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Dukoral suspension and effervescent granules for oral suspension, Cholera vaccine (inactivated, oral)

Last Updated on eMC 07-Dec-2015 View changes  | Valneva UK Limited Contact details

1. Name of the medicinal product

Dukoral suspension and effervescent granules for oral suspension

Cholera vaccine (inactivated, oral)

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each dose of vaccine suspension (3 ml) contains:

– A total of 1.25x1011 bacteria of the following strains:

Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba, classical biotype (heat inactivated)

31.25x109 bacteria*

Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba, El Tor biotype (formalin inactivated)

31.25x109 bacteria*

Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa, classical biotype (heat inactivated)

31.25x109 bacteria*

Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa, classical biotype (formalin inactivated)

31.25x109 bacteria*

– Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) 1 mg

(produced in V. cholerae O1 Inaba, classical biotype strain 213.)

* Bacterial count before inactivation.

Excipients:

Sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate 2.0 mg, disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate 9.4 mg, sodium chloride 26 mg, sodium hydrogen carbonate 3600 mg, sodium carbonate anhydrous 400 mg, saccharin sodium 30 mg, sodium citrate 6 mg.

One dose contains approximately 1.1 g sodium.

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Suspension and effervescent granules for oral suspension.

The suspension, supplied in a bottle is whitish. The effervescent granules, supplied in a sachet, are white.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Dukoral is indicated for active immunisation against disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 in adults and children from 2 years of age who will be visiting endemic/epidemic areas.

The use of Dukoral should be determined on the basis of official recommendations taking into consideration the variability of epidemiology and the risk of contracting disease in different geographical areas and travelling conditions.

Dukoral should not replace standard protective measures. In the event of diarrhoea measures of rehydration should be instituted.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Primary vaccination schedule

The standard primary course of vaccination with Dukoral against cholera consists of 2 doses for adults and children from 6 years of age. Children 2 to below 6 years of age should receive 3 doses. Doses are to be administered at intervals of at least one week. If more than 6 weeks have elapsed between doses, the primary immunisation course should be re-started.

Immunisation should be completed at least 1 week prior to potential exposure to V. cholerae O1.

Booster dose

For continuous protection against cholera a single booster dose is recommended within 2 years for adults and children from 6 years of age, and within 6 months for children aged 2 to 6 years. No clinical efficacy data has been generated on repeat booster dosing. However, immunological and duration of protection data suggest that if up to 2 years have elapsed since the last vaccination for adults and up to 6 months for children aged 2-6 years a single booster dose should be given. If more than 2 years have elapsed since the last vaccination (more than 6 months for children aged 2-6 years) the primary course should be repeated.

Children less than 2 years

Dukoral has been given to children between 1 and 2 years of age in safety and immunogenicity studies, but the protective efficacy has not been studied in this age group. Therefore, Dukoral is not recommended to be used in children less than 2 years of age.

Elderly

There are only very limited data on protective efficacy of the vaccine in subjects aged 65 years and more.

Method of administration

The vaccine is intended for oral use. Before ingestion, the vaccine suspension should be mixed with a buffer (sodium hydrogen carbonate) solution. The sodium hydrogen carbonate is supplied as effervescent granules, which should be dissolved in a glass of cool water (approx. 150 ml). Chlorinated water can be used. The vaccine suspension should then be mixed with the buffer solution and drunk within 2 hours. Food and drink should be avoided 1 hour before and 1 hour after vaccination. Oral administration of other medicinal products should be avoided within 1 hour before and 1 hour after administration of Dukoral.

Children 2 to 6 years of age: half of the buffer solution is poured away and the remaining part (approx. 75 ml) is mixed with the entire contents of the vaccine bottle.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substances, to any of the excipients or to formaldehyde.

Administration of Dukoral should be postponed for subjects suffering from acute gastrointestinal illness or acute febrile illness.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

No clinical data on protective efficacy of Dukoral against cholera after administration of booster doses are available.

Dukoral confers protection specific to Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1. Immunisation does not protect against V. cholerae serogroup O139 or other species of Vibrio.

In subjects infected with HIV, limited data are available on immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine. Vaccine protective efficacy has not been studied. Immunisation of HIV infected subjects could result in transient increases of viral load. Dukoral may not induce protective antibody levels in subjects with advanced HIV disease. However, an effectiveness study in a population with high HIV prevalence showed similar protection as in other populations.

Antibody response in vaccinees with endogenous or iatrogenic immunosuppression may be insufficient.

Formaldehyde is used during the manufacturing process and trace amounts may be present in the final product. Caution should be taken in subjects with known hypersensitivity to formaldehyde.

Dukoral contains approximately 1.1 g sodium per dose, which should be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.

The vaccine does not provide complete protection and it is important to adhere additionally to standard protective measures to avoid cholera.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

The vaccine is acid labile. Food and/or drink will increase acid production in the stomach and the effect of the vaccine may be impaired. Consequently, food and drink should be avoided 1 hour before and 1 hour after vaccination.

Oral administration of other vaccines and medicinal products should be avoided 1 hour before and 1 hour after administration of Dukoral.

Preliminary results from a clinical study including a limited number of volunteers showed no interaction with the antibody response to Dukoral when a live oral vaccine (enterocapsules) against typhoid was given simultaneously with Dukoral. The immune response to live typhoid vaccine was not investigated in this study. Similarly, a yellow fever vaccine was given concomitantly with Dukoral, and there was no interaction observed with the immune response to the yellow fever vaccine. The immune responses to Dukoral were not studied. No other vaccines/ medicinal products, including oral polio vaccine and antimalarials, have been given simultaneously with Dukoral in clinical studies.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

No animal data on reproduction toxicity are available. Following careful benefit/risk assessment the vaccine may be administered during pregnancy and to breast-feeding women although no specific clinical studies have been performed to address this issue.

During a mass-vaccination campaign conducted in Zanzibar, 196 pregnant women had received at least one dose of Dukoral. There was no statistically significant evidence of a harmful effect of Dukoral exposure during pregnancy.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

There is no evidence of an effect on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

The safety of Dukoral was assessed in clinical trials, including both adults and children from 2 years of age, conducted in endemic and non-endemic countries for cholera and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) producing heat-labile enterotoxin (LT). Over 94,000 doses of Dukoral were administered during the clinical trials. Evaluation of safety varied between trials with respect to mode of surveillance, definition of symptoms and time of follow-up. In the majority of studies adverse events were assessed by passive surveillance. The most frequently reported adverse reactions, such as gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhoea, loose stools, nausea and vomiting, occurred at similar frequencies in vaccine and placebo groups.

Frequency classification: Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Metabolism and nutrition disorder

Rare

Loss of /or poor appetite

Very rare

Dehydration

Nervous system disorders

Uncommon

Headache

Rare

Dizziness

Very rare

Drowsiness, insomnia, fainting, reduced sense of taste

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Rare

Respiratory symptoms (including rhinitis and cough)

Gastrointestinal disorders

Uncommon

Diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, stomach/abdominal gurgling (gas), abdominal discomfort

Rare

Vomiting, nausea

Very rare

Sore throat, dyspepsia

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Very rare

Sweating, rash

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very rare

Joint pain

General disorders and administration site conditions

Rare

Fever, malaise

Very rare

Fatigue, shivers

Adverse reactions from post-marketing surveillance

Additional adverse reactions reported during post-marketing surveillance are listed below.

Infections and infestations: Gastroenteritis

Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Lymphadenitis

Nervous system disorders: Paraesthesia

Vascular disorders: Hypertension

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Dyspnoea, increased sputum

Gastrointestinal disorders: Flatulence

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Urticaria, angioedema, pruritus

General disorders and administration site conditions: Pain, flu-like syndrome, asthenia, chills

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions (see details below).

United Kingdom

Yellow Card Scheme

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

Ireland

HPRA Pharmacovigilance

Earlsfort Terrace

IRL - Dublin 2

Tel: +353 1 6764971

Fax: +353 1 6762517

Website: www.hpra.ie

e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie

Malta

ADR Reporting

Website: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mt/adrportal

4.9 Overdose

Data on overdose are limited. Adverse reactions reported are consistent with those seen after the recommended dosing.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Bacterial vaccines, ATC-code: J07AE01

Mechanism of action

The vaccine contains killed whole V. cholerae O1 bacteria and the recombinant non-toxic B-subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB). Bacterial strains of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes and of El Tor and Classical biotypes are included in the vaccine. Dukoral is taken orally with bicarbonate buffer, which protects the antigens from the gastric acid. The vaccine acts by inducing antibodies against both the bacterial components and CTB. The antibacterial intestinal antibodies prevent the bacteria from attaching to the intestinal wall thereby impeding colonisation of V. cholerae O1. The anti-toxin intestinal antibodies prevent the cholera toxin from binding to the intestinal mucosal surface thereby preventing the toxin-mediated diarrhoeal symptoms.

The heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC ) is structurally, functionally and immunologically similar to CTB. The two toxins cross-react immunologically.

Efficacy against cholera

Efficacy against cholera was assessed in three randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted in Bangladesh (endemic region) and in Peru (non-endemic region). The number of patients enrolled, dosage regimens and follow-up periods are shown in the following table.

Study location

Year

Dosage regimen

Number

(Age groups)

Follow up

Cholera

Bangladesh

1985-88

3 doses at 6 week intervals

89,152

(2-65 years)

6 months-5 years

Peru, military

1994

2 doses 7-11 days apart

1,563

(18-65 years)

5 months

Peru, Pampas

1993-95

2 doses 2 weeks apart with a booster dose 1 year later

21,924

(2-65 years)

2 years

In the Bangladesh field trial, protective efficacy of Dukoral in the overall population was 85% (95%CI: 56, 95, per-protocol analysis) for the initial 6 months of follow-up. Duration of vaccine protection differed by age, lasting for 6 months in children and for 2 years in adults (see table below). An exploratory analysis suggested that 2 vaccine doses seemed as effective as 3 doses in adults.

Table: Protective efficacy against cholera in the Bangladesh study (per-protocol analysis)

Protective efficacy, % (95% CI)

Adults and children >6 year

Children 2-6 years

6 months

76 (30, 92)

100

1st year

76 (60, 85)

44 (10, 65)

2nd year

60 (36, 76)

33 (-23, 64)

In the second trial, conducted in Peru and enrolling military recruits, the short-term protective efficacy against cholera after 2 vaccine doses was 85% (95%CI: 36, 97, per-protocol analysis). The third study, a field trial conducted in Peru, failed to show any protective efficacy against cholera during the first year. Following a booster dose 10-12 months after primary immunisation, the protective efficacy during the second year was 60.5% (95%CI: 28,79).

Protective effectiveness against cholera was evaluated during two mass-vaccination campaigns conducted in Mozambique (December 2003 – January 2004) and Zanzibar (February 2009 – May 2010).

In the case-control study conducted during the mass vaccination campaign in Mozambique, protective effectiveness of 2 doses of Dukoral was 84% (95% CI: 43, 95, per-protocol analysis; p=0.005) for the initial 5 months of follow-up.

In the longitudinal cohort-analysis conducted during the mass-vaccination campaign in Zanzibar, protective effectiveness after 2 doses of Dukoral was 79% (95% CI, 47, 92) for a follow-up period of 15 months. In addition to the direct protection, it was shown that Dukoral provides significant indirect (herd) protection in the studied setting.

Protective efficacy of Dukoral against cholera has not been studied following repeated booster vaccination.

Immunogenicity

No established immunological correlates of protection against cholera after oral vaccination have been identified. There is a poor correlation between serum antibody responses, including vibriocidal antibody response, and protection. Locally produced secretory IgA antibodies in the intestine probably mediate protective immunity.

The vaccine induced intestinal antitoxin IgA responses in 70-100% of vaccinated subjects. Serum vibriocidal antibodies against the bacterial components were seen in 35-55% of vaccinated subjects and antitoxic antibodies in 78-87% of vaccinated subjects. A booster dose elicited an anamnestic response indicative of an immune memory. The duration of the immunological memory was estimated to last for at least 2 years in adults.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Not applicable.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

No preclinical safety testing with the vaccine has been conducted.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Suspension:

Sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate

Disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate

Sodium chloride

Water for injections

Effervescent granules:

Sodium hydrogen carbonate

Citric acid

Sodium carbonate, anhydrous

Saccharin sodium

Sodium citrate

Raspberry flavour

6.2 Incompatibilities

Dukoral should only be mixed with the supplied effervescent granules dissolved in water. In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years.

After the effervescent granules have been dissolved in water and the vaccine suspension has been added, the mixture should be drunk within 2 hours.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in a refrigerator (2°C – 8°C).

Do not freeze.

Product in the unopened bottle and sachet, stored in the outer carton, is stable at temperatures up to 25°C for a period of 14 days. At the end of this period the product should be used or discarded.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

The vaccine suspension is filled in a volume of 3 ml in bottles (type I glass) with a rubber stopper (bromobutyl rubber) and a screw cap.

The effervescent granules are filled in an amount of 5.6 g in sachets with an inner layer of polyester/LD-polyethylene and an outer layer of aluminium/LD-polyethylene.

Each dose of vaccine is supplied with one sachet of effervescent granules.

Pack sizes: 1x1 dose, 2x1 dose, 20x1 dose

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The effervescent granules should be dissolved in approximately 150 ml of cool water. The vaccine bottle should be shaken gently and the vaccine suspension should then be added to the buffer solution and mixed well to obtain a colourless slightly opalescent solution.

Children 2 to 6 years of age: half of the buffer solution is poured away and the remaining part (approx. 75 ml) is mixed with the entire contents of the vaccine bottle.

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Valneva Sweden AB

S-105 21 Stockholm

Sweden

+46 (0)8 735 1000

infodukoral@valneva.com

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

EU/1/03/263/001-003

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation: 28 April 2004

Date of latest renewal: 25 March 2009

10. Date of revision of the text

03/2015

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) http://www.ema.europa.eu/.

Company contact details

Valneva UK Limited

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Address

Oakbank Park Road, Livingston, Scotland, EH53 0TG

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Active ingredients

recombinant cholera toxin b subunit, vibrio cholerae

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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