- codeine phosphate hemihydrate
POM: Prescription only medicine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Solpadol 30mg/500mg Caplets
Codeine Phosphate Hemihydrate
For excipients see 6.1.
Solpadol Caplets are white capsule shaped tablets, marked SOLPADOL on one side.
For the relief of severe pain.
Indicated in patients older than 12 years of age for the treatment of acute moderate pain which is not considered to be relieved by other analgesics such as paracetamol or ibuprofen (alone).
Two tablets not more frequently than every 4 to 6 hours, up to a maximum of 8 tablets in any 24 hour period.
As adults, however a reduced dose may be required. See warnings.
Children aged 16 to 18 years:
One to two tablets every 6 hours when necessary to a maximum of 8 tablets in 24 hours.
Children aged 12 to 15 years:
One tablet every 6 hours when necessary to a maximum of 4 tablets in 24 hours.
Children under 12:
Not recommended for children under 12 years of age. This is because of codeine risk of opioid toxicity due to the variable and unpredictable metabolism of codeine to morphine (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
The duration of treatment should be limited to 3 days and if no effective pain relief is achieved the patients/carers should be advised to seek the views of a physician.
Solpadol Caplets are for oral administration.
Hypersensitivity to paracetamol or codeine which is rare.
Hypersensitivity to any of the other constituents.
Conditions where morphine and opioids are contraindicated e.g:
• Acute asthma
• Respiratory depression
• Acute alcoholism
• Head injuries
• Raised intra-cranial pressure
• Following biliary tract surgery
• Breast-feeding (see Section 4.6)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy, concurrent or within 14 days.
In all paediatric patients (0-18 years of age) who undergo tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome due to an increased risk of developing serious and life-threatening adverse reactions (see section 4.4).
In patients for whom it is known that they are CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolisers.
Codeine is partially metabolised by CYP2D6. If a patient has a deficiency or is completely lacking this enzyme they will not obtain adequate analgesic effects. Estimates indicate that up to 7% of the Caucasian population may have this deficiency. However, if the patient is an extensive or ultra-rapid metaboliser there is an increased risk of developing side effects of opioid toxicity even at commonly prescribed doses. These patients convert codeine into morphine rapidly resulting in higher than expected serum morphine levels.
General symptoms of opioid toxicity include nausea, vomiting, constipation, lack of appetite, somnolence, shallow breathing, small pupils and confusion. In severe cases this may include symptoms of circulatory and respiratory depression, which may be life-threatening and very rarely fatal. Estimates of prevalence of ultra-rapid metabolisers in different populations are summarized below:
3.4% to 6.5%
1.2% to 2%
3.6% to 6.5%
The leaflet will state in the “pregnancy and breast-feeding” subsection of the section 2 “Before taking your medicine”:
Solpadol is contraindicated in breast-feeding
Post-operative use in children
There have been reports in the published literature that codeine given post-operatively in children after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea, led to rare, but life-threatening adverse events including death (see also section 4.3). All children received doses of codeine that were within the appropriate dose range; however there was evidence that these children were either ultra-rapid or extensive metabolisers in their ability to metabolise codeine to morphine.
Children with compromised respiratory function
Codeine is not recommended for use in children in whom respiratory function might be compromised including neuromuscular disorders, severe cardiac or respiratory conditions, upper respiratory or lung infections, multiple trauma or extensive surgical procedures. These factors may worsen symptoms of morphine toxicity.
Risks from concomitant use of sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs:
Concomitant use of Solpadol and sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs may result in sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death. Because of these risks, concomitant prescribing with these sedative medicines should be reserved for patients for whom alternative treatment options are not possible. If a decision is made to prescribe Solpadol concomitantly with sedative medicines, the lowest effective dose should be used, and the duration of treatment should be as short as possible.
The patients should be followed closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In this respect, it is strongly recommended to inform patients and their caregivers to be aware of these symptoms (see section 4.5).
Risks from concomitant use of opioids and alcohol:
Concomitant use of opioids, including codeine, with alcohol may result in sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death. Concomitant use with alcohol is not recommended (see section 4.5).
Care should be observed in administering the product to any patient whose condition may be exacerbated by opioids, particularly the elderly, who may be sensitive to their central and gastro-intestinal effects, those on concurrent CNS depressant drugs, those with prostatic hypertrophy and those with inflammatory or obstructive bowel disorders. Care should also be observed if prolonged therapy is contemplated.
Care is advised in the administration of paracetamol to patients with severe renal or severe hepatic impairment. The hazards of overdose are greater in those with alcoholic liver disease.
Patients should be advised not to exceed the recommended dose and not take other paracetamol containing products concurrently. Keep the product out of the reach and sight of children.
Caution is advised in patients with underlying sensitivity to aspirin and/or to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
The risk-benefit of continued use should be assessed regularly by the prescriber.
The leaflet will state in a prominent position in the 'before taking' section:
Do not take for longer than directed by your prescriber.
Taking codeine regularly for a long time can lead to addiction, which might cause you to feel restless and irritable when you stop the tablets.
Taking a pain killer for headaches too often or for too long can make them worse.
The label will state (To be displayed prominently on outer pack (not boxed) :
Do not take for longer than directed by your prescriber as taking codeine regularly for a long time can lead to addiction.
Paracetamol may increase the elimination half-life of chloramphenicol. Oral contraceptives may increase its rate of clearance. The speed of absorption of paracetamol may be increased by metoclopramide or domperidone and absorption reduced by colestyramine.
The anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other coumarins may be enhanced by prolonged regular use of paracetamol with increased risk of bleeding; occasional doses have no significant effect.
Sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs:
The concomitant use of opioids with sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs increases the risk of sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death because of additive CNS depressant effect. The dose and duration of concomitant use should be limited (see section 4.4).
Alcohol and opioids:
The concomitant use of alcohol and opioids increases the risk of sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death because of additive CNS depressant effect. Concomitant use with alcohol is not recommended (see section 4.4).
Careful consideration should be given before prescribing the product for pregnant patients. Opioid analgesics may depress neonatal respiration and cause withdrawal effects in neonates of dependent mothers.
A large amount of data on pregnant women indicate neither malformative, nor feto/neonatal toxicity. Paracetamol can be used during pregnancy if clinically needed however it should be used at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time and at the lowest possible frequency.
As a precautionary measure, use of Solpadol should be avoided during the third trimester of pregnancy and during labor.
Paracetamol is excreted in breast milk but not in a clinically significant amount.
Codeine should not be used during breastfeeding (see section 4.3).
At normal therapeutic doses codeine and its active metabolites may be present in breast milk at very low doses and is unlikely to adversely affect the breast fed infant. However, if the patient is an ultra-rapid metaboliser of CYP2D6, higher levels of the active metabolite, morphine, may be present in breast milk and on very rare occasions may result in symptoms of opioid toxicity in the infant, which may be fatal.
This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient's ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:
• The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive
• Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you
• It is an offence to drive while under the influence of this medicine
• However, you would not be committing an offence (called 'statutory defence') if:
- The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical or dental problem and
- You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine and
- It was not affecting your ability to drive safely
Codeine can produce typical opioid effects including constipation, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, light-headedness, confusion, drowsiness and urinary retention. The frequency and severity are determined by dosage, duration of treatment and individual sensitivity. Tolerance and dependence can occur, especially with prolonged high dosage of codeine.
• Regular prolonged use of codeine/DHC is known to lead to addiction and tolerance. Symptoms of restlessness and irritability may result when treatment is then stopped.
• Prolonged use of a painkiller for headaches can make them worse.
Adverse effects of paracetamol are rare:
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Not known: agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia.
Immune system disorders
Hypersensitivity including skin rash may occur.
Not known: Anaphylactic shock, angioedema.
Skin and subcutaneous disorders
Very rare cases of serious skin reactions such as Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, fixed drug eruption (see section 4.4) have been reported.
Very rare occurrence of pancreatitis.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
The effects of Codeine overdosage will be potentiated by simultaneous ingestion of alcohol and psychotropic drugs.
Central nervous system depression, including respiratory depression, may develop but is unlikely to be severe unless other sedative agents have been co-ingested, including alcohol, or the overdose is very large. The pupils may be pin-point in size; nausea and vomiting are common. Hypotension and tachycardia are possible but unlikely.
Management should include general symptomatic and supportive measures including a clear airway and monitoring of vital signs until stable. Consider activated charcoal if an adult presents within one hour of ingestion of more than 350 mg or a child more than 5 mg/kg.
Give naloxone if coma or respiratory depression is present. Naloxone is a competitive antagonist and has a short half-life so large and repeated doses may be required in a seriously poisoned patient. Observe for at least 4 hours after ingestion, or 8 hours if a sustained release preparation has been taken.
Liver damage is possible in adults who have taken 10g or more of paracetamol. Ingestion of 5g or more of paracetamol may lead to liver damage if the patient has risk factors (see below).
If the patient
a. Is on long term treatment with carbamazepine, phenobarbitone, phenytoin, primidone, rifampicin, St John's Wort or other drugs that induce liver enzymes.
b. Regularly consumes ethanol in excess of recommended amounts.
c. Is likely to be glutathione deplete e.g. eating disorders, cystic fibrosis, HIV infection, starvation, cachexia.
Symptoms of paracetamol overdosage in the first 24 hours are pallor, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and abdominal pain. Liver damage may become apparent 12 to 48 hours after ingestion. Also increased levels of hepatic transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin with a reduction in prothrombin level may appear. Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and metabolic acidosis may occur. In severe poisoning, hepatic failure may progress to encephalopathy, haemorrhage, hypoglycaemia, cerebral oedema, gastrointestinal bleeding and death. Acute renal failure with acute tubular necrosis, strongly suggested by loin pain, haematuria and proteinuria, may develop even in the absence of severe liver damage. Cardiac arrhythmias, pancreatitis and pancytopenia have been reported.
Immediate treatment is essential in the management of paracetamol overdose. Despite a lack of significant early symptoms, patients should be referred to hospital urgently for immediate medical attention. Symptoms may be limited to nausea or vomiting and may not reflect the severity of overdose or the risk of organ damage. Management should be in accordance with established treatment guidelines, see BNF overdose section.
Treatment with activated charcoal should be considered if the overdose has been taken within 1 hour. Plasma paracetamol concentration should be measured at 4 hours or later after ingestion (earlier concentrations are unreliable). Treatment with N-acetylcysteine may be used up to 24 hours after ingestion of paracetamol; however, the maximum protective effect is obtained up to 8 hours post-ingestion. The effectiveness of the antidote declines sharply after this time. If required the patient should be given intravenous N-acetylcysteine, in line with the established dosage schedule. If vomiting is not a problem, oral methionine may be a suitable alternative for remote areas, outside hospital. Management of patients who present with serious hepatic dysfunction beyond 24h from ingestion should be discussed with the NPIS or a liver unit.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Anilides, Paracetamol combinations
ATC Code: NO2B E51
Paracetamol is an analgesic which acts peripherally, probably by blocking impulse generation at the bradykinin sensitive chemo-receptors which evoke pain. Although it is a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, the synthetase system in the CNS rather than the periphery appears to be more sensitive to it. This may explain paracetamol's lack of appreciable anti-inflammatory activity. Paracetamol also exhibits antipyretic activity.
Codeine is a centrally acting weak analgesic. Codeine exerts its effect through μ opioid receptors, although codeine has low affinity for these receptors, and its analgesic effect is due to its conversion to morphine. Codeine, particularly in combination with other analgesics such as paracetamol, has been shown to be effective in acute nociceptive pain.
Following oral administration of two tablets (ie, a dose of paracetamol 1000mg and codeine 60mg) the mean maximum plasma concentrations of paracetamol and codeine were 15.96μg/ml and 212.4ng/ml respectively. The mean times to maximum plasma concentrations were 0.88 hours for paracetamol and 1.05 hours for codeine.
The mean AUC for the 9 hours following administration was 49.05μg/ml per hour for paracetamol and 885.0ng/ml per hour for codeine.
The bioavailabilities of paracetamol and codeine when given as the combination are similar to those when they are given separately.
Codeine is mainly metabolized by glucuronidation to codeine-6-glucuronide. Minor routes of metabolism include O- demethylation leading to morphine, N-demethylation to norcodeine and after both O- and N-demethylation formation of normorphine. Morphine and norcodeine are further transformed in glucuroconjugates. Unchanged codeine and its metabolites are mainly excreted by urinary route within 48h (84.4±15.9%).
The O-demethylation of codeine to morphine is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D6 (CYP2D6) which shows genetic polymorphism that may affect the efficacy and toxicity of codeine.
Genetic polymorphism in CYP2D6 leads to ultra-rapid, extensive and poor metaboliser phenotypes.
Croscarmellose sodium (type A).
Store in the original package. Do not store above 25°C.
Child resistant PVC/aluminium foil (250μm/20μm) / PVC (15μm) blister packs or child resistant PVC/aluminium foil (250 μm/9 μm /Glassine paper (35 gsm). Pack sizes: 4, 10, 24, 30, 60 and 100 tablets.
No special requirements.
Aventis Pharma Limited
One Onslow Street
or trading as:
Sanofi-aventis or Sanofi
One Onslow Street
Date of first authorisation: 19 December 1989
11 July 2018
1 Onslow Street, Guildford, Surrey, GU1 4YS, UK
+44 (0)1483 535 432
+44 (0)1483 505 515
+44 (0)845 372 7101