- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
PosologyThe desired blood glucose levels, the insulin preparations to be used and the insulin dose regimen (doses and timings) must be determined individually and adjusted to suit the patient's diet, physical activity and life-style.
Daily doses and timing of administrationThere are no fixed rules for insulin dose regimen. However, the average insulin requirement is often 0.5 to 1.0 IU per kg body weight per day. The basal metabolic requirement is 40% to 60% of the total daily requirement. Insuman Comb 15 is injected subcutaneously 30 to 45 minutes before a meal.
Secondary dose adjustmentImproved metabolic control may result in increased insulin sensitivity, leading to a reduced insulin requirement. Dose adjustment may also be required, for example, if- the patient's weight changes,- the patient's life-style changes,- other circumstances arise that may promote an increased susceptibility to hypo- or hyperglycaemia (see section 4.4).
Elderly population (≧ 65 years old)In the elderly, progressive deterioration of renal function may lead to a steady decrease in insulin requirements.
Renal impairmentIn patients with renal impairment, insulin requirements may be diminished due to reduced insulin metabolism.
Hepatic impairmentIn patients with severe hepatic impairment, insulin requirements may be diminished due to reduced capacity for gluconeogenesis and reduced insulin metabolism.
Method of administrationInsuman Comb 15 must not be administered intravenously and must not be used in infusion pumps or external or implanted insulin pumps.Insuman Comb 15 is administered subcutaneously. Insuman Comb 15 must never be injected intravenously.Insulin absorption and hence the blood-glucose-lowering effect of a dose may vary from one injection area to another (e.g. the abdominal wall compared with the thigh). Injection sites within an injection area must be rotated from one injection to the next.For further details on handling, see section 6.6.
Transfer to Insuman Comb 15Transferring a patient to another type or brand of insulin should be done under strict medical supervision. Changes in strength, brand (manufacturer), type (regular, NPH, lente, long-acting, etc.), origin (animal, human, human insulin analogue) and/or method of manufacture may result in the need for a change in dose.The need to adjust (e.g. reduce) the dose may become evident immediately after transfer. Alternatively, it may emerge gradually over a period of several weeks.Following transfer from an animal insulin to human insulin, dose regimen reduction may be required in particular in patients who- were previously already controlled on rather low blood glucose levels,- have a tendency to hypoglycaemia,- previously required high insulin doses due to the presence of insulin antibodies.Close metabolic monitoring is recommended during the transition and in the initial weeks thereafter. In patients who require high insulin doses because of the presence of insulin antibodies, transfer under medical supervision in a hospital or similar setting must be considered.
HypoglycaemiaHypoglycaemia may occur if the insulin dose is too high in relation to the insulin requirement.Particular caution should be exercised, and intensified blood glucose monitoring is advisable in patients in whom hypoglycaemic episodes might be of particular clinical relevance, such as in patients with significant stenoses of the coronary arteries or of the blood vessels supplying the brain (risk of cardiac or cerebral complications of hypoglycaemia) as well as in patients with proliferative retinopathy, particularly if not treated with photocoagulation (risk of transient amaurosis following hypoglycaemia).Patients should be aware of circumstances where warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia are diminished. The warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia may be changed, be less pronounced or be absent in certain risk groups. These include patients:- in whom glycaemic control is markedly improved,- in whom hypoglycaemia develops gradually,- who are elderly,- after transfer from animal insulin to human insulin,- in whom an autonomic neuropathy is present,- with a long history of diabetes,- suffering from a psychiatric illness,- receiving concurrent treatment with certain other medicinal products (see section 4.5).Such situations may result in severe hypoglycaemia (and possibly loss of consciousness) prior to the patient's awareness of hypoglycaemia.If normal or decreased values for glycated haemoglobin are noted, the possibility of recurrent, unrecognised (especially nocturnal) episodes of hypoglycaemia must be considered.Adherence of the patient to the dose regimen and dietary regimen, correct insulin administration and awareness of hypoglycaemia symptoms are essential to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia. Factors increasing the susceptibility to hypoglycaemia require particularly close monitoring and may necessitate dose adjustment. These include:- change in the injection area,- improved insulin sensitivity (e.g. by removal of stress factors),- unaccustomed, increased or prolonged physical activity,- intercurrent illness (e.g. vomiting, diarrhoea),- inadequate food intake,- missed meals,- alcohol consumption,- certain uncompensated endocrine disorders (e.g. in hypothyroidism and in anterior pituitary or adrenocortical insufficiency),- concomitant treatment with certain other medicinal products.Intercurrent illnessIntercurrent illness requires intensified metabolic monitoring. In many cases, urine tests for ketones are indicated, and often it is necessary to adjust the insulin dose. The insulin requirement is often increased. Patients with type 1 diabetes must continue to consume at least a small amount of carbohydrates on a regular basis, even if they are able to eat only little or no food, or are vomiting etc. and they must never omit insulin entirely.
Pens to be used with Insuman Comb 15 cartridgesThe Insuman Com 15 cartridges should only be used with the following pens: - JuniorSTAR which delivers Insuman Comb 15 in 0.5 unit dose increments- OptiPen, ClikSTAR, Tactipen, Autopen 24 and AllStar which all deliver Insuman Comb 15 in 1 unit dose increments.These cartridges should not be used with any other reusable pen as the dosing accuracy has only been established with the listed pens. Not all of these pens may be marketed in your country.
Medication errorsMedication errors have been reported in which other Insuman formulations or other insulins have been accidentally administered. Insulin label must always be checked before each injection to avoid medication errors between insulin human and other insulins.
Combination of Insuman with pioglitazoneCases of cardiac failure have been reported when pioglitazone was used in combination with insulin, especially in patients with risk factors for development of cardiac heart failure. This should be kept in mind if treatment with the combination of pioglitazone and Insuman is considered. If the combination is used, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure, weight gain and oedema. Pioglitazone should be discontinued if any deterioration in cardiac symptoms occurs.
PregnancyFor insulin human, no clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available. Insulin does not cross the placental barrier. Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant women.It is essential for patients with pre-existing or gestational diabetes to maintain good metabolic control throughout pregnancy. Insulin requirements may decrease during the first trimester and generally increase during the second and third trimesters. Immediately after delivery, insulin requirements decline rapidly (increased risk of hypoglycaemia). Careful monitoring of glucose control is essential.
Breast-feedingNo effects on the suckling child are anticipated. Insuman Comb 15 can be used during breast-feeding. Breast-feeding women may require adjustments in insulin dose and diet.
FertilityNo clinical or animal data with insulin human on male or female fertility are available.
Summary of the safety profileHypoglycaemia, in general the most frequent adverse reaction of insulin therapy, may occur if the insulin dose is too high in relation to the insulin requirement. In clinical studies and during marketed use, the frequency varies with patient population and dose regimens. Therefore, no specific frequency can be presented.
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsThe following related adverse reactions from clinical investigations are listed below by system organ class and in order of decreasing incidence: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
|MedDRA system organ classes||Common||Uncommon||Not known|
|Immune system disorders||Shock||Immediate type allergic reactions (hypotension, angioneurotic oedema, bronchospasm, generalised skin reactions); Anti-insulin antibodies|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders||Oedema||Hypoglycaemia; Sodium retention|
|Eye disorders||Proliferative retinopathy; Diabetic retinopathy; Visual impairment|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||Lipodystrophy|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||Injection site reactions||Injection site urticaria||Injection site inflammation; Injection site pain; Injection site pruritus; Injection site erythema; Injection site swelling|
Description of selected adverse reactions
Immune system disordersImmediate type allergic reactions to insulin or to the excipients may be life-threatening. Insulin administration may cause anti-insulin antibodies to form. In rare cases, the presence of such anti-insulin antibodies may necessitate adjustment of the insulin dose in order to correct a tendency to hyper- or hypoglycaemia.
Metabolism and nutrition disordersSevere hypoglycaemic attacks, especially if recurrent, may lead to neurological damage.Prolonged or severe hypoglycaemic episodes may be life-threatening.In many patients, the signs and symptoms of neuroglycopenia are preceded by signs of adrenergic counter-regulation. Generally, the greater and more rapid the decline in blood glucose, the more marked is the phenomenon of counter-regulation and its symptoms.Insulin may cause sodium retention and oedema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.
Eyes disordersA marked change in glycaemic control may cause temporary visual impairment, due to temporary alteration in the turgidity and refractive index of the lens.Long-term improved glycaemic control decreases the risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy. However, intensification of insulin therapy with abrupt improvement in glycaemic control may be associated with temporary worsening of diabetic retinopathy.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disordersLipodystrophy may occur at the injection site and delay local insulin absorption. Continuous rotation of the injection site within the given injection area may help to reduce or prevent these reactions.
General disorders and administration site conditionsMost minor reactions to insulins at the injection site usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
SymptomsInsulin overdose may lead to severe and sometimes long-term and life-threatening hypoglycaemia.
ManagementMild episodes of hypoglycaemia can usually be treated with oral carbohydrates. Adjustments in dose regimen of the medicinal product, meal patterns, or physical activity may be needed.More severe episodes with coma, seizure, or neurologic impairment may be treated with intramuscular/subcutaneous glucagon or concentrated intravenous glucose. Sustained carbohydrate intake and observation may be necessary because hypoglycaemia may recur after apparent clinical recovery.
Mechanism of actionInsulin- lowers blood glucose and promotes anabolic effects as well as decreasing catabolic effects,- increases the transport of glucose into cells as well as the formation of glycogen in the muscles and the liver, and improves pyruvate utilisation. It inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis,- increases lipogenesis in the liver and adipose tissue and inhibits lipolysis,- promotes the uptake of amino acids into cells and promotes protein synthesis,- enhances the uptake of potassium into cells.Pharmacodynamic effectsInsuman Comb 15 (a biphasic isophane insulin suspension with 15% dissolved insulin) is an insulin with gradual onset and long duration of action. Following subcutaneous injection, onset of action is within 30 to 60 minutes, the phase of maximum action is between 2 and 4 hours after injection and the duration of action is 11 to 20 hours.
Mixing of insulinsInsuman Comb 15 must not be mixed with insulin human formulations designed specifically for use in insulin pumps. Insuman Comb 15 must also not be mixed with insulins of animal origin or with insulin analogues.Care must be taken to ensure that no alcohol or other disinfectants enter the insulin suspension.
Unopened cartridges:Store in a refrigerator (2°C - 8°C).Do not freeze. Do not put Insuman Comb 15 next to the freezer compartment or a freezer pack.Keep the cartridge in the outer carton in order to protect from light.
In-use cartridges:For storage conditions after first opening of the medicinal product, see section 6.3.
Insulin penThe Insuman Comb 15 cartridges are to be used only in conjunction with the pens: OptiPen, ClikSTAR, Autopen 24, Tactipen, AllStar or JuniorSTAR (see section 4.4). Not all of these pens may be marketed in your country.The pen should be used as recommended in the information provided by the device manufacturer. The manufacturer's instructions for using the pen must be followed carefully for loading the cartridge, attaching the injection needle, and administering the insulin injection.
If the insulin pen is damaged or not working properly (due to mechanical defects) it has to be discarded, and a new insulin pen has to be used.If the pen malfunctions (see instructions for using the pen), the suspension may be drawn from the cartridge into an injection syringe (suitable for an insulin with 100 IU/ml) and injected.
CartridgesBefore insertion into the pen, Insuman Comb 15 must be kept at room temperature for 1 to 2 hours and then resuspended to check the contents. This is best done by gently tilting the cartridge back and forth (at least ten times). Each cartridge contains three small metal balls to facilitate quick and thorough mixing of the contents.Later on, when the cartridge has been inserted into the pen, the insulin must be resuspended again prior to each injection. This is best done by gently tilting the pen back and forth (at least ten times).After resuspension, the fluid must have a uniformly milky appearance. Insuman Comb 15 must not be used if this cannot be achieved, i.e. if the suspension remains clear, for example, or if clumps, particles or flocculation appear in the insulin or stick to the wall or bottom of the cartridge. These changes sometimes give the cartridge a frosted appearance. In such cases, a new cartridge yielding a uniform suspension must be used. It is also necessary to change to a new cartridge if the insulin requirement changes substantially.Air bubbles must be removed from the cartridge before injection (see instructions for using the pen). Empty cartridges must not be refilled.Insuman Comb 15 must not be administered intravenously and must not be used in infusion pumps or external or implanted insulin pumps.It must be remembered that- insulin protamine crystals dissolve in an acid pH range,- the soluble insulin part precipitates out at a pH of approximately 4.5 to 6.5.Insulin label must always be checked before each injection to avoid medication errors between insulin human and other insulins (see section 4.4).
Mixing of insulinsInsuman Comb 15 may be mixed with all insulin human formulations, but not with those designed specifically for use in insulin pumps. Concerning incompatibility with other insulins, see section 6.2.Insuman Comb 15 cartridges are not designed to allow any other insulin to be mixed in the cartridge.Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
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