with tenofovir disoproxil for 96 weeks. BMD Z-scores were not adjusted for height and weight.

In study GS-US-104-0352, 4 out of 89 paediatric patients exposed to tenofovir disoproxil discontinued due to adverse reactions consistent with proximal renal tubulopathy (median tenofovir disoproxil exposure 104 weeks).

The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with tenofovir disoproxil in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in HIV and chronic hepatitis B (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Tenofovir disoproxil is a water soluble ester prodrug which is rapidly converted in vivo to tenofovir and formaldehyde.

Tenofovir is converted intracellularly to tenofovir monophosphate and to the active component, tenofovir diphosphate.

Absorption

Following oral administration of tenofovir disoproxil to HIV infected patients, tenofovir disoproxil is rapidly absorbed and converted to tenofovir. Administration of multiple doses of tenofovir disoproxil with a meal to HIV infected patients resulted in mean (%CV) tenofovir Cmax, AUC, and Cmin values of 326 (36.6%) ng/ml, 3,324 (41.2%) ng·h/ml and 64.4 (39.4%) ng/ml, respectively. Maximum tenofovir concentrations are observed in serum within one hour of dosing in the fasted state and within two hours when taken with food. The oral bioavailability of tenofovir from tenofovir disoproxil in fasted patients was approximately 25%.

Administration of tenofovir disoproxil with a high fat meal enhanced the oral bioavailability, with an increase in tenofovir AUC by approximately 40% and Cmax by approximately 14%. Following the first dose of tenofovir disoproxil in fed patients, the median Cmax in serum ranged from 213 to 375 ng/ml. However, administration of tenofovir disoproxil with a light meal did not have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir.

Distribution

Following intravenous administration the steady-state volume of distribution of tenofovir was estimated to be approximately 800 ml/kg. After oral administration of tenofovir disoproxil, tenofovir is distributed to most tissues with the highest concentrations occurring in the kidney, liver and the intestinal contents (preclinical studies). In vitro protein binding of tenofovir to plasma or serum protein was less than 0.7 and 7.2%, respectively, over the tenofovir concentration range 0.01 to 25 μg/ml.

Biotransformation

In vitro studies have determined that neither tenofovir disoproxil nor tenofovir are substrates for the CYP450 enzymes. Moreover, at concentrations substantially higher (approximately 300-fold) than those observed in vivo, tenofovir did not inhibit in vitro drug metabolism mediated by any of the major human CYP450 isoforms involved in drug biotransformation (CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, or CYP1A1/2). Tenofovir disoproxil at a concentration of 100 μmol/l had no effect on any of the CYP450 isoforms, except CYP1A1/2, where a small (6%) but statistically significant reduction in metabolism of CYP1A1/2 substrate was observed. Based on these data, it is unlikely that clinically significant interactions involving tenofovir disoproxil and medicinal products metabolised by CYP450 would occur.

Elimination

Tenofovir is primarily excreted by the kidney by both filtration and an active tubular transport system with approximately 70-80% of the dose excreted unchanged in urine following intravenous administration. Total clearance has been estimated to be approximately 230 ml/h/kg (approximately 300 ml/min). Renal clearance has been estimated to be approximately 160 ml/h/kg (approximately 210 ml/min), which is in excess of the glomerular filtration rate. This indicates that active tubular secretion is an important part of the elimination of tenofovir. Following oral administration the terminal half-life of tenofovir is approximately 12 to 18 hours.

Studies have established the pathway of active tubular secretion of tenofovir to be influx into proximal tubule cell by the human organic anion transporters (hOAT) 1 and 3 and efflux into the urine by the multidrug resistant protein 4 (MRP 4).

Linearity/non-linearity

The pharmacokinetics of tenofovir were independent of tenofovir disoproxil dose over the dose range 75 to 600 mg and were not affected by repeated dosing at any dose level.

Gender

Limited data on the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir in women indicate no major gender effect.

Ethnicity

Pharmacokinetics have not been specifically studied in different ethnic groups.

Paediatric population

Steady-state pharmacokinetics of tenofovir were evaluated in 8 HIV-1 infected adolescent patients (aged 12 to < 18 years) with body weight ≥ 35 kg and in 23 HIV-1 infected children aged 2 to < 12 years (see Table 3 below). Tenofovir exposure achieved in these paediatric patients receiving oral daily doses of tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg or 6.5 mg/kg body weight tenofovir disoproxil up to a maximum dose of 245 mg was similar to exposures achieved in adults receiving once-daily doses of tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg.

Table 3: Mean (± SD) tenofovir pharmacokinetic parameters by age groups for paediatric Patients

Dose and formulation

245 mg film-coated tablet

12 to < 18 years (n = 8)

6.5 mg/kg granules

2 to < 12 years (n = 23)

Cmax (μg/ml)

0.38 ± 0.13

0.24 ± 0.13

AUCtau (μg·h/ml)

3.39 ± 1.22

2.59 ± 1.06

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed in children under 2 years.

Renal impairment

Pharmacokinetic parameters of tenofovir were determined following administration of a single dose of tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg to 40 non-HIV infected adult patients with varying degrees of renal impairment defined according to baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) (normal renal function when CrCl > 80 ml/min; mild with CrCl = 50-79 ml/min; moderate with CrCl = 30-49 ml/min and severe with CrCl = 10-29 ml/min). Compared with patients with normal renal function, the mean (%CV) tenofovir exposure increased from 2,185 (12%) ng·h/ml in subjects with CrCl > 80 ml/min to respectively 3,064 (30%) ng·h/ml, 6,009 (42%) ng·h/ml and 15,985 (45%) ng·h/ml in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment.

The pharmacokinetics of tenofovir in non-haemodialysis adult patients with creatinine clearance < 10 ml/min and in patients with ESRD managed by peritoneal or other forms of dialysis have not been studied.

The pharmacokinetics of tenofovir in paediatric patients with renal impairment have not been studied.

No data are available to make dose recommendations (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Hepatic impairment

A single 245 mg dose of tenofovir disoproxil was administered to non-HIV infected adult patients with varying degrees of hepatic impairment defined according to Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) classification. Tenofovir pharmacokinetics were not substantially altered in subjects with hepatic impairment suggesting that no dose adjustment is required in these subjects. The mean (%CV) tenofovir Cmax and AUC0-∞ values were 223 (34.8%) ng/ml and 2,050 (50.8%) ng·h/ml, respectively, in normal subjects compared with 289 (46.0%) ng/ml and 2,310 (43.5%) ng·h/ml in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, and 305 (24.8%) ng/ml and 2,740 (44.0%) ng·h/ml in subjects with severe hepatic impairment.

Intracellular pharmacokinetics

In non-proliferating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) the half-life of tenofovir diphosphate was found to be approximately 50 hours, whereas the half-life in phytohaemagglutininstimulated PBMCs was found to be approximately 10 hours.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Non-clinical safety pharmacology studies reveal no special hazard for humans. Findings in repeated dose toxicity studies in rats, dogs and monkeys at exposure levels greater than or equal to clinical exposure levels and with possible relevance to clinical use include renal and bone toxicity and a decrease in serum phosphate concentration. Bone toxicity was diagnosed as osteomalacia (monkeys) and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) (rats and dogs). The bone toxicity in young adult rats and dogs occurred at exposures ≥ 5-fold the exposure in paediatric or adult patients; bone toxicity occurred in juvenile infected monkeys at very high exposures following subcutaneous dosing (≥ 40- fold the exposure in patients). Findings in the rat and monkey studies indicated that there was a substance-related decrease in intestinal absorption of phosphate with potential secondary reduction in BMD.

Genotoxicity studies revealed positive results in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay, equivocal results in one of the strains used in the Ames test, and weakly positive results in an UDS test in primary rat hepatocytes. However, it was negative in an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.

Oral carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice only revealed a low incidence of duodenal tumours at an extremely high dose in mice. These tumours are unlikely to be of relevance to humans.

Reproductive studies in rats and rabbits showed no effects on mating, fertility, pregnancy or foetal parameters. However, tenofovir disoproxil reduced the viability index and weight of pups in peri-postnatal toxicity studies at maternally toxic doses.

The active substance tenofovir disoproxil and its main transformation products are persistent in the environment.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Tablet core

Croscarmellose sodium

Lactose monohydrate

Cellulose, Microcrystalline

Starch, Pregelatinized (Maize Starch)

Magnesium Stearate

Film-coating

Hypromellose 2910

Lactose monohydrate

Titanium dioxide (E171)

Triacetin

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store below 30°C.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Tenofovir disoproxil Milpharm film-coated tablets are available in

Blister pack: i) Polyamide/ Aluminium / PVC- Aluminium or ii)PVC/PVdC – Aluminium

HDPE pack: White opaque HDPE bottle with a white opaque polypropylene child resistant closure containing silica gel desiccant.

Packsizes:

Blister packs: 30 film-coated tablets.

HDPE packs: 30 and 90 film-coated tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Milpharm Limited

Ares Block, Odyssey Business Park

West End Road

South Ruislip HA4 6QD

United Kingdom

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 16363/0496

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

31/05/2017

10. Date of revision of the text