- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
|Tinea pedis and/or tinea manuum||1 pulse treatment||A pulse treatment consists of 200 mg bd. for 7 days.|
|Onychomycosis fingernails||2 pulse treatments||Pulse treatments are separated by a 3-week|
|Onychomycosis toenails||3 pulse treatments||drug-free interval|
Use in childrenClinical data on the use of Sporanox-Pulse in paediatric patients are limited. The use of Sporanox-Pulse in paediatric patients is not recommended unless it is determined that the potential benefit outweighs the potential risks. See section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use.
In ElderlyClinical data on the use of Sporanox-Pulse in elderly patients are limited. It is advised to use Sporanox-Pulse in these patients only if it is determined that the potential benefit outweighs the potential risks. In general, it is recommended that the dose selection for an elderly patient should be taken into consideration, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. See section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use.
Renal impairmentLimited data are available on the use of oral itraconazole in patients with renal impairment. The exposure of itraconazole may be lower in some patients with renal insufficiency. Caution should be exercised when this drug is administered in this patient population and adjusting the dose may be considered.
Hepatic impairmentLimited data are available on the use of oral itraconazole in patients with hepatic impairment. Caution should be exercised when this drug is administered in this patient population. (See section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties Special Populations, Hepatic impairment)
Cross-hypersensitivityThere is no information regarding cross hypersensitivity between itraconazole and other azole antifungal agents. Caution should be used in prescribing Sporanox-Pulse to patients with hypersensitivity to other azoles.
Cardiac effectsIn a healthy volunteer study with Sporanox I.V., a transient asymptomatic decrease of the left ventricular ejection fraction was observed; this resolved before the next infusion. The clinical relevance of these findings to the oral formulations is unknown.Itraconazole has been shown to have a negative inotropic effect and Sporanox-Pulse has been associated with reports of congestive heart failure. Heart failure was more frequently reported among spontaneous reports of 400 mg total daily dose than among those of lower total daily doses, suggesting that the risk of heart failure might increase with the total daily dose of itraconazole.Sporanox-Pulse should not be used in patients with congestive heart failure or with a history of congestive heart failure unless the benefit clearly outweighs the risk. This individual benefit/risk assessment should take into consideration factors such as the severity of the indication, the dosing regimen (e.g. total daily dose), and individual risk factors for congestive heart failure. These risk factors include cardiac disease, such as ischemic and valvular disease; significant pulmonary disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and renal failure and other oedematous Such patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure, should be treated with caution, and should be monitored for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure during treatment; if such signs or symptoms do occur during treatment, Sporanox-Pulse should be discontinued.Calcium channel blockers can have negative inotropic effects which may be additive to those of itraconazole. In addition, itraconazole can inhibit the metabolism of calcium channel blockers. Therefore, caution should be exercised when co-administering itraconazole and calcium channel blockers (see section 4.5Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction) due to an increased risk of congestive heart failure.
Hepatic effectsVery rare cases of serious hepatotoxicity, including some cases of fatal acute liver failure, have occurred with the use of Sporanox-Pulse. Most of these cases involved patients who, had pre-existing liver disease, were treated for systemic indications, had significant other medical conditions and/or were taking other hepatotoxic drugs. Some patients had no obvious risk factors for liver disease. Some of these cases were observed within the first month of treatment, including some within the first week. Liver function monitoring should be considered in patients receiving Sporanox-Pulse treatment. Patients should be instructed to promptly report to their physician signs and symptoms suggestive of hepatitis such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, abdominal pain or dark urine. In these patients treatment should be stopped immediately and liver function testing should be conducted.Limited data are available on the use of oral itraconazole in patients with hepatic impairment. Caution should be exercised when the drug is administered in this patient population. It is recommended that patients with impaired hepatic function be carefully monitored when taking itraconazole. It is recommended that the prolonged elimination half-life of itraconazole observed in the single oral dose clinical trial with itraconazole capsules in cirrhotic patients be considered when deciding to initiate therapy with other medications metabolised by CYP3A4. In patients with elevated or abnormal liver enzymes or active liver disease, or who have experienced liver toxicity with other drugs, treatment with Sporanox-Pulse is strongly discouraged unless there is a serious or life threatening situation where the expected benefit exceeds the risk. It is recommended that liver function monitoring be done in patients with pre-existing hepatic function abnormalities or those who have experienced liver toxicity with other medications. (See section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties - Special Populations, Hepatic impairment.)
Reduced gastric acidityAbsorption of itraconazole from Sporanox-Pulse is impaired when the gastric acidity is reduced. In patients with reduced gastric acidity, whether from disease (e.g. patients with achlorhydria) or from concomitant medication (e.g. patients taking drugs that reduce gastric acidity), it is advisable to administer Sporanox-Pulse with an acidic beverage (such as non-diet cola). The antifungal activity should be monitored and the itraconazole dose increased as deemed necessary.. See section 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction.
PaediatricsClinical data on the use of Sporanox-Pulse in paediatric patients are limited. The use of Sporanox-Pulse in paediatric patients is not recommended unless it is determined that the potential benefit outweighs the potential risks.
ElderlyClinical data on the use of Sporanox-Pulse capsules in elderly patients are limited. It is advised to use Sporanox-Pulse in these patients only if it is determined that the potential benefit outweighs the potential risks. In general, it is recommended that the dose selection for an elderly patient should be taken into consideration, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Renal impairmentLimited data are available on the use of oral itraconazole in patients with renal impairment. The exposure of itraconazole may be lower in some patients with renal insufficiency. Caution should be exercised when this drug is administered in this patient population and adjusting the dose may be considered.
Hearing LossTransient or permanent hearing loss has been reported in patients receiving treatment with itraconazole. Several of these reports included concurrent administration of quinidine which is contraindicated (see section 4.5Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction). The hearing loss usually resolves when treatment is stopped, but can persist in some patients.
Immunocompromised patientsIn some immunocompromised patients (e.g., neutropenic, AIDS or organ transplant patients), the oral bioavailability of Sporanox-Pulse may be decreased.
Patients with immediately life-threatening systemic fungal infectionsDue to the pharmacokinetic properties (See section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties), Sporanox-Pulse are not recommended for initiation of treatment in patients with immediately life-threatening systemic fungal infections.
Patients with AIDSIn patients with AIDS having received treatment for a systemic fungal infection such as sporotrichosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis or cryptococcosis (meningeal or non-meningeal) and who are considered at risk for relapse, the treating physician should evaluate the need for a maintenance treatment.
NeuropathyIf neuropathy occurs which may be attributable to Sporanox-Pulse, treatment should be discontinued.
Disorders of Carbohydrate MetabolismPatients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.
InterchangeabilityIt is not recommended that Sporanox-Pulse and Sporanox Oral Solution be used interchangeably. This is because drug exposure is greater with the oral solution than with the capsules when the same dose of drug is given.
Cross-resistanceIn systemic candidosis, if fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida species are suspected, it cannot be assumed that these are sensitive to itraconazole, hence their sensitivity should be tested before the start of Sporanox-Pulse therapy.Interaction potentialCoadministration of specific drugs with itraconazole may result in changes in efficacy of itraconazole and/or the coadministered drug, life-threatening effects and/or sudden death. Drugs that are contraindicated, not recommended or recommended for use with caution in combination with itraconazole are listed in section 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Drugs that may decrease itraconazole plasma concentrationsDrugs that reduce the gastric acidity (e.g. acid neutralising medicines such as aluminum hydroxide, or acid secretion suppressors such as H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors) impair the absorption of itraconazole from itraconazole capsules. It is recommended that these drugs be used with caution when coadministered with itraconazole capsules:It is recommended that itraconazole be administered with an acidic beverage (such as non-diet cola) upon co-treatment with drugs reducing gastric acidity. It is recommended that acid neutralising medicines (e.g. aluminum hydroxide) be administered at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after the intake of Sporanox-Pulse. Upon coadministration, it is recommended that the antifungal activity be monitored and the itraconazole dose increased as deemed necessary.Coadministration of itraconazole with potent enzyme inducers of CYP3A4 may decrease the bioavailability of itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole to such an extent that efficacy may be largely reduced. Examples include:Antibacterials: isoniazid, rifabutin (see also under Drugs that may have their plasma concentrations increased by itraconazole), rifampicin.Anticonvulsants: carbamazepine, (see also under Drugs that may have their plasma concentrations increased by itraconazole), phenobarbital, phenytoin.Antivirals: efavirenz, nevirapine.Therefore, administration of potent enzyme inducers of CYP3A4 with itraconazole is not recommended. It is recommended that the use of these drugs be avoided from 2 weeks before and during treatment with itraconazole, unless the benefits outweigh the risk of potentially reduced itraconazole efficacy. Upon coadministration, it is recommended that the antifungal activity be monitored and the itraconazole dose increased as deemed necessary.
Drugs that may increase itraconazole plasma concentrationsPotent inhibitors of CYP3A4 may increase the bioavailability of itraconazole. Examples include:Antibacterials: ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin,Antivirals: ritonavir-boosted darunavir, ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir, indinavir (see also under Drugs that may have their plasma concentrations increased by itraconazole), ritonavir (see also under Drugs that may have their plasma concentrations increased by itraconazole),It is recommended that these drugs be used with caution when coadministered with itraconazole capsules. It is recommended that patients who must take itraconazole concomitantly with potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 be monitored closely for signs or symptoms of increased or prolonged pharmacologic effects of itraconazole, and the itraconazole dose be decreased as deemed necessary. When appropriate, it is recommended that itraconazole plasma concentrations be measured.
Drugs that may have their plasma concentrations increased by itraconazoleItraconazole and its major metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole, can inhibit the metabolism of drugs metabolised by CYP3A4 and can inhibit the drug transport by P-glycoprotein, which may result in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs and/or their active metabolite(s) when they are administered with itraconazole. These elevated plasma concentrations may increase or prolong both therapeutic and adverse effects of these drugs. CYP3A4-metabolised drugs known to prolong the QT interval may be contraindicated with itraconazole, since the combination may lead to ventricular tachyarrhythmias including occurrences of torsade de pointes, a potentially fatal arrhythmia. Once treatment is stopped, itraconazole plasma concentrations decrease to an almost undetectable concentration within 7 to 14 days, depending on the dose and duration of treatment. In patients with hepatic cirrhosis or in subjects receiving CYP3A4 inhibitors, the decline in plasma concentrations may be even more gradual. This is particularly important when initiating therapy with drugs whose metabolism is affected by itraconazole.The interacting drugs are categorized as follows:• 'Contraindicated': Under no circumstances is the drug to be coadministered with itraconazole, and up to two weeks after discontinuation of treatment with itraconazole.• 'Not recommended': It is recommended that the use of the drug be avoided during and up to two weeks after discontinuation of treatment with itraconazole, unless the benefits outweigh the potentially increased risks of side effects. If coadministration cannot be avoided, clinical monitoring for signs or symptoms of increased or prolonged effects or side effects of the interacting drug is recommended, and its dosage be reduced or interrupted as deemed necessary. When appropriate, it is recommended that plasma concentrations be measured.• 'Use with caution': Careful monitoring is recommended when the drug is coadministered with itraconazole. Upon coadministration, it is recommended that patients be monitored closely for signs or symptoms of increased or prolonged effects or side effects of the interacting drug, and its dosage be reduced as deemed necessary. When appropriate, it is recommended that plasma concentrations be measured.Examples of drugs that may have their plasma concentrations increased by itraconazole presented by drug class with advice regarding coadministration with itraconazole:
|Drug Class||Contraindicated||Not Recommended||Use with Caution|
|Analgesics||levacetylmethadol (levomethadyl), methadone||fentanyl||alfentanil, buprenorphine IV and sublingual, oxycodone|
|Antiarrhythmics||disopyramide, dofetilide, dronedarone, quinidine||digoxin|
|Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Drugs||rivaroxaban||coumarins, cilostazol, dabigatran|
|Antihelmintics and Antiprotozoals||halofantrine||praziquantel|
|Antihistamines||astemizole, mizolastine, terfenadine||ebastine|
|Antimigraine Drugs||ergot alkaloids, such as dihydroergotamine, ergometrine (ergonovine), ergotamine, methylergometrine (methylergonovine)||eletriptan|
|Antineoplastics||irinotecan||dasatinib, nilotinib, trabectedin||bortezomib, busulphan, docetaxel, erlotinib, ixabepilone, lapatinib, trimetrexate, vinca alkaloids|
|Antipsychotics, Anxiolytics and Hypnotics||lurasidone, oral midazolam, pimozide, sertindole, triazolam||alprazolam, aripiprazole, brotizolam, buspirone, haloperidol, midazolam IV, perospirone, quetiapine, ramelteon, risperidone|
|Antivirals||maraviroc, indinavirb, ritonavirb, saquinavir|
|Calcium Channel Blockers||bepridil, felodipine, lercanidipine, nisoldipine||other dihydropyridines, including verapamil|
|Cardiovascular Drugs, Miscellaneous||ivabradine, ranolazine||aliskiren|
|Gastrointestinal Drugs||cisapride,||aprepitant, domperidone|
|Immunosuppressants||everolimus||budesonide, ciclesonide, ciclosporin, dexamethasone, fluticasone, methylprednisolone, rapamycin (also known as sirolimus), tacrolimus, temsirolimus|
|Lipid Regulating Drugs||lovastatin, simvastatin||atorvastatin|
|SSRIs, Tricyclics and Related Antidepressants||reboxetine|
|Urological Drugs||vardenafil||fesoterodine. imidafenacin, sildenafil, solifenacin, tadalafil, tolterodine|
|Other||colchicine, in subjects with renal or hepatic impairment||colchicine||alitretinoin (oral formulation), cinacalcet, mozavaptan, tolvaptan|
|a See also under Drugs that may decrease itraconazole plasma concentrations b See also under Drugs that may increase itraconazole plasma concentrations|
Drugs that may have their plasma concentrations decreased by itraconazoleCoadministration of itraconazole with the NSAID meloxicam may decrease the plasma concentrations of meloxicam. It is recommended that meloxicam be used with caution when coadministered with itraconazole, and its effects or side effects be monitored. It is recommended that the dosage of meloxicam, if coadministered with itraconazole, be adapted if necessary.
Paediatric PopulationInteraction studies have only been performed in adults.
PregnancySporanox-Pulse is contra-indicated in pregnancy.In animal studies itraconazole has shown reproduction toxicity (see section 5.3).There is limited information on the use of Itraconazole during pregnancy. During post-marketing experience, cases of congenital abnormalities have been reported. These cases included skeletal, genitourinary tract, cardiovascular and ophthalmic malformations as well as chromosomal and multiple malformations. A causal relationship with Itraconazole has not been established.Epidemiological data on exposure to Sporanox-Pulse during the first trimester of pregnancy-mostly in patients receiving short-term treatment for vulvovaginal candidosis did not show an increased risk for malformations as compared to control subjects not exposed to any known teratogens.
Women of child bearing potentialWomen of childbearing potential taking Sporanox-Pulse capsules should use contraceptive precautions. Effective contraception should be continued until the next menstrual period following the end of Sporanox-Pulse therapy.
LactationA very small amount of itraconazole is excreted in human milk. Sporanox-Pulse capsules must not be used during lactation.
Summary of the safety profileThe most frequently reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with Sporanox capsules treatment identified from clinical trials and/or from spontaneous reporting were headache, abdominal pain, and nausea. The most serious ADRs were serious allergic reactions, cardiac failure/congestive heart failure/pulmonary oedema, pancreatitis, serious hepatotoxicity (including some cases of fatal acute liver failure), and serious skin reactions. Refer to subsection Tabulated list of adverse reactions for the frequencies and for other observed ADRs. Refer to section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use for additional information on other serious effects.
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsThe ADRs in the table below were derived from open-label and double-blind clinical trials with Sporanox capsules involving 8499 patients in the treatment of dermatomycoses or onychomycosis, and from spontaneous reporting.The table below presents ADRs by System Organ Class. Within each System Organ Class, the ADRs are presented by incidence, using the following convention:Very common (≥ 1/10); Common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); Uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); Rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); Very rare (< 1/10,000).
|Adverse Drug Reactions|
|Infections and infestations|
|Uncommon||Sinusitis, Upper respiratory tract infection, Rhinitis|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders|
|Immune system disorders|
|Rare||Serum sickness, Angioneurotic oedema, Anaphylactic reaction,|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Nervous system disorders|
|Rare||Paraesthesia, Hypoaesthesia, Dysgeusia|
|Rare||Visual disturbance (including diplopia and blurred vision)|
|Ear and labyrinth disorder|
|Rare||Transient or permanent hearing loss*, Tinnitus|
|Rare||Congestive heart failure*|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|Common||Abdominal pain, Nausea|
|Uncommon||Diarrhoea, Vomiting, Constipation, Dyspepsia, Flatulence|
|Uncommon||Hepatic function abnormal|
|Rare||Serious hepatotoxicity (including some cases of fatal acute liver failure)*, Hyperbilirubinaemia|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Uncommon||Urticaria, Rash, Pruritus|
|Rare||Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis, Erythema multiforme, Exfoliative dermatitis, Leukocytoclastic vasculitis, Alopecia, Photosensitivity|
|Renal and urinary disorders|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|Rare||Blood creatine phosphokinase increased|
*see section 4.4
Description of selected adverse reactionsThe following is a list of ADRs associated with itraconazole that have been reported in clinical trials of Sporanox Oral Solution and Sporanox I.V., excluding the ADR term Injection site inflammation, which is specific to the injection route of administration.Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Granulocytopenia, ThrombocytopeniaImmune system disorders: Anaphylactoid reactionMetabolism and nutrition disorders: Hyperglycaemia, Hyperkalaemia, Hypokalaemia, HypomagnesaemiaPsychiatric disorders: Confusional stateNervous system disorders: Peripheral neuropathy*, Dizziness, Somnolence, TremorCardiac disorders: Cardiac failure, Left ventricular failure, TachycardiaVascular disorders: Hypertension, HypotensionRespiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Pulmonary oedema, Dysphonia, CoughGastrointestinal disorders: Gastrointestinal disorderHepatobiliary disorders: Hepatic failure*, Hepatitis, JaundiceSkin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Rash erythematous, Hyperhidrosis Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Myalgia, ArthralgiaRenal and urinary disorders: Renal impairment, Urinary incontinenceGeneral disorders and administration site conditions: Generalised oedema, Face oedema, Chest pain, Pyrexia, Pain, Fatigue, Chills Investigations: Alanine aminotransferase increased, Aspartate aminotransferase increased, Blood alkaline phosphatase increased, Blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, Blood urea increased, Gamma-glutamyltransferase increased, Hepatic enzyme increased, Urine analysis abnormal
Paediatric populationThe safety of Sporanox capsules was evaluated in 165 paediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years who participated in 14 clinical trials (4 double-blind, placebo controlled trials; 9 open-label trials; and 1 trial had an open-label phase followed by a double-blind phase). These patients received at least one dose of Sporanox capsules for the treatment of fungal infections and provided safety data. Based on pooled safety data from these clinical trials, the commonly reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in paediatric patients were Headache (3.0%), Vomiting (3.0%), Abdominal pain (2.4%), Diarrhoea (2.4%), Hepatic function abnormal (1.2%), Hypotension (1.2%), Nausea (1.2%), and Urticaria (1.2%). In general, the nature of ADRs in paediatric patients is similar to that observed in adult subjects, but the incidence is higher in the paediatric patients.
Symptoms and signsIn general, adverse events reported with overdose have been consistent with those reported for itraconazole use. (See section 4.8 Undesirable effects)
TreatmentIn the event of overdosage, supportive measures should be employed. Activated charcoal may be given if considered appropriate. Itraconazole cannot be removed by haemodialysis. No specific antidote is available.
General pharmacokinetic characteristicsPeak plasma concentrations of itraconazole are reached within 2 to 5 hours following oral administration. As a consequence of non-linear pharmacokinetics, itraconazole accumulates in plasma during multiple dosing. Steady-state concentrations are generally reached within about 15 days, with Cmax values of 0.5 µg/ml, 1.1 µg/ml and 2.0 µg/ml after oral administration of 100 mg once daily, 200 mg once daily and 200 mg b.i.d., respectively. The terminal half-life of itraconazole generally ranges from 16 to 28 hours after single dose and increases to 34 to 42 hours with repeated dosing. Once treatment is stopped, itraconazole plasma concentrations decrease to an almost undetectable concentration within 7 to 14 days, depending on the dose and duration of treatment. Itraconazole mean total plasma clearance following intravenous administration is 278 ml/min. Itraconazole clearance decreases at higher doses due to saturable hepatic metabolism.
AbsorptionItraconazole is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Peak plasma concentrations of the unchanged drug are reached within 2 to 5 hours following an oral capsule dose. The observed absolute bioavailability of itraconazole is about 55%. Oral bioavailability is maximal when the capsules are taken immediately after a full meal.Absorption of itraconazole capsules is reduced in subjects with reduced gastric acidity, such as subjects taking medications known as gastric acid secretion suppressors (e.g., H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors) or subjects with achlorhydria caused by certain diseases (see section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for use, and section 4.5 Interactions). Absorption of itraconazole under fasted conditions in these subjects is increased when Sporanox-Pulse is administered with an acidic beverage (such as a non-diet cola). When Sporanox capsules were administered as a single 200 mg dose under fasted conditions with non-diet cola after ranitidine pretreatment, a H2-receptor antagonist, itraconazole absorption was comparable to that observed when Sporanox capsules were administered alone. (See section 4.5 Interactions.)Itraconazole exposure is lower with the capsule formulation than with the oral solution when the same dose of drug is given. (See section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for use.)
DistributionMost of the itraconazole in plasma is bound to protein (99.8%) with albumin being the main binding component (99.6% for the hydroxy- metabolite). It has also a marked affinity for lipids. Only 0.2% of the itraconazole in plasma is present as free drug. Itraconazole is distributed in a large apparent volume in the body (> 700 L), suggesting its extensive distribution into tissues: Concentrations in lung, kidney, liver, bone, stomach, spleen and muscle were found to be two to three times higher than corresponding concentrations in plasma, and the uptake into keratinous tissues, skin in particular, is up to four times higher than in plasma. Concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid are much lower than in plasma, but efficacy has been demonstrated against infections present in the cerebrospinal fluid.
MetabolismItraconazole is extensively metabolised by the liver into a large number of metabolites. In vitro studies have shown that CYP3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of itraconazole. The main metabolite is hydroxy-itraconazole, which has in vitro antifungal activity comparable to Itraconazole; trough plasma concentrations of the hydroxy-itraconazole are about twice those of itraconazole.
ExcretionItraconazole is mainly excreted as inactive metabolites in urine (35%) and faeces (54%) within one week of an oral solution dose. Renal excretion of itraconazole and the active metabolite hydroxy-itraconazole account for less than 1% of an intravenous dose. Based on an oral radiolabelled dose, faecal excretion of unchanged drug varies between 3 18% of the dose.
Special PopulationsHepatic Impairment: Itraconazole is predominantly metabolised in the liver. A pharmacokinetic study using a single 100 mg dose of itraconazole (one 100 mg capsule) was conducted in 6 healthy and 12 cirrhotic subjects. A statistically significant reduction in average Cmax (47%) and a two fold increase in the elimination half-life (37 ± 17 versus 16 ±5 hours) of itraconazole were noted in cirrhotic subjects compared with healthy subjects. However, overall exposure to itraconazole, based on AUC, was similar in cirrhotic patients and in healthy subjects.Data are not available in cirrhotic patients during long-term use of itraconazole. (See section 4.2 Dosage and Administration, and section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use.)Renal Impairment: Limited data are available on the use of oral itraconazole in patients with renal impairment. A pharmacokinetic study using a single 200-mg dose of itraconazole (four 50-mg capsules) was conducted in three groups of patients with renal impairment (uremia: n=7; hemodialysis: n=7; and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: n=5). In uremic subjects with a mean creatinine clearance of 13 ml/min. × 1.73 m2, the exposure, based on AUC, was slightly reduced compared with normal population parameters. This study did not demonstrate any significant effect of hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis on the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole (Tmax, Cmax, and AUC0-8h). Plasma concentration-versus-time profiles showed wide intersubject variation in all three groups.After a single intravenous dose, the mean terminal half-lives of itraconazole in patients with mild (defined in this study as CrCl 50-79 ml/min), moderate (defined in this study as CrCl 20-49 ml/min), and severe renal impairment (defined in this study as CrCl <20 ml/min) were similar to that in healthy subjects, (range of means 42-49 hours vs 48 hours in renally impaired patients and healthy subjects, respectively.) Overall exposure to itraconazole, based on AUC, was decreased in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment by approximately 30% and 40%, respectively, as compared with subjects with normal renal function.Data are not available in renally impaired patients during long-term use of itraconazole. Dialysis has no effect on the half-life or clearance of itraconazole or hydroxy-itraconazole. (See also section 4.2 Dosage and Administration, and section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use.) Paediatrics: Limited pharmacokinetic data are available on the use of itraconazole in the paediatric population. Clinical pharmacokinetic studies in children and adolescents aged between 5 months and 17 years were performed with itraconazole capsules, oral solution or intravenous formulation. Individual doses with the capsule and oral solution formulation ranged from 1.5 to 12.5 mg/kg/day, given as once-daily or twice-daily administration. The intravenous formulation was given either as a 2.5 mg/kg single infusion, or a 2.5 mg/kg infusion given once daily or twice daily. For the same daily dose, twice daily dosing compared to single daily dosing yielded peak and trough concentrations comparable to adult single daily dosing. No significant age dependence was observed for itraconazole AUC and total body clearance, while weak associations between age and itraconazole distribution volume, Cmax and terminal elimination rate were noted. Itraconazole apparent clearance and distribution volume seemed to be related to weight.
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