For patients inadequately controlled on maximal tolerated dose of metformin monotherapyPatients not adequately controlled on metformin alone should receive a dose of Komboglyze equivalent to the total daily dose of saxagliptin 5 mg, dosed as 2.5 mg twice daily, plus the dose of metformin already being taken.
For patients switching from separate tablets of saxagliptin and metforminPatients switching from separate tablets of saxagliptin and metformin should receive the doses of saxagliptin and metformin already being taken.For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination therapy of insulin and metformin, or, for patients controlled on triple combination therapy of insulin, and metformin plus saxagliptin as separate tablets.The dose of Komboglyze should provide saxagliptin 2.5 mg twice daily (5 mg total daily dose) and a dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken. When Komboglyze is used in combination with insulin, a lower dose of insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see section 4.4).For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination therapy of a sulphonylurea and metformin, or for patients switching from triple combination therapy of saxagliptin, metformin and a sulphonylurea taken as separate tablets.The dose of Komboglyze should provide saxagliptin 2.5 mg twice daily (5 mg total daily dose), and a dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken. When Komboglyze is used in combination with a sulphonylurea, a lower dose of the sulphonylurea may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see section 4.4).
Renal impairmentNo dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild renal impairment. Komboglyze should not be used in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2).
Hepatic impairmentKomboglyze should not be used in patients with hepatic impairment (see sections 4.3 and 5.2).
Elderly (≥ 65 years)As metformin and saxagliptin are excreted by the kidney, Komboglyze should be used with caution in the elderly. Monitoring of renal function is necessary to prevent metformin-associated lactic acidosis, particularly in the elderly (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2).
Paediatric populationThe safety and efficacy of Komboglyze in children from birth to < 18 years of age have not been established. No data are available.
Method of administrationKomboglyze should be given twice daily with meals to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse reactions associated with metformin.
|- hypersensitivity to the active substance(s) or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1, or history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction, including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock, and angioedema, to any dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor (see sections 4.4 and 4.8);|
|- diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic pre-coma;|
|- moderate and severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 60 ml/min) (see section 4.4);|
|- acute conditions with the potential to alter renal function such as:|
|- severe infection,|
|- acute or chronic disease which may cause tissue hypoxia such as:|
|- cardiac or respiratory failure,|
|- recent myocardial infarction,|
|- hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2, and 5.2);|
|- acute alcohol intoxication, alcoholism (see section 4.5);|
|- breastfeeding (see section 4.6).|
GeneralKomboglyze should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.Komboglyze is not a substitute for insulin in insulin-requiring patients.
Acute pancreatitisUse of DPP4 inhibitors has been associated with a risk of developing acute pancreatitis. Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptoms of acute pancreatitis; persistent, severe abdominal pain. If pancreatitis is suspected, Komboglyze should be discontinued; if acute pancreatitis is confirmed, Komboglyze should not be restarted. Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of pancreatitis.In post-marketing experience of saxagliptin, there have been spontaneously reported adverse reactions of acute pancreatitis.
Lactic acidosisLactic acidosis is a very rare, but serious (high mortality in the absence of prompt treatment), metabolic complication that can occur due to metformin, a component of Komboglyze, accumulation. Reported cases of lactic acidosis in patients on metformin have occurred primarily in diabetic patients with significant renal failure. The incidence of lactic acidosis can and should be reduced by also assessing other associated risk factors such as poorly controlled diabetes, ketosis, prolonged fasting, excessive alcohol intake, hepatic insufficiency and any conditions associated with hypoxia.
DiagnosisLactic acidosis is characterised by acidotic dyspnoea, abdominal pain and hypothermia followed by coma. Diagnostic laboratory findings are decreased blood pH, plasma lactate levels above 5 mmol/l, and an increased anion gap and lactate/pyruvate ratio. If metabolic acidosis is suspected, treatment with the medicinal product should be discontinued and the patient hospitalised immediately (see section 4.9).
Renal functionAs metformin is excreted by the kidney, serum creatinine concentrations should be determined regularly: - at least once a year in patients with normal renal function - at least two to four times a year in patients with serum creatinine levels at or above the upper limit of normal and in elderly patients. Decreased renal function in elderly patients is frequent and asymptomatic. Special caution should be exercised in situations where renal function may become impaired, for example when initiating antihypertensive or diuretic therapy or when starting treatment with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
SurgeryAs Komboglyze contains metformin, the treatment should be discontinued 48 hours before elective surgery with general, spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Komboglyze should not usually be resumed earlier than 48 hours afterwards and only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal.
Administration of iodinated contrast agentThe intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents in radiological studies can lead to renal failure which has been associated with lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin. Therefore, Komboglyze must be discontinued prior to, or at the time of the test and not reinstituted until 48 hours afterwards, and only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal (see section 4.5).
Skin disordersUlcerative and necrotic skin lesions have been reported in extremities of monkeys in non-clinical toxicology studies for saxagliptin (see section 5.3). Skin lesions were not observed at an increased incidence in clinical trials. Postmarketing reports of rash have been described in the DPP4 inhibitor class. Rash is also noted as an adverse event (AE) for saxagliptin (see section 4.8). Therefore, in keeping with routine care of the diabetic patient, monitoring for skin disorders, such as blistering, ulceration or rash, is recommended.
Hypersensitivity reactionsAs Komboglyze contains saxagliptin, it should not be used in patients who have had any serious hypersensitivity reaction to a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor. During postmarketing experience, including spontaneous reports and clinical trials, the following adverse reactions have been reported with the use of saxagliptin: serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock, and angioedema. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction to saxagliptin is suspected, discontinue Komboglyze, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes (see sections 4.3 and 4.8).
Change in clinical status of patients with previously controlled type 2 diabetesAs Komboglyze contains metformin, a patient with type 2 diabetes previously well controlled on Komboglyze who develops laboratory abnormalities or clinical illness (especially vague and poorly defined illness) should be evaluated promptly for evidence of ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. Evaluation should include serum electrolytes and ketones, blood glucose and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. If acidosis of either form occurs, Komboglyze must be stopped immediately and other appropriate corrective measures initiated.
Immunocompromised patientsImmunocompromised patients, such as patients who have undergone organ transplantation or patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency syndrome, have not been studied in the saxagliptin clinical program. Therefore, the efficacy and safety profile of saxagliptin in these patients has not been established.
Use with potent CYP 3A4 inducersUsing CYP3A4 inducers like carbamazepine, dexamethasone, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and rifampicin may reduce the glycaemic lowering effect of saxagliptin (see section 4.5).
Use with medicinal products known to cause hypoglycaemiaInsulin and sulphonylureas are known to cause hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or sulphonylurea may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with Komboglyze.
SaxagliptinClinical data described below suggest that the risk for clinically meaningful interactions with co-administered medicinal products is low. The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5). In in vitro studies, saxagliptin and its major metabolite neither inhibited CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, or 3A4, nor induced CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, or 3A4. In studies conducted in healthy subjects, neither the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its major metabolite, were meaningfully altered by metformin, glibenclamide, pioglitazone, digoxin, simvastatin, omeprazole, antacids or famotidine. In addition, saxagliptin did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glibenclamide, pioglitazone, digoxin, simvastatin, the active components of a combined oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate), diltiazem or ketoconazole.Concomitant administration of saxagliptin with the moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 diltiazem, increased the Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin by 63% and 2.1-fold, respectively, and the corresponding values for the active metabolite were decreased by 44% and 34%, respectively.Concomitant administration of saxagliptin with the potent inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 ketoconazole, increased the Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin by 62% and 2.5-fold, respectively, and the corresponding values for the active metabolite were decreased by 95% and 88%, respectively.Concomitant administration of saxagliptin with the potent CYP3A4/5 inducer rifampicin, reduced Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin by 53% and 76%, respectively. The exposure of the active metabolite and the plasma DPP4 activity inhibition over a dose interval were not influenced by rifampicin (see section 4.4).The co-administration of saxagliptin and CYP3A4/5 inducers, other than rifampicin (such as carbamazepine, dexamethasone, phenobarbital and phenytoin) have not been studied and may result in decreased plasma concentration of saxagliptin and increased concentration of its major metabolite. Glycaemic control should be carefully assessed when saxagliptin is used concomitantly with a potent CYP3A4 inducer.The effects of smoking, diet, herbal products, and alcohol use on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin have not been specifically studied.
Combinations not recommendedThere is increased risk of lactic acidosis in acute alcohol intoxication (particularly in the case of fasting, malnutrition or hepatic impairment) due to the metformin active substance of Komboglyze (see section 4.4). Consumption of alcohol and medicinal products containing alcohol should be avoided.Cationic substances that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g., cimetidine) may interact with metformin by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. A study conducted in seven normal healthy volunteers showed that cimetidine, administered as 400 mg twice daily, increased metformin systemic exposure (AUC) by 50% and Cmax by 81%. Therefore, close monitoring of glycaemic control, dose adjustment within the recommended posology and changes in diabetic treatment should be considered when cationic medicinal products that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion are co-administered.The intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents in radiological studies may lead to renal failure, resulting in metformin accumulation and a risk of lactic acidosis. Therefore Komboglyze must be discontinued prior to, or at the time of the test and not reinstituted until 48 hours afterwards, and only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal (see section 4.4).
Combination requiring precautions for useGlucocorticoids (given by systemic and local routes), beta-2agonists, and diuretics have intrinsic hyperglycaemic activity. The patient should be informed and more frequent blood glucose monitoring perfomed, especially at the beginning of treatment with such medicinal products. If necessary, the dose of the anti-hyperglycaemic medicinal product should be adjusted during therapy with the other medicinal product and on its discontinuation.
PregnancyThe use of Komboglyze or saxagliptin has not been studied in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at high doses of saxagliptin alone or in combination with metformin (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. A limited amount of data suggest the use of metformin in pregnant women is not associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Animal studies with metformin do not indicate harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonic or foetal development, parturition or postnatal development (see section 5.3). Komboglyze should not be used during pregnancy. If the patient wishes to become pregnant, or if a pregnancy occurs, treatment with Komboglyze should be discontinued and switched to insulin treatment as soon as possible.
Breast-feedingStudies in animals have shown excretion of both saxagliptin and/or metabolite and metformin in milk. It is unknown whether saxagliptin is excreted in human milk, but metformin is excreted in human milk in small amounts. Komboglyze must therefore not be used in women who are breastfeeding (see section 4.3).
FertilityThe effect of saxagliptin on fertility in humans has not been studied. Effects on fertility were observed in male and female rats at high doses producing overt signs of toxicity (see section 5.3). For metformin, studies in animals have not shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3).
Summary of the safety profileThere were 4,148 patients with type 2 diabetes, including 3,021 patients treated with saxagliptin, randomised in six double-blind, controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of saxagliptin on glycaemic control. In randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trials (including developmental and postmarketing experience), over 17,000 patients with type 2 diabetes have been treated with saxagliptin.In a pooled analysis, of 1,681 patients with type 2 diabetes including 882 patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg, randomised in five double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of saxagliptin on glycaemic control, the overall incidence of AEs in patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg was similar to placebo. Discontinuation of therapy due to AEs was higher in patients who received saxagliptin 5 mg as compared to placebo (3.3% as compared to 1.8%).
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsAdverse reactions reported in ≥ 5% of patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo or that were reported in ≥ 2% of patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg and ≥ 1% more frequently compared to placebo are shown in Table 1.The adverse reactions are listed by system organ class and absolute frequency. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to 1/1,000), or very rare (< 1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
Table 1 Frequency of adverse reactions by system organ class
|System organ classAdverse reaction||Frequency of adverse reactions by treatment regimen|
|Saxagliptin with metformin1|
|Infections and infestations|
|Upper respiratory infection||Common|
|Urinary tract infection||Common|
|Nervous system disorders|
Postmarketing experience from clinical trials and spontaneous reportsTable 2 shows additional adverse reactions which have been reported in postmarketing experience with saxagliptin. The frequencies are based on the experience from clinical trials.Table 2 Frequency of additional adverse reactions by system organ class
|System organ classAdverse Reaction||Frequency of adverse reactions1|
|Immune system disorders|
|Hypersensitivity reactions2 (see sections 4.3 and 4.4)||Uncommon|
|Anaphylactic reactions including anaphylactic shock (see sections 4.3 and 4.4)||Rare|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Angioedema (see sections 4.3 and 4.4)||Rare|
SAVOR trial resultsThe SAVOR trial included 8240 patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg or 2.5 mg once daily and 8173 patients on placebo. The overall incidence of adverse events in patients treated with saxagliptin in this trial was similar to placebo (72.5% versus 72.2%, respectively).The incidence of adjudicated pancreatitis events was 0.3% in both saxagliptin-treated patients and placebo-treated patients in the intent-to-treat population.The incidence of hypersensitivity reactions was 1.1% in both saxagliptin-treated patients and placebo-treated patients.The overall incidence of reported hypoglycaemia (recorded in daily patient diaries) was 17.1% in subjects treated with saxagliptin and 14.8% among patients treated with placebo. The percent of subjects with reported on-treatment events of major hypoglycemia (defined as an event that required assistance of another person) was higher in the saxagliptin group than in the placebo group (2.1% and 1.6%, respectively) The increased risk of overall hypoglycemia and major hypoglycemia observed in the saxagliptin-treated group occurred primarily in subjects treated with SU at baseline and not in subjects on insulin or metformin monotherapy at baseline. The increased risk of overall and major hypoglycemia was primarily observed in subjects with A1C < 7% at baseline.Decreased lymphocyte counts were reported in 0.5% of saxagliptin-treated patients and 0.4% of placebo-treated patients.Hospitalisation for heart failure, occurred at a greater rate in the saxagliptin group (3.5%) compared with the placebo group (2.8%), with nominal statistical significance favouring placebo [HR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.07, 1.51); P = 0.007]. See also section 5.1.
Description of selected adverse reactionsAEs, considered by the investigator to be at least possibly drug-related and reported in at least two more patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg compared to control, are described below by treatment regimen.As monotherapy: dizziness (common) and fatigue (common).As add-on to metformin: dyspepsia (common) and myalgia (common).As initial combination with metformin: gastritis (common), arthralgia (uncommon), myalgia (uncommon), and erectile dysfunction (uncommon).As add-on to metformin and a sulphonylurea: dizziness (common), fatigue (common) and flatulence (common).
HypoglycaemiaAdverse reactions of hypoglycaemia were based on all reports of hypoglycaemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required. The incidence of reported hypoglycaemia for saxagliptin 5 mg versus placebo given as add-on therapy to metformin was 5.8% versus 5%. The incidence of reported hypoglycaemia was 3.4% in treatment--naive patients given saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin and 4.0% in patients given metformin alone. When used as add-on to insulin (with or without metformin), the overall incidence of reported hypoglycaemia was 18.4% for saxagliptin 5 mg and 19.9% for placebo.When used as add-on to metformin plus a sulphonylurea, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 10.1 % for saxagliptin 5 mg and 6.3% for placebo.InvestigationsAcross clinical studies, the incidence of laboratory AEs was similar in patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg compared to patients treated with placebo. A small decrease in absolute lymphocyte count was observed. From a baseline mean absolute lymphocyte count of approximately 2,200 cells/µl, a mean decrease of approximately 100 cells/µl relative to placebo was observed in the placebo-controlled-pooled analysis. Mean absolute lymphocyte counts remained stable with daily dosing up to 102 weeks in duration. The decreases in lymphocyte count were not associated with clinically relevant adverse reactions. The clinical significance of this decrease in lymphocyte count relative to placebo is not known.
MetforminClinical trial data and post-marketing dataTable 3 presents adverse reactions by system organ class and by frequency category. Frequency categories are based on information available from metformin Summary of Product Characteristics available in the European Union.
Table 3 The frequency of metformin adverse reactions identified from clinical trial and postmarketing data
|System organ classAdverse reaction||Frequency|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Lactic acidosis||Very rare|
|Vitamin B12 deficiency1||Very rare|
|Nervous system disorders|
|Gastrointestinal symptoms2||Very common|
|Liver function disorders, hepatitis||Very rare|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Urticaria, erythema, pruritis||Very rare|
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:
United KingdomYellow Card SchemeWebsite: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
IrelandHPRA Pharmacovigilance Earlsfort Terrace IRL - Dublin 2 Tel: +353 1 6764971 Fax: +353 1 6762517 Website: www.hpra.iee-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
MaltaADR Reporting The Medicines Authority Post-Licensing Directorate 203 Level 3, Rue D'Argens GŻR-1368 Gżira Website: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mte-mail: email@example.com
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin has been shown to be well-tolerated with no clinically meaningful effect on QTc interval or heart rate at oral doses up to 400 mg daily for 2 weeks (80 times the recommended dose). In the event of an overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated as dictated by the patient's clinical status. Saxagliptin and its major metabolite can be removed by haemodialysis (23% of dose over 4 hours).
MetforminHigh overdose or concomitant risks of metformin may lead to lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency and must be treated in hospital. The most effective method to remove lactate and metformin is haemodialysis.
Mechanism of action and pharmacodynamic effectsKomboglyze combines two antihyperglycaemic medicinal products with complementary mechanisms of action to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor, and metformin hydrochloride, a member of the biguanide class.
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin is a highly potent (Ki: 1.3 nM), selective, reversible, competitive, DPP4 inhibitor. In patients with type 2 diabetes, administration of saxagliptin led to inhibition of DPP4 enzyme activity for a 24-hour period. After an oral glucose load, this DPP4 inhibition resulted in a 2-to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of active incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), decreased glucagon concentrations and increased glucose-dependent beta-cell responsiveness, which resulted in higher insulin and C-peptide concentrations. The rise in insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and the decrease in glucagon from pancreatic alpha-cells were associated with lower fasting glucose concentrations and reduced glucose excursion following an oral glucose load or a meal. Saxagliptin improves glycaemic control by reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.
MetforminMetformin is a biguanide with antihyperglycaemic effects, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. It does not stimulate insulin secretion and therefore does not produce hypoglycaemia. Metformin may act via three mechanisms: - by reduction of hepatic glucose production by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in muscle; - by modestly increasing insulin sensitivity, improving peripheral glucose uptake and utilisation; - by delaying intestinal glucose absorption. Metformin stimulates intracellular glycogen synthesis by acting on glycogen synthase. Metformin increases the transport capacity of specific types of membrane glucose transporters (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4). In humans, independently of its action on glycaemia, metformin has favourable effects on lipid metabolism. This has been shown at therapeutic doses in controlled, medium-term or long-term clinical studies: metformin reduces total cholesterol, LDLc and triglyceride levels.
Clinical efficacy and safetyIn randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trials (including developmental and postmarketing experience), over 17,000 patients with type 2 diabetes have been treated with saxagliptin. Saxagliptin in combination with metformin for glycaemic controlThe coadministration of saxagliptin and metformin has been studied in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin alone and in treatment-naive patients inadequately controlled on diet and exercise alone. Treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg once daily produced clinically relevant and statistically significant improvements in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial glucose (PPG) compared to placebo in combination with metformin (initial or add-on therapy). Reductions in A1c were seen across subgroups including gender, age, race, and baseline BMI. Decrease in body weight in the treatment groups given saxagliptin in combination with metformin was similar to that in the groups given metformin alone. Saxagliptin plus metformin was not associated with significant changes from baseline in fasting serum lipids compared to metformin alone.
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin therapyAn add-on to metformin placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with metformin in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 7-10%) on metformin alone. Saxagliptin (n=186) provided significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG compared to placebo (n=175). Improvements in HbA1c, PPG, and FPG following treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin were sustained up to Week 102. The HbA1c change for saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin (n=31) compared to placebo plus metformin (n=15) was -0.8% at Week 102.
Saxagliptin twice daily add-on to metformin therapyAn add-on to metformin placebo-controlled study of 12-week duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 2.5 mg twice daily in combination with metformin in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 7-10%) on metformin alone. After 12 weeks, the saxagliptin group (n=74) had a greater HbA1c mean reduction from baseline than the placebo group (n=86) (-0.6% vs. -0.2%, respectively, difference of -0.34%, from a mean baseline HbA1c of 7.9% for the saxagliptin group and 8.0% for the placebo group), and a greater FPG reduction (-13.73 mg/dl versus 4.22 mg/dl) but without statistical significance (p=0.12, 95% CI [-21.68; 2.66]).
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin compared with sulphonylurea add-on to metforminA 52-week study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin (428 patients) compared with sulphonylurea (glipizide, 5 mg titrated as needed to 20 mg, mean dose of 15 mg) in combination with metformin (430 patients) in 858 patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 6.5%-10%) on metformin alone. The mean metformin dose was approximately 1900 mg in each treatment group. After 52 weeks, the saxagliptin and glipizide groups had similar mean reductions from baseline in HbA1c in the per-protocol analysis (-0.7% vs. -0.8%, respectively, mean baseline HbA1c of 7.5% for both groups). The intent-to-treat analysis showed consistent results. The reduction in FPG was slightly less in the saxagliptin-group and there were more discontinuations (3.5% vs. 1.2%) due to lack of efficacy based on FPG criteria during the first 24 weeks of the study. Saxagliptin also resulted in a significantly lower proportion of patients with hypoglycaemia, 3% (19 events in 13 subjects) vs. 36.3% (750 events in 156 patients) for glipizide. Patients treated with saxagliptin exhibited a significant decrease from baseline in body weight compared to a weight gain in patients administered glipizide (-1.1 vs. +1.1 kg).
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin compared with sitagliptin add-on to metforminAn 18-week study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin (403 patients), compared with sitagliptin 100 mg in combination with metformin (398 patients) in 801 patients with inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone. After 18 weeks, saxagliptin was non-inferior to sitagliptin in mean reduction from baseline in HbA1c in both the per-protocol and the full analysis sets. The reductions from baseline in HbA1c respectively for saxagliptin and sitagliptin in the primary per-protocol analysis were -0.5% (mean and median) and -0.6% (mean and median). In the confirmatory full analysis set, mean reductions were -0.4% and -0.6% respectively for saxagliptin and sitagliptin, with median reductions of -0.5% for both groups.
Saxagliptin in combination with metformin as initial therapyA 24-week study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin as initial combination therapy in treatment-naive patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 8-12%). Initial therapy with the combination of saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin (n=306) provided significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG compared to with either saxagliptin (n=317) or metformin (n=313) alone as initial therapy. Reductions in HbA1c from baseline to Week 24 were observed in all evaluated subgroups defined by baseline HbA1c, with greater reductions observed in patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥ 10% (see Table 4). Improvements in HbA1c, PPG, and FPG following initial therapy with saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin were sustained up to Week 76. The HbA1c change for saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin (n=177) compared to metformin plus placebo (n=147) was 0.5% at Week 76.
Saxagliptin add-on combination therapy with insulin (with or without metformin)A total of 455 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with a stable dose of insulin (baseline mean: 54.2 Units) in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.5% and ≤ 11%) on insulin alone (n=141) or on insulin in combination with a stable dose of metformin (n=314). Saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to insulin with or without metformin provided significant improvements after 24 weeks in HbA1c and PPG compared with placebo add-on to insulin with or without metformin. Similar HbA1c reductions versus placebo were achieved for patients receiving saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to insulin regardless of metformin use (−0.4% for both subgroups). Improvements from baseline HbA1c were sustained in the saxagliptin add-on to insulin group compared to the placebo add-on to insulin group with or without metformin at Week 52. The HbA1c change for the saxagliptin group (n=244) compared to placebo (n=124) was -0.4% at Week 52.Saxagliptin add-on combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureaA total of 257 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin (5 mg once daily) in combination with metformin plus sulphonylurea (SU) in patients with inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c ≥7% and ≤10%). Saxagliptin (n=127) provided significant improvements in HbA1c and PPG compared with the placebo (n=128). The HbA1c change for saxagliptin compared to placebo was -0.7% at Week 24.
Table 4 Key efficacy results in placebo-controlled, combination therapy studies of saxaglipin and metformin
|Mean baseline HbA1c (%)||Mean change1 from baseline HbA1c (%)||Placebo-corrected mean change in HbA1c (%) (95% CI)|
|ADD-ON/INITIAL COMBINATION WITH METFORMIN STUDIES|
|Saxa 5 mg daily add-on to metformin; Study CV181014 (n=186)||8.1||-0.7||-0.8 (-1.0, -0.6)2|
|Saxa 5 mg daily initial combination with metformin; Study CV1810393: Overall population (n=306) Baseline HbA1c ≥ 10% stratum (n=107)||9.4 10.8||-2.5 -3.3||-0.5 (-0.7, -0.4) 4-0.6 (-0.9, -0.3) 5|
|Saxa 2.5 mg twice daily add-on to metformin; Study CV181080 (n=74)||7.9||-0.6||-0.3 (-0.6,-0.1)6|
|ADD-ON/COMBINATION STUDIES WITH ADDITIONAL THERAPIES|
|Add on to insulin (+/- metformin)|
|Saxa 5 mg daily, Study CV181057: Overall population (n=300)||8.7||-0.7||-0.4 (-0.6, -0.2)2|
|Saxa 5 mg daily add on to metformin plus sulphonylurea; Study D1680L00006 (n=257)||8.4||-0.7||-0.7 (-0.9, -0.5) 2|
Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus- Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (SAVOR) StudySAVOR was a CV outcome trial in 16,492 patients with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% and < 12% (12959 with established CV disease; 3533 with multiple risk factors only) who were randomised to saxagliptin (n=8280) or placebo (n=8212) added to regional standards of care for HbA1c and CV risk factors. The study population included those ≥ 65 years (n=8561) and ≥ 75 years (n=2330), with normal or mild renal impairment (n=13,916) as well as moderate (n=2240) or severe (n=336) renal impairment. The primary safety (noninferiority) and efficacy (superiority) endpoint was a composite endpoint consisting of the time-to-first occurrence of any of the following major adverse CV events (MACE): CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal ischemic stroke.After a mean follow up of 2 years, the trial met its primary safety endpoint demonstrating saxagliptin does not increase the cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to placebo when added to current background therapy.The primary efficacy endpoint was not met.
Table 5: Primary and Secondary Clinical Endpoints by Treatment Group in the SAVOR Study*
|Endpoint||Saxagliptin(N=8280)||Placebo(N=8212)||Hazard Ratio(95% CI)|
|Subjects with eventsn (%)||Event rate per 100 patient-yrs||Subjects with eventsn (%)||Event rate per 100 patient-yrs|
|Primary composite endpoint: MACE||613 (7.4)||3.76||609 (7.4)||3.77||1.00(0.89, 1.12),§, #|
|Secondary composite endpoint: MACE plus||1059 (12.8)||6.72||1034 (12.6)||6.60||1.02(0.94, 1.11)¶|
|All-cause mortality||420 (5.1)||2.50||378 (4.6)||2.26||1.11(0.96, 1.27)¶|
MetforminThe prospective randomised (UKPDS) study has established the long-term benefit of intensive blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes. Analysis of the results for overweight patients treated with metformin after failure of diet alone showed:- a significant reduction of the absolute risk of any diabetes-related complication in the metformin group (29.8 events/1,000 patient-years) versus diet alone (43.3 events/1,000 patient-years), p=0.0023, and versus the combined sulphonylurea and insulin monotherapy groups (40.1 events/1,000 patient-years), p=0.0034;- a significant reduction of the absolute risk of any diabetes-related mortality: metformin 7.5 events/1,000 patient-years, diet alone 12.7 events/1,000 patient-years, p=0.017;- a significant reduction of the absolute risk of overall mortality: metformin 13.5 events/1,000 patient-years versus diet alone 20.6 events/1,000 patient-years, (p=0.011), and versus the combined sulphonylurea and insulin monotherapy groups 18.9 events/1,000 patient-years (p=0.021);- a significant reduction in the absolute risk of myocardial infarction: metformin 11 events/1,000 patient-years, diet alone 18 events/1,000 patient-years, (p=0.01).
Paediatric populationThe European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Komboglyze in all subsets of the paediatric population in type 2 diabetes mellitus (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).
Elderly populationIn the SAVOR study subgroups over 65 and over 75 years of age, efficacy and safety was consistent with the overall study population.GENERATION was a 52-week glycaemic control study in 720 elderly patients, the mean age was 72.6 years; 433 subjects (60.1%) were < 75 years of age, and 287 subjects (39.9%) were ≥ 75 years of age. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c < 7% without confirmed or severe hypoglycaemia. There appeared to be no difference in percentage responders: saxagliptin 37.9% (saxagliptin) and 38.2% (glimepiride) achieved the primary endpoint. A lower proportion of patients in the saxagliptin group (44.7%) compared to the glimepiride group (54.7%) achieved an HbA1c target of 7.0%. A lower proportion of patients in the saxagliptin group (1.1%) compared to the glimepiride group (15.3%), experienced a confirmed or severe hypoglycaemic event.
SaxagliptinThe pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its major metabolite were similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes.
AbsorptionSaxagliptin was rapidly absorbed after oral administration in the fasted state, with maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of saxagliptin and its major metabolite attained within 2 and 4 hours (Tmax), respectively. The Cmax and AUC values of saxagliptin and its major metabolite increased proportionally with the increment in the saxagliptin dose, and this dose-proportionality was observed in doses up to 400 mg. Following a 5 mg single oral dose of saxagliptin to healthy subjects, the mean plasma AUC values for saxagliptin and its major metabolite were 78 ng·h/ml and 214 ng·h/ml, respectively. The corresponding plasma Cmax values were 24 ng/ml and 47 ng/ml, respectively. The intra-subject coefficients of variation for saxagliptin Cmax and AUC were less than 12%. The inhibition of plasma DPP4 activity by saxagliptin for at least 24 hours after oral administration of saxagliptin is due to high potency, high affinity, and extended binding to the active site.
Interaction with foodFood had relatively modest effects on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin in healthy subjects. Administration with food (a high-fat meal) resulted in no change in saxagliptin Cmax and a 27% increase in AUC compared with the fasted state. The time for saxagliptin to reach Cmax (Tmax) was increased by approximately 0.5 hours with food compared with the fasted state. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
DistributionThe in vitro protein binding of saxagliptin and its major metabolite in human serum is negligible. Thus, changes in blood protein levels in various disease states (e.g., renal or hepatic impairment) are not expected to alter the disposition of saxagliptin.
BiotransformationThe biotransformation of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5). The major metabolite of saxagliptin is also a selective, reversible, competitive DPP4 inhibitor, half as potent as saxagliptin.
EliminationThe mean plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) values for saxagliptin and its major metabolite are 2.5 hours and 3.1 hours respectively, and the mean t1/2 value for plasma DPP4 inhibition was 26.9 hours. Saxagliptin is eliminated by both renal and hepatic pathways. Following a single 50 mg dose of 14C-saxagliptin, 24%, 36%, and 75% of the dose was excreted in the urine as saxagliptin, its major metabolite, and total radioactivity respectively. The average renal clearance of saxagliptin (230 ml/min) was greater than the average estimated glomerular filtration rate (120 ml/min), suggesting some active renal excretion. For the major metabolite, renal clearance values were comparable to estimated glomerular filtration rate. A total of 22% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in faeces representing the fraction of the saxagliptin dose excreted in bile and/or unabsorbed medicinal product from the gastrointestinal tract.
LinearityThe Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin and its major metabolite increased proportionally to the saxagliptin dose. No appreciable accumulation of either saxagliptin or its major metabolite was observed with repeated once-daily dosing at any dose level. No dose- and time-dependence was observed in the clearance of saxagliptin and its major metabolite over 14 days of once-daily dosing with saxagliptin at doses ranging from 2.5 mg to 400 mg.
Renal impairmentA single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 10 mg oral dose of saxagliptin in subjects with varying degrees of chronic renal impairment compared to subjects with normal renal function. In subjects with mild (> 50 to ≤ 80 ml/min), moderate (≥ 30 to ≤ 50 ml/min), or severe (19-30 ml/min) renal impairment the exposures to saxagliptin were 1.2-, 1.4- and 2.1-fold higher, respectively, and the exposures to BMS-510849 were 1.7-, 2.9-, and 4.5-fold higher, respectively, than those observed in subjects with normal renal function (> 80 ml/min).
Hepatic impairmentIn subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class A), moderate (Child-Pugh Class B), or severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment the exposures to saxagliptin were 1.1-, 1.4- and 1.8-fold higher, respectively, and the exposures to BMS-510849 were 22%, 7%, and 33% lower, respectively, than those observed in healthy subjects.
Elderly patients (≥ 65 years)Elderly patients (65-80 years) had about 60% higher saxagliptin AUC than young patients (18-40 years). This is not considered clinically meaningful, therefore, no dose adjustment for Komboglyze is recommended on the basis of age alone.
AbsorptionAfter an oral dose of metformin, tmax is reached in 2.5 h. Absolute bioavailability of a 500 mg metformin tablet is approximately 50-60% in healthy subjects. After an oral dose, the non-absorbed fraction recovered in faeces was 20-30%.After oral administration, metformin absorption is saturable and incomplete. It is assumed that the pharmacokinetics of metformin absorption is non-linear. At the usual metformin doses and dosing schedules, steady state plasma concentrations are reached within 24-48 h and are generally less than 1 µg/ml. In controlled clinical trials, maximum metformin plasma levels (Cmax) did not exceed 4 µg/ml, even at maximum doses.
Interaction with foodFood decreases the extent and slightly delays the absorption of metformin. Following administration of a dose of 850 mg, a 40% lower plasma peak concentration, a 25% decrease in AUC and a 35 min prolongation of time to peak plasma concentration was observed. The clinical relevance of this decrease is unknown.
DistributionPlasma protein binding is negligible. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes. The blood peak is lower than the plasma peak and appears at approximately the same time. The red blood cells most likely represent a secondary compartment of distribution. The mean Vd ranged between 63-276 l.
BiotransformationMetformin is excreted unchanged in the urine. No metabolites have been identified in humans.
EliminationRenal clearance of metformin is > 400 ml/min, indicating that metformin is eliminated by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Following an oral dose, the apparent terminal elimination half-life is approximately 6.5 h. When renal function is impaired, renal clearance is decreased in proportion to that of creatinine and thus the elimination half-life is prolonged, leading to increased levels of metformin in plasma.
Coadministration of saxagliptin and metforminA 3-month dog study and embryo-foetal development studies in rats and rabbits have been conducted with the combination of saxagliptin and metformin. Coadministration of saxagliptin and metformin, to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis, was neither embryolethal nor teratogenic in either species when tested at doses yielding systemic exposures (AUC) up to 100 and 10 times the maximum recommended human doses (RHD; 5 mg saxagliptin and 2000 mg metformin), respectively, in rats; and 249 and 1.1 times the RHDs in rabbits. In rats, minor developmental toxicity was limited to an increased incidence of delayed ossification (wavy ribs); associated maternal toxicity was limited to weight decrements of 5-6% over the course of gestation days 13 through 18, and related reductions in maternal food consumption. In rabbits, coadministration was poorly tolerated in many mothers, resulting in death, moribundity or abortion. However, among surviving mothers with evaluable litters, maternal toxicity was limited to marginal reductions in body weight over the course of gestation days 21 to 29; and associated developmental toxicity in these litters was limited to fetal body weight decrements of 7%, and a low incidence of delayed ossification of the fetal hyoid.A 3-month dog study was conducted with the combination of saxagliptin and metformin. No combination toxicity was observed at AUC exposures 68 and 1.5 times the RHDs for saxagliptin and metformin, respectively.No animal studies have been conducted with the combination of products in Komboglyze to evaluate carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility. The following data are based on the findings in the studies with saxagliptin and metformin individually.
SaxagliptinIn cynomolgus monkeys saxagliptin produced reversible skin lesions (scabs, ulcerations and necrosis) in extremities (tail, digits, scrotum and/or nose) at doses ≥ 3 mg/kg/day. The no effect level (NOEL) for the lesions is 1 and 2 times the human exposure of saxagliptin and the major metabolite respectively, at the recommended human dose of 5 mg/day (RHD). The clinical relevance of the skin lesions is not known, however clinical correlates to skin lesions in monkeys have not been observed in human clinical trials of saxagliptin.Immune related findings of minimal, nonprogressive, lymphoid hyperplasia in spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow with no adverse sequelae have been reported in all species tested at exposures starting from 7 times the RHD.Saxagliptin produced gastrointestinal toxicity in dogs, including bloody/mucoid faeces and enteropathy at higher doses with a NOEL 4 and 2 times the human exposure for saxagliptin and the major metabolite, respectively, at RHD.Saxagliptin was not genotoxic in a conventional battery of genotoxicity studies in vitro and in vivo. No carcinogenic potential was observed in two-year carcinogenicity assays with mice and rats.Effects on fertility were observed in male and female rats at high doses producing overt signs of toxicity. Saxagliptin was not teratogenic at any doses evaluated in rats or rabbits. At high doses in rats, saxagliptin caused reduced ossification (a developmental delay) of the foetal pelvis and decreased foetal body weight (in the presence of maternal toxicity), with a NOEL 303 and 30 times the human exposure for saxagliptin and the major metabolite, respectively, at RHD. In rabbits, the effects of saxagliptin were limited to minor skeletal variations observed only at maternally toxic doses (NOEL 158 and 224 times the human exposure for saxagliptin and the major metabolite, respectively at RHD). In a pre- and postnatal developmental study in rats, saxagliptin caused decreased pup weight at maternally toxic doses, with NOEL 488 and 45 times the human exposure for saxagliptin and the major metabolite, respectively at RHD. The effect on offspring body weights were noted until postnatal day 92 and 120 in females and males, respectively.
MetforminPreclinical data for metformin reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction.
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