Janumet 50 mg/1000 mg film-coated tablets
- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
- Company information
- More information about this medicine
PosologyThe dose of antihyperglycaemic therapy with Janumet should be individualised on the basis of the patient's current regimen, effectiveness, and tolerability while not exceeding the maximum recommended daily dose of 100 mg sitagliptin.
For patients inadequately controlled on maximal tolerated dose of metformin monotherapyFor patients not adequately controlled on metformin alone, the usual starting dose of Janumet should provide sitagliptin dosed as 50 mg twice daily (100 mg total daily dose) plus the dose of metformin already being taken.
For patients switching from co-administration of sitagliptin and metforminFor patients switching from co-administration of sitagliptin and metformin, Janumet should be initiated at the dose of sitagliptin and metformin already being taken.
For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination therapy with the maximal tolerated dose of metformin and a sulphonylureaThe dose of Janumet should provide sitagliptin dosed as 50 mg twice daily (100 mg total daily dose) and a dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken. When Janumet is used in combination with a sulphonylurea, a lower dose of the sulphonylurea may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see section 4.4).
For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination therapy with the maximal tolerated dose of metformin and a PPARγ agonistThe dose of Janumet should provide sitagliptin dosed as 50 mg twice daily (100 mg total daily dose) and a dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken.
For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination therapy with insulin and the maximal tolerated dose of metforminThe dose of Janumet should provide sitagliptin dosed as 50 mg twice daily (100 mg total daily dose) and a dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken. When Janumet is used in combination with insulin, a lower dose of insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see section 4.4).For the different doses on metformin, Janumet is available in strengths of 50 mg sitagliptin and 850 mg metformin hydrochloride or 1,000 mg metformin hydrochloride.All patients should continue their diet with an adequate distribution of carbohydrate intake during the day. Overweight patients should continue their energy-restricted diet.
Renal impairmentNo dose adjustment is needed for patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥ 60 mL/min). Janumet should not be used in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min) (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
Hepatic impairmentJanumet should not be used in patients with hepatic impairment (see sections 4.3 and 5.2).
ElderlyAs metformin and sitagliptin are excreted by the kidney, Janumet should be used with caution as age increases. Monitoring of renal function is necessary to aid in prevention of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, particularly in the elderly (see sections 4.3 and 4.4). Limited safety data on sitagliptin is available in patients > 75 years of age and care should be exercised.
Paediatric populationThe safety and efficacy of Janumet in children and adolescents from birth to < 18 years of age have not been established. No data are available. Method of administrationJanumet should be given twice daily with meals to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse reactions associated with metformin.
|- severe infection,|
|- intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents (see section 4.4);|
|- cardiac or respiratory failure,|
|- recent myocardial infarction,|
GeneralJanumet should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes and must not be used for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
PancreatitisIn post-marketing experience there have been spontaneously reported adverse reactions of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptom of acute pancreatitis: persistent, severe abdominal pain. Resolution of pancreatitis has been observed after discontinuation of sitagliptin (with or without supportive treatment), but very rare cases of necrotising or haemorrhagic pancreatitis and/or death have been reported. If pancreatitis is suspected, Janumet and other potentially suspect medicinal products should be discontinued.
Lactic acidosisLactic acidosis is a very rare, but serious (high mortality in the absence of prompt treatment), metabolic complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation. Reported cases of lactic acidosis in patients on metformin have occurred primarily in diabetic patients with significant renal failure. The incidence of lactic acidosis can and should be reduced by also assessing other associated risk factors such as poorly controlled diabetes, ketosis, prolonged fasting, excessive alcohol intake, hepatic insufficiency and any conditions associated with hypoxia.
DiagnosisLactic acidosis is characterised by acidotic dyspnoea, abdominal pain and hypothermia followed by coma. Diagnostic laboratory findings are decreased blood pH, plasma lactate levels above 5 mmol/L, and an increased anion gap and lactate/pyruvate ratio. If metabolic acidosis is suspected, treatment with the medicinal product should be discontinued and the patient hospitalised immediately (see section 4.9).
Renal functionMetformin and sitagliptin are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. Metformin-related lactic acidosis increases with the degree of impairment of renal function, therefore, serum creatinine concentrations should be determined regularly:- at least once a year in patients with normal renal function- at least two to four times a year in patients with serum creatinine levels at or above the upper limit of normal and in elderly patients.Decreased renal function in elderly patients is frequent and asymptomatic. Special caution should be exercised in situations where renal function may become impaired, for example when initiating antihypertensive or diuretic therapy or when starting treatment with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
HypoglycaemiaPatients receiving Janumet in combination with a sulphonylurea or with insulin may be at risk for hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a reduction in the dose of the sulphonylurea or insulin may be necessary.
Hypersensitivity reactionsPost-marketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with sitagliptin have been reported. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first three months after initiation of treatment with sitagliptin, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, Janumet should be discontinuedfor other potential causes of the event should be assessed, and alternative treatment for diabetes should be instituted (see section 4.8).
SurgeryAs Janumet contains metformin hydrochloride, the treatment should be discontinued 48 hours before elective surgery with general, spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Janumet should not usually be resumed earlier than 48 hours afterwards and only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal.
Administration of iodinated contrast agentThe intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents in radiological studies can lead to renal failure which has been associated with lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin. Therefore, Janumet should be discontinued prior to, or at the time of the test and not reinstituted until 48 hours afterwards, and only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal (see section 4.5).
Change in clinical status of patients with previously controlled type 2 diabetesA patient with type 2 diabetes previously well controlled on Janumet who develops laboratory abnormalities or clinical illness (especially vague and poorly defined illness) should be evaluated promptly for evidence of ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. Evaluation should include serum electrolytes and ketones, blood glucose and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. If acidosis of either form occurs, Janumet must be stopped immediately and other appropriate corrective measures initiated.
Combination requiring precautions for useGlucocorticoids (given by systemic and local routes) beta-2-agonists, and diuretics have intrinsic hyperglycaemic activity. The patient should be informed and more frequent blood glucose monitoring performed, especially at the beginning of treatment with such medicinal products. If necessary, the dose of the anti-hyperglycaemic medicinal product should be adjusted during therapy with the other medicinal product and on its discontinuation.ACE-inhibitors may decrease the blood glucose levels. If necessary, the dose of the antihyperglycaemic medicinal product should be adjusted during therapy with the other medicinal product and on its discontinuation.
Effects of other medicinal products on sitagliptinIn vitro and clinical data described below suggest that the risk for clinically meaningful interactions following co-administration of other medicinal products is low.In vitro studies indicated that the primary enzyme responsible for the limited metabolism of sitagliptin is CYP3A4, with contribution from CYP2C8. In patients with normal renal function, metabolism, including via CYP3A4, plays only a small role in the clearance of sitagliptin. Metabolism may play a more significant role in the elimination of sitagliptin in the setting of severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). For this reason, it is possible that potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (i.e., ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir, clarithromycin) could alter the phamacokinetics of sitagliptin in patients with severe renal impairment or ESRD. The effects of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors in the setting of renal impairment has not been assessed in a clinical study.In vitro transport studies showed that sitagliptin is a substrate for p-glycoprotein and organic anion transporter-3 (OAT3). OAT3 mediated transport of sitagliptin was inhibited in vitro by probenecid, although the risk of clinically meaningful interactions is considered to be low. Concomitant administration of OAT3 inhibitors has not been evaluated in vivo.Ciclosporin: A study was conducted to assess the effect of ciclosporin, a potent inhibitor of p-glycoprotein, on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin. Co-administration of a single 100 mg oral dose of sitagliptin and a single 600 mg oral dose of ciclosporin increased the AUC and Cmax of sitagliptin by approximately 29 % and 68 %, respectively. These changes in sitagliptin pharmacokinetics were not considered to be clinically meaningful. The renal clearance of sitagliptin was not meaningfully altered. Therefore, meaningful interactions would not be expected with other p-glycoprotein inhibitors.
Effects of sitagliptin on other medicinal productsIn vitro data suggest that sitagliptin does not inhibit nor induce CYP450 isoenzymes. In clinical studies, sitagliptin did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glyburide, simvastatin, rosiglitazone, warfarin, or oral contraceptives, providing in vivo evidence of a low propensity for causing interactions with substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and organic cationic transporter (OCT). Sitagliptin had a small effect on plasma digoxin concentrations, and may be a mild inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in vivo. Digoxin: Sitagliptin had a small effect on plasma digoxin concentrations. Following administration of 0.25 mg digoxin concomitantly with 100 mg of sitagliptin daily for 10 days, the plasma AUC of digoxin was increased on average by 11 %, and the plasma Cmax on average by 18 %. No dose adjustment of digoxin is recommended. However, patients at risk of digoxin toxicity should be monitored for this when sitagliptin and digoxin are administered concomitantly.
PregnancyThere are no adequate data from the use of sitagliptin in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at high doses of sitagliptin (see section 5.3).A limited amount of data suggest the use of metformin in pregnant women is not associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Animal studies with metformin do not indicate harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonic or foetal development, parturition or postnatal development (see also section 5.3).Janumet should not be used during pregnancy.If a patient wishes to become pregnant or if a pregnancy occurs, treatment with Janumet should be discontinued and switched to insulin treatment as soon as possible.
Breast-feedingNo studies in lactating animals have been conducted with the combined active substances of Janumet. In studies performed with the individual active substances, both sitagliptin and metformin are excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Metformin is excreted in human milk in small amounts. It is not known whether sitagliptin is excreted in human milk. Janumet must therefore not be used in women who are breast-feeding (see section 4.3).
FertilityAnimal data do not suggest an effect of treatment with sitagliptin on male and female fertility. Human data are lacking.
Summary of the safety profileThere have been no therapeutic clinical trials conducted with Janumet tablets however bioequivalence of Janumet with co-administered sitagliptin and metformin has been demonstrated (see section 5.2). Serious adverse reactions including pancreatitis and hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. Hypoglycemia has been reported in combination with sulphonylurea (13.8%) and insulin (10.9%).
Sitagliptin and metformin
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsAdverse reactions are listed below as MedDRA preferred term by system organ class and absolute frequency (Table 1). Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
Table 1. The frequency of adverse reactions identified from placebo-controlled clinical studies and post marketing experience
|Adverse reaction||Frequency of adverse reaction by treatment regimen|
|Sitagliptin with Metformin||Sitagliptin with Metformin and a Sulphonylurea||Sitagliptin with Metformin and a PPARγ Agonist(pioglitazone)||Sitagliptin with Metformin and Insulin|
|Immune system disorders|
|hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic responses *,||Frequency not known|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|hypoglycaemia||Common||Very common||Common||Very common|
|Nervous system disorders|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|interstitial lung disease*||Frequency not known|
|upper abdominal pain||Uncommon|
|vomiting||Common||Frequency not known *||Frequency not known *||Frequency not known*|
|acute pancreatitis *,||Frequency not known|
|fatal and non-fatal haemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis*,||Frequency not known|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|angioedema*,||Frequency not known|
|rash*,||Frequency not known|
|urticaria*,||Frequency not known|
|cutaneous vasculitis*,||Frequency not known|
|exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome*,||Frequency not known|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|arthralgia*||Frequency not known|
|myalgia*||Frequency not known|
|pain in extremity*||Frequency not known|
|back pain*||Frequency not known|
|Renal and urinary disorders|
|impaired renal function*||Frequency not known|
|acute renal failure*||Frequency not known|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|blood glucose decreased||Uncommon|
Additional information on the individual active substances of the fixed-dose combination
SitagliptinIn monotherapy studies of sitagliptin 100 mg once daily alone compared to placebo, adverse reactions reported were headache, hypoglycaemia, constipation, and dizziness.Among these patients, adverse events reported regardless of causal relationship to medicinal product occurring in at least 5 % included upper respiratory tract infection and nasopharyngitis. In addition, osteoarthritis and pain in extremity were reported with frequency uncommon (> 0.5 % higher among sitagliptin users than that in the control group). Across clinical studies, a small increase in white blood cell (WBC) count (approximately 200 cells/microl difference in WBC vs placebo; mean baseline WBC approximately 6,600 cells/microl) was observed due to an increase in neutrophils. This observation was seen in most but not all studies. This change in laboratory parameters is not considered to be clinically relevant.
MetforminTable 2 presents adverse reactions by system organ class and by frequency category. Frequency categories are based on information available from metformin Summary of Product Characteristics available in the EU.
Table 2. The frequency of metformin adverse reactions identified from clinical trial and postmarketing data
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|lactic acidosis||Very rare|
|vitamin B12 deficiencya||Very rare|
|Nervous system disorders|
|gastrointestinal symptomsb||Very common|
|liver function disorders, hepatitis||Very rare|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|urticaria, erythema, pruritis||Very rare|
Mechanism of actionSitagliptin phosphate is an orally-active, potent, and highly selective inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) enzyme for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The DPP-4 inhibitors are a class of agents that act as incretin enhancers. By inhibiting the DPP-4 enzyme, sitagliptin increases the levels of two known active incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, leading to reduced hepatic glucose production. When blood glucose levels are low, insulin release is not enhanced and glucagon secretion is not suppressed. Sitagliptin is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of the enzyme DPP-4 and does not inhibit the closely-related enzymes DPP-8 or DPP-9 at therapeutic concentrations. Sitagliptin differs in chemical structure and pharmacological action from GLP-1 analogues, insulin, sulphonylureas or meglitinides, biguanides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and amylin analogues.In a two-day study in healthy subjects, sitagliptin alone increased active GLP-1 concentrations, whereas metformin alone increased active and total GLP-1 concentrations to similar extents. Co-administration of sitagliptin and metformin had an additive effect on active GLP-1 concentrations. Sitagliptin, but not metformin, increased active GIP concentrations.
Clinical efficacy and safetyOverall, sitagliptin improved glycaemic control when used as monotherapy or in combination treatment. In clinical trials, sitagliptin as monotherapy improved glycaemic control with significant reductions in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting and postprandial glucose. Reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was observed at three weeks, the first time point at which FPG was measured. The observed incidence of hypoglycaemia in patients treated with sitagliptin was similar to placebo. Body weight did not increase from baseline with sitagliptin therapy. Improvements in surrogate markers of beta cell function, including HOMA-β (Homeostasis Model Assessment-β), proinsulin to insulin ratio, and measures of beta cell responsiveness from the frequently-sampled meal tolerance test were observed.
Studies of sitagliptin in combination with metforminIn a 24-week, placebo-controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the addition of sitagliptin 100 mg once daily to ongoing metformin, sitagliptin provided significant improvements in glycaemic parameters compared with placebo. Change from baseline in body weight was similar for patients treated with sitagliptin relative to placebo. In this study there was a similar incidence of hypoglycaemia reported for patients treated with sitagliptin or placebo.In a 24-week placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy, sitagliptin 50 mg twice daily in combination with metformin (500 mg or 1,000 mg twice daily) provided significant improvements in glycaemic parameters compared with either monotherapy. The decrease in body weight with the combination of sitagliptin and metformin was similar to that observed with metformin alone or placebo; there was no change from baseline for patients on sitagliptin alone. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was similar across treatment groups.
Study of sitagliptin in combination with metformin and a sulphonylureaA 24-week placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin (100 mg once daily) added to glimepiride (alone or in combination with metformin). The addition of sitagliptin to glimepiride and metformin provided significant improvements in glycaemic parameters. Patients treated with sitagliptin had a modest increase in body weight (+1.1 kg) compared to those given placebo.
Study of sitagliptin in combination with metformin and a PPARγ agonistA 26-week placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin (100 mg once daily) added to the combination of pioglitazone and metformin. The addition of sitagliptin to pioglitazone and metformin provided significant improvements in glycaemic parameters. Change from baseline in body weight was similar for patients treated with sitagliptin relative to placebo. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was also similar in patients treated with sitagliptin or placebo.
Study of sitagliptin in combination with metformin and insulinA 24-week placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin (100 mg once daily) added to insulin (at a stable dose for at least 10 weeks) with or without metformin (at least 1,500 mg). In patients taking pre-mixed insulin, the mean daily dose was 70.9 U/day. In patients taking non-pre-mixed (intermediate/long-acting) insulin, the mean daily dose was 44.3 U/day. Data from the 73 % of patients who were taking metformin are presented in Table 3. The addition of sitagliptin to insulin provided significant improvements in glycaemic parameters. There was no meaningful change from baseline in body weight in either group.Table 3: HbA1c results in placebo-controlled combination therapy studies of sitagliptin and metformin*
|Study||Mean baseline HbA1c (%)||Mean change from baseline HbA1c (%)||Placebo-corrected mean change in HbA1c (%)(95 % CI)|
|Sitagliptin 100 mg once daily added to ongoing metformin therapy%(N=453)||8.0||-0.7||-0.7,(-0.8, -0.5)|
|Sitagliptin 100 mg once daily added to ongoing glimepiride + metformin therapy%(N=115)||8.3||-0.6||-0.9,(-1.1, -0.7)|
|Sitagliptin 100 mg once daily added to ongoing pioglitazone + metformin therapy¶ (N=152)||8.8||-1. 2||-0.7,( 1.0, 0.5)|
|Sitagliptin 100 mg once daily added to ongoing insulin + metformin therapy %(N=223)||8.7||-0.7§||-0.5§,(-0.7, -0.4)|
|Initial Therapy (twice daily)%%:|
|Sitagliptin 50 mg + metformin 500 mg (N=183)||8.8||-1.4||-1.6,(-1.8, -1.3)|
|Initial Therapy (twice daily)%%:|
|Sitagliptin 50 mg + metformin 1,000 mg (N=178)||8.8||-1.9||-2.1,(-2.3, -1.8)|
Mechanism of actionMetformin is a biguanide with antihyperglycaemic effects, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. It does not stimulate insulin secretion and therefore does not produce hypoglycaemia.Metformin may act via three mechanisms:- by reduction of hepatic glucose production by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis- in muscle, by modestly increasing insulin sensitivity, improving peripheral glucose uptake and utilisation- by delaying intestinal glucose absorption.Metformin stimulates intracellular glycogen synthesis by acting on glycogen synthase. Metformin increases the transport capacity of specific types of membrane glucose transporters (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4).
Clinical efficacy and safetyIn humans, independently of its action on glycaemia, metformin has favourable effects on lipid metabolism. This has been shown at therapeutic doses in controlled, medium-term or long-term clinical studies: metformin reduces total cholesterol, LDLc and triglyceride levels.The prospective randomised (UKPDS) study has established the long-term benefit of intensive blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes. Analysis of the results for overweight patients treated with metformin after failure of diet alone showed:- a significant reduction of the absolute risk of any diabetes-related complication in the metformin group (29.8 events/1,000 patient-years) versus diet alone (43.3 events/1,000 patient-years), p=0.0023, and versus the combined sulphonylurea and insulin monotherapy groups (40.1 events/1,000 patient-years), p=0.0034- a significant reduction of the absolute risk of any diabetes-related mortality: metformin 7.5 events/1,000 patient-years, diet alone 12.7 events/1,000 patient-years, p=0.017- a significant reduction of the absolute risk of overall mortality: metformin 13.5 events/1,000 patient-years versus diet alone 20.6 events/1,000 patient-years, (p=0.011), and versus the combined sulphonylurea and insulin monotherapy groups 18.9 events/1,000 patient-years (p=0.021)- a significant reduction in the absolute risk of myocardial infarction: metformin 11 events/1,000 patient-years, diet alone 18 events/1,000 patient-years, (p=0.01).
Paediatric populationThe European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Janumet in all subsets of the paediatric population in type 2 diabetes mellitus (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).
JanumetA bioequivalence study in healthy subjects demonstrated that the Janumet (sitagliptin/metformin hydrochloride) combination tablets are bioequivalent to co-administration of sitagliptin phosphate and metformin hydrochloride as individual tablets.The following statements reflect the pharmacokinetic properties of the individual active substances of Janumet.
AbsorptionFollowing oral administration of a 100-mg dose to healthy subjects, sitagliptin was rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations (median Tmax) occurring 1 to 4 hours post-dose, mean plasma AUC of sitagliptin was 8.52 μMhr, Cmax was 950 nM. The absolute bioavailability of sitagliptin is approximately 87 %. Since co-administration of a high-fat meal with sitagliptin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics, sitagliptin may be administered with or without food.Plasma AUC of sitagliptin increased in a dose-proportional manner. Dose-proportionality was not established for Cmax and C24hr (Cmax increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner and C24hr increased in a less than dose-proportional manner).
DistributionThe mean volume of distribution at steady state following a single 100-mg intravenous dose of sitagliptin to healthy subjects is approximately 198 litres. The fraction of sitagliptin reversibly bound to plasma proteins is low (38 %).
BiotransformationSitagliptin is primarily eliminated unchanged in urine, and metabolism is a minor pathway. Approximately 79 % of sitagliptin is excreted unchanged in the urine.Following a [14C]sitagliptin oral dose, approximately 16 % of the radioactivity was excreted as metabolites of sitagliptin. Six metabolites were detected at trace levels and are not expected to contribute to the plasma DPP-4 inhibitory activity of sitagliptin. In vitro studies indicated that the primary enzyme responsible for the limited metabolism of sitagliptin was CYP3A4, with contribution from CYP2C8.In vitro data showed that sitagliptin is not an inhibitor of CYP isoenzymes CYP3A4, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 1A2, 2C19 or 2B6, and is not an inducer of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2.
EliminationFollowing administration of an oral [14C]sitagliptin dose to healthy subjects, approximately 100 % of the administered radioactivity was eliminated in faeces (13 %) or urine (87 %) within one week of dosing. The apparent terminal t½following a 100-mg oral dose of sitagliptin was approximately 12.4 hours. Sitagliptin accumulates only minimally with multiple doses. The renal clearance was approximately 350 mlmin.Elimination of sitagliptin occurs primarily via renal excretion and involves active tubular secretion. Sitagliptin is a substrate for human organic anion transporter-3 (hOAT-3), which may be involved in the renal elimination of sitagliptin. The clinical relevance of hOAT-3 in sitagliptin transport has not been established. Sitagliptin is also a substrate of p-glycoprotein, which may also be involved in mediating the renal elimination of sitagliptin. However, ciclosporin, a p-glycoprotein inhibitor, did not reduce the renal clearance of sitagliptin. Sitagliptin is not a substrate for OCT2 or OAT1 or PEPT1/2 transporters. In vitro, sitagliptin did not inhibit OAT3 (IC50=160 μM) or p-glycoprotein (up to 250 μM) mediated transport at therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations. In a clinical study sitagliptin had a small effect on plasma digoxin concentrations indicating that sitagliptin may be a mild inhibitor of p-glycoprotein.
Characteristics in patientsThe pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin were generally similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Renal impairmentA single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a reduced dose of sitagliptin (50 mg) in patients with varying degrees of chronic renal impairment compared to normal healthy control subjects. The study included patients with renal impairment classified on the basis of creatinine clearance as mild (50 to < 80 mL/min), moderate (30 to < 50 mL/min), and severe (< 30 mL/min), as well as patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis.Patients with mild renal impairment did not have a clinically meaningful increase in the plasma concentration of sitagliptin as compared to normal healthy control subjects. An approximately 2-fold increase in the plasma AUC of sitagliptin was observed in patients with moderate renal impairment, and an approximately 4-fold increase was observed in patients with severe renal impairment and in patients with ESRD on haemodialysis, as compared to normal healthy control subjects. Sitagliptin was modestly removed by haemodialysis (13.5 % over a 3- to 4-hour haemodialysis session starting 4 hours post-dose).
Hepatic impairmentNo dose adjustment for sitagliptin is necessary for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score ≤ 9). There is no clinical experience in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score > 9). However, because sitagliptin is primarily renally eliminated, severe hepatic impairment is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin.
ElderlyNo dose adjustment is required based on age. Age did not have a clinically meaningful impact on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis of Phase I and Phase II data. Elderly subjects (65 to 80 years) had approximately 19 % higher plasma concentrations of sitagliptin compared to younger subjects.
PaediatricNo studies with sitagliptin have been performed in paediatric patients.
Other patient characteristicsNo dose adjustment is necessary based on gender, race, or body mass index (BMI). These characteristics had no clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin based on a composite analysis of Phase I pharmacokinetic data and on a population pharmacokinetic analysis of Phase I and Phase II data.
AbsorptionAfter an oral dose of metformin, tmax is reached in 2.5 h. Absolute bioavailability of a 500 mg metformin tablet is approximately 50-60 % in healthy subjects. After an oral dose, the non-absorbed fraction recovered in faeces was 20-30 %.After oral administration, metformin absorption is saturable and incomplete. It is assumed that the pharmacokinetics of metformin absorption is non-linear. At the usual metformin doses and dosing schedules, steady state plasma concentrations are reached within 24-48 h and are generally less than 1 µg/mL. In controlled clinical trials, maximum metformin plasma levels (Cmax) did not exceed 4 µg/mL, even at maximum doses.Food decreases the extent and slightly delays the absorption of metformin. Following administration of a dose of 850 mg, a 40 % lower plasma peak concentration, a 25 % decrease in AUC and a 35 min prolongation of time to peak plasma concentration was observed. The clinical relevance of this decrease is unknown.
DistributionPlasma protein binding is negligible. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes. The blood peak is lower than the plasma peak and appears at approximately the same time. The red blood cells most likely represent a secondary compartment of distribution. The mean Vd ranged between 63 276 L.
BiotransformationMetformin is excreted unchanged in the urine. No metabolites have been identified in humans.
EliminationRenal clearance of metformin is > 400 mL/min, indicating that metformin is eliminated by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Following an oral dose, the apparent terminal elimination half-life is approximately 6.5 h. When renal function is impaired, renal clearance is decreased in proportion to that of creatinine and thus the elimination half-life is prolonged, leading to increased levels of metformin in plasma.
SitagliptinRenal and liver toxicity were observed in rodents at systemic exposure values 58 times the human exposure level, while the no-effect level was found at 19 times the human exposure level. Incisor teeth abnormalities were observed in rats at exposure levels 67 times the clinical exposure level; the no-effect level for this finding was 58-fold based on the 14-week rat study. The relevance of these findings for humans is unknown. Transient treatment-related physical signs, some of which suggest neural toxicity, such as open-mouth breathing, salivation, white foamy emesis, ataxia, trembling, decreased activity, and/or hunched posture were observed in dogs at exposure levels approximately 23 times the clinical exposure level. In addition, very slight to slight skeletal muscle degeneration was also observed histologically at doses resulting in systemic exposure levels of approximately 23 times the human exposure level. A no-effect level for these findings was found at an exposure 6-fold the clinical exposure level.Sitagliptin has not been demonstrated to be genotoxic in preclinical studies. Sitagliptin was not carcinogenic in mice. In rats, there was an increased incidence of hepatic adenomas and carcinomas at systemic exposure levels 58 times the human exposure level. Since hepatotoxicity has been shown to correlate with induction of hepatic neoplasia in rats, this increased incidence of hepatic tumours in rats was likely secondary to chronic hepatic toxicity at this high dose. Because of the high safety margin (19-fold at this no-effect level), these neoplastic changes are not considered relevant for the situation in humans.No treatment related effects on fertility were observed in male and female rats given sitagliptin prior to and throughout mating.In a pre-/post-natal development study performed in rats sitagliptin showed no adverse effects.Reproductive toxicity studies showed a slight treatment-related increased incidence of foetal rib malformations (absent, hypoplastic and wavy ribs) in the offspring of rats at systemic exposure levels more than 29 times the human exposure levels. Maternal toxicity was seen in rabbits at more than 29 times the human exposure levels. Because of the high safety margins, these findings do not suggest a relevant risk for human reproduction. Sitagliptin is secreted in considerable amounts into the milk of lactating rats (milk/plasma ratio: 4:1).
MetforminPreclinical data for metformin reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction.
Tablet coremicrocrystalline cellulose (E460) povidone K29/32 (E1201)sodium lauril sulfatesodium stearyl fumarate
Film coatingpoly(vinyl alcohol)macrogol 3350talc (E553b) titanium dioxide (E171) iron oxide red (E172) iron oxide black (E172)
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