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Adacium Rapid 50mg Tablets

Last Updated on eMC 14-Sep-2016 View changes  | Concordia International- formerly Focus Pharmaceuticals Ltd Contact details

1. Name of the medicinal product

Diclofenac Potassium 50 mg Tablets

Adacium Rapid 50mg Tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each film-coated tablet contains 50 mg of diclofenac potassium

Also contains Lecithin Soya E322.

This medicine contains 0.150 mmol (5.85mg) potassium per 50mg tablet.

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1

3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablets

Reddish brown, circular, coated, biconvex tablets, diameter 9 mm

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Rheumatoid arthritis

Osteoarthrosis

Low back pain

Migraine attacks

Acute musculo-skeletal disorders and trauma such as periarthritis (especially frozen shoulder), tendinitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, sprains, strains and dislocations; relief of pain in fractures

Ankylosing spondylitis

Acute gout

Control of pain and inflammation in orthopaedic, dental and other minor surgery

Pyrophosphate arthropathy and associated disorders

4.2 Posology and method of administration

For oral administration.

To be taken preferably with or after food.

The tablets should be swallowed whole with liquid.

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.4)

Adults

The recommended daily dose is 100 – 150 mg in two or three divided doses. For milder cases, 75 – 100 mg daily in two or three divided doses is usually sufficient.

In migraine an initial dose of 50 mg should be taken at the first signs of an impending attack. In cases where relief 2 hours after the first dose is not sufficient, a further dose of 50 mg may be taken. If needed, further doses of 50 mg may be taken at intervals of 4 – 6 hours, not exceeding a total dose of 200 mg per day.

Children

For children over 14 years of age, the recommended daily dose is 75 – 100 mg in two or three divided doses. Diclofenac Potassium/ Adacium ™ Rapid 50 mg tablets are not recommended for children under 14 years of age.

The use of Diclofenac Potassium/ Adacium ™ Rapid 50 mg tablets in migraine attacks has not been established in children.

Elderly

The elderly are at increased risk of the serious consequences of adverse reactions. If an NSAID is considered necessary, the lowest effective dose should be used in frail elderly patients or those with a low body weight (also see precautions) and for the shortest possible duration. The patient should be monitored regularly for GI bleeding during NSAID therapy.

4.3 Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to diclofenac or any of the excipients.

• Active, or history of recurrent peptic ulcer / haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

• Active, gastric or intestinal ulcer, bleeding or perforation.

• NSAIDs are contraindicated in patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. asthma, rhinitis, angioedema, or urticaria) in response to ibuprofen, aspirin, or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

• Severe heart failure, hepatic failure and renal failure (see section 4.4).

• Established congestive heart failure (NYHA II-IV), ischemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and/ or cerebrovascular disease.

• History of gastro-intestinal bleeding or perforation, relating to previous NSAID therapy.

• During the last trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.6).

• This product contains soya. If you are allergic to peanut or soya, do not use this medicinal product.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

General:

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.2, and GI and cardiovascular risks below).

The use of Diclofenac potassium with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors should be avoided due to the absence of any evidence demonstrating synergistic benefits and the potential for additive undesirable effects (see section 4.5).

Elderly:

The elderly have increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs especially gastro intestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal (see section 4.2). In particular, it is recommended that the lowest effective dose be used in frail elderly patients or those with a low body weight.

As with other NSAIDs, allergic reactions, including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, can also occur in rare cases with diclofenac without earlier exposure to the drug.

Like other NSAIDs, Diclofenac may mask the signs and symptoms of infection due to its pharmacodynamic properties.

Gastrointestinal:

Close medical surveillance is imperative and particular caution should be exercised when prescribing diclofenac in patients with symptoms indicative of gastrointestinal disorders, with a history suggestive of gastric or intestinal ulceration, bleeding or perforation, with ulcerative colitis, or with Crohn's disease as these conditions may be exacerbated (see section 4.8 Undesirable effects).

Patients with a history of GI toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding).

Gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation:

GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at any time during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events. They generally have more serious consequences in the elderly.

The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation (see section 4.3), and in the elderly. These patients should commence and maintain treatment on the lowest dose available. Combination therapy with protective agents (e.g. misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors) should be considered for these patients, and also for patients requiring concomitant low dose aspirin, or other drugs likely to increase gastrointestinal risk (see below and section 4.5).

Patients with a history of GI toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding) particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin (see section 4.5).

When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving diclofenac potassium, the treatment should be withdrawn.

NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as these conditions may be exacerbated (see section 4.8).

Hypersensitivity reactions:

As with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allergic reactions, including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, can occur without earlier exposure to the drug (see section 4.8).

Like other NSAIDs, Diclofenac Potassium/ Adacium ™ Rapid 50mg tablets may mask the signs and symptoms of infection due to their pharmacodynamic properties.

SLE and mixed connective tissue disease:

In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders there may be an increased risk of aseptic meningitis (see section 4.8).

Cardiovascular, Renal and Hepatic Impairment:

The administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and precipitate renal failure. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, cardiac impairment, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and the elderly. Renal function should be monitored in these patients (see also section 4.3).

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects:

Patients with significant risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking) should only be treated with diclofenac after careful consideration. As the cardiovascular risks of diclofenac may increase with dose and duration of exposure, the shortest duration possible and the lowest effective daily dose should be used. The patient's need for symptomatic relief and response to therapy should be re-evaluation periodically.

Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.

Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of diclofenac, particularly at high dose (150mg daily) and in long term treatment may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke).

Hepatic effects:

Close medical surveillance is required when prescribing Diclofenac to patients with impaired hepatic function, as their condition may be exacerbated. As with other NSAIDs, including diclofenac, values of one or more liver enzymes may increase. During prolonged treatment with Diclofenac, regular monitoring of hepatic function is indicated as a precautionary measure. If abnormal liver function tests persist or worsen, if clinical signs or symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if other manifestations occur (e.g. eosinophilia, rash), Diclofenac should be discontinued. Hepatitis may occur with use of diclofenac without prodromal symptoms.

Caution is called for when using Diclofenac in patients with hepatic porphyria, since it may trigger an attack.

Renal effects:

As fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy, including diclofenac, particular caution is called for in patients with impaired cardiac or renal function, history of hypertension, the elderly, patients receiving concomitant treatment with diuretics or medicinal products that can significantly impact renal function, and in those patients with substantial extracellular volume depletion from any cause, e.g. before or after major surgery (see 4.3). Monitoring of renal function is recommended as a precautionary measure when using Diclofenac in such cases. Discontinuation of therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pre-treatment state.

Haematological:

During prolonged treatment with diclofenac, as with other NSAIDs, monitoring of the blood count is recommended.

Diclofenac Potassium/ Adacium ™ Rapid 50mg tablets may reversibly inhibit platelet aggregation (see section 4.5 “Interactions”). Patients with defects of haemostasis, bleeding diathesis or haematological abnormalities should be carefully monitored.

Long term treatment:

All patients who are receiving long term treatment with non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory agents should be monitored as a precautionary measure e.g. renal function, hepatic function (elevation of liver enzymes may occur) and blood counts. This is particularly important in the elderly.

Respiratory disorders:

Pre-existing asthma

In patients with asthma, seasonal allergic rhinitis, swelling of the nasal mucosa (i.e. nasal polyps), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases or chronic infections of the respiratory tract (especially if linked to allergic rhinitis-like symptoms), reactions on NSAIDs like asthma exacerbations (so-called intolerance to analgesics/analgesics-asthma), Quincke's oedema or urticaria are more frequent than in other patients. Therefore, special precaution is recommended in such patients (readiness for emergency). This is applicable as well for patients who are allergic to other substances, e.g. with skin reactions, pruritus or urticaria.

Caution is required if administered to patients suffering from, or with a previous history of, bronchial asthma since NSAIDs have been reported to precipitate bronchospasm in such patients.

Dermatological:

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs (see section 4.8). Patients appear to be at highest risk for these reactions early in the course of therapy: the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Diclofenac potassium should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Impaired female fertility:

The use of Diclofenac Potassium/ Adacium ™ Rapid 50mg tablets may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who may have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of Diclofenac Potassium/ Adacium ™ Rapid 50mg tablets should be considered (see section 4.6).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Other analgesics including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors and corticosteroids: Co-administration of diclofenac with other systemic NSAIDs or corticosteroids may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding or ulceration. Avoid concomitant use of two or more NSAIDs (including aspirin) as this may increase the risk of adverse effects (see section 4.4).

Colestipol and cholestyramine: These agents can induce a delay or decrease in absorption of diclofenac. Therefore, it is recommended to administer diclofenac at least one hour before or 4 to 6 hours after administration of colestipol/cholestyramine.

Diuretics and antihypertensive agents: Like other NSAIDs, concomitant use of diclofenac with diuretics or antihypertensive agents (e.g. beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors) may cause a decrease in their antihypertensive effect. Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution and patients, especially the elderly, should have their blood pressure periodically monitored. Patients should be adequately hydrated and consideration should be given to monitoring of renal function after initiation of concomitant therapy and periodically thereafter, particularly for diuretics and ACE inhibitors due to the increased risk of nephrotoxicity. Concomitant treatment with potassium-sparing drugs may be associated with increased serum potassium levels, which should therefore be monitored frequently (see 4.4).

Digoxin: If used concomitantly, diclofenac may raise plasma concentrations of digoxin. Monitoring of the serum digoxin level is recommended.

Cardiac glycosides: NSAIDs may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce GFR and increase plasma glycoside levels.

Lithium: If used concomitantly, diclofenac may raise plasma concentrations of lithium. Monitoring of the serum lithium level is recommended.

Methotrexate: Diclofenac can inhibit the tubular renal clearance of methotrexate hereby increasing methotrexate levels. Caution is recommended when NSAIDs, including diclofenac, are administered less than 24 hours before or after treatment with methotrexate, since blood concentrations of methotrexate may rise and the toxicity of this substance be increased. Cases of serious toxicity have been reported when methotrexate and NSAIDs including diclofenac are given within 24 hours of each other. This interaction is mediated through accumulation of methotrexate resulting from impairment of renal excretion in the presence of the NSAID.

Ciclosporin: Diclofenac, like other NSAIDs, may increase the nephrotoxicity of ciclosporin due to the effect on renal prostaglandins. Therefore, it should be given at doses lower than those that would be used in patients not receiving ciclosporin.

Mifepristone: NSAIDs should not be used for 8-12 days after mifepristone administration as NSAIDs can reduce the effect of mifepristone.

Anti-coagulants and anti-platelet agents: Caution is recommended since concomitant administration could increase the risk of bleeding (see section 4.4). Although clinical investigations do not appear to indicate that diclofenac affects the action of anticoagulants, there are reports of an increased risk of haemorrhage in patients receiving diclofenac and anticoagulants concomitantly. Close monitoring of such patients is therefore recommended to be certain that no change in anticoagulant dosage is required. As with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, diclofenac in a high dose can reversibly inhibit platelet aggregation.

Quinolone antibiotics: Animal data indicate that NSAIDs can increase the risk of convulsions associated with quinolone antibiotics. Patients (with or without a previous history of epilepsy) taking NSAIDs and quinolones may have an increased risk of developing convulsions. Therefore, caution should be exercised when considering the use of a quinolone in patients who are already receiving an NSAID.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRls): Concomitant administration of systemic NSAIDs, including diclofenac, and SSRIs may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (see 4.4).

Tacrolimus: Possible increased risk of nephrotoxicity when NSAIDs are given with tacrolimus. This might be mediated through renal antiprostaglandin effects of both NSAID and calcineurin inhibitor.

Phenytoin: When using phenytoin concomitantly with diclofenac, monitoring of phenytoin plasma concentrations is recommended due to an expected increase in exposure to phenytoin.

Zidovudine: lncreased risk of haematological toxicity when NSAIDs are given with zidovudine. There is evidence of an increased risk of haemarthroses and haematoma in HIV(+) haemophiliacs receiving concurrent treatment with zidovudine and ibuprofen.

Antidiabetic agents: Clinical studies have shown that Diclofenac Potassium tablets can be given together with oral antidiabetic agents without influencing their clinical effect. However there have been isolated reports of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic effects which have required adjustment to the dosage of hypoglycaemic agents. For this reason, monitoring of the blood glucose level is recommended as a precautionary measure during concomitant therapy.

Potent CYP2C9 inhibitors: Caution is recommended when co-prescribing diclofenac with potent CYP2C9 inhibitors (such as sulfinpyrazone and voriconazole), which could result in a significant increase in peak plasma concentration and exposure to diclofenac due to inhibition of diclofenac metabolism.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis may adversely affect the pregnancy and/or the embryo/foetal development. Data from epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of miscarriage and of cardiac malformation and gastroschisis after use of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in early pregnancy. The absolute risk for cardiovascular malformation was increased from less than 1% up to approximately 1.5 %.

The risk is believed to increase with dose and duration of therapy. In animals, administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor has been shown to result in increased pre- and post-implantation loss and embryo-foetal lethality.

In addition, increased incidences of various malformations, including cardiovascular, have been reported in animals given a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor during the organogenetic period. During the first and second trimester of pregnancy, Diclofenac should not be given unless clearly necessary. If Diclofenac is used by a woman attempting to conceive, or during the first and second trimester of pregnancy, the dose should be kept as low and duration of treatment as short as possible.

During the third trimester of pregnancy, all prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose the foetus to:

- cardiopulmonary toxicity (with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension);

- renal dysfunction, which may progress to renal failure with oligo-hydroamniosis;

the mother and the neonate, at the end of pregnancy, to:

- possible prolongation of bleeding time, an anti-aggregating effect which may occur even at very low doses.

- inhibition of uterine contractions resulting in delayed or prolonged labour.

Consequently, Diclofenac is contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Lactation

Like other NSAIDs, diclofenac passes into the breast milk in small amounts. Therefore, Diclofenac should not be administered during breast feeding in order to avoid undesirable effects in the infant.

Fertility

As with other NSAIDs, the use of Diclofenac may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of Diclofenac should be considered (see section 4.4).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Undesirable effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, visual disturbances, vertigo, somnolence and central nervous system disturbances are possible after taking NSAIDs. If affected, patients should not drive or operate machinery.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Adverse reactions (Table 1) are ranked under heading of frequency, the most frequent first, using the following convention: very common: (>1/10); common (≥1/100, <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000, <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000, <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000); Not known: cannot be estimated from the available data.

The following undesirable effects include those reported with either short-term or long-term use.

Table 1

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very rare

Thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, anaemia (including haemolytic and aplastic anaemia), Agranulocytosis.

Immune system disorders

Rare

Hypersensitivity anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions (including hypotension and shock).

Very rare

Angioneurotic oedema (including face oedema).

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare

Disorientation, depression, insomnia, nightmare, irritability, psychotic disorder.

Nervous system disorders

Common

Headache, dizziness.

Rare

Somnolence, tiredness.

Very rare

Paraesthesia, memory impairment, convulsion, anxiety, tremor, aseptic meningitis, taste disturbances, cerebrovascular accident.

Unknown

Confusion, hallucinations, disturbances of sensation, malaise.

Eye disorders

Very rare

Visual disturbance, vision blurred, diplopia.

Unknown

Optic neuritis.

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Common

Vertigo.

Very rare

Tinnitus, hearing impaired.

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Palpitations, chest pain, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction.

Vascular disorders

Very rare

Hypertension, hypertension vasculitis.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Rare

Asthma (including dyspnoea).

Very rare

Pneumonitis.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, flatulence, anorexia.

Rare

Gastritis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, haematemesis, diarrhoea haemorrhagic, melaena, gastrointestinal ulcer (with or without bleeding or perforation sometimes fatal particularly in the elderly).

Very rare

Colitis (including haemorrhagic colitis and exacerbation of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease), constipation, Stomatitis (including ulcerative stomatitis), glossitis, oesophageal disorder, diaphragm-like intestinal strictures, pancreatitis.

Not known

Ischaemic colitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Common

Transaminases increased.

Rare

Hepatitis, jaundice, liver disorder.

Very rare

Fulminant hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic failure.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

Rash.

Rare

Urticaria.

Very Rare

Bullous eruptions, eczema, erythema, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's syndrome), dermatitis exfoliative, loss of hair, photosensitivity reaction, purpura, allergic purpura, pruritus.

Renal and urinary disorders

Very rare

Acute renal failure haematuria, proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis, renal papillary necrosis.

General disorders and administration site conditions

Rare

Oedema.

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Very rare

Impotence.

Clinical trial and epidemiological data consistently point towards an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke) associated with the use of diclofenac, particularly at high dose (150mg daily) and in long term treatment (see section 4.3 and 4.4 for Contraindications and Special warnings and precautions for use).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

4.9 Overdose

a) Symptoms

Symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, rarely diarrhoea, dizziness, disorientation, excitation, coma, drowsiness, tinnitus, fainting, occasionally convulsions. In rare cases of significant poisoning acute renal failure and liver damage are possible.

b) Therapeutic measure

Patients should be treated symptomatically as required.

Within one hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount, activated charcoal should be considered. Alternatively, in adults, gastric lavage should be considered within one hour of ingestion of a potentially life-threatening overdose.

Good urine output should be ensured.

Renal and liver function should be closely monitored.

Patients should be observed for at least four hours after ingestion of potentially toxic amounts.

Frequent or prolonged convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam.

Other measures may be indicated by the patient's clinical condition.

Special measures such as forced dieresis, dialysis or haemo-perfusion are probably of no help in eliminating NSAIDs, including diclofenac, due to high protein binding and extensive metabolism

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

ATC code: M01A B05

Diclofenac Potassium/Adacium™ Rapid 50mg tablets contain the potassium salt of diclofenac, a non-steroidal compound with pronounced and clinically demonstrable analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties.

Diclofenac is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis and a modulator of arachidonic acid release and uptake.

Diclofenac Potassium/Adacium™ Rapid 50mg tablets have a rapid onset of action and are therefore suitable for the treatment of acute episodes of pain and inflammation.

In migraine attacks Diclofenac Potassium/Adacium™ Rapid 50mg tablets have been shown to be effective in relieving the headache and in improving the accompanying symptom of nausea.

Diclofenac in vitro does not suppress proteoglycan biosynthesis in cartilage at concentrations equivalent to the concentrations reached in human beings.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Diclofenac is rapidly and completely absorbed from sugar-coated tablets. Food intake does not affect absorption.

Peak plasma concentration after one 50 mg sugar-coated tablet was 3.9 µmol/l after 20-60 minutes. The plasma concentrations show a linear relationship to the size of the dose.

Diclofenac undergoes first-pass metabolism and is extensively metabolised.

Distribution

Diclofenac is highly bound to plasma proteins (99.7%), chiefly albumin (99.4%)

Diclofenac was detected in a low concentration (100ng/mL) in breast milk in one nursing mother. The estimated amount ingested by an infant consuming breast milk is equivalent to a 0.03 mg/kg/day dose (see section 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation).

Elimination

The total systemic clearance of diclofenac in plasma is 263 ± 56 ml/min (mean ± SD).

The terminal half-life in plasma is 1 – 2 hours.

Repeated oral administration of Diclofenac Potassium/ Adacium ™ Rapid 50mg tablets for 8 days in daily doses of 50 mg t.d.s does not lead to accumulation of diclofenac in the plasma.

Approx. 60% of the dose administered is excreted in the urine in the form of metabolites, and less than 1% as unchanged substance. The remainder of the dose is eliminated as metabolites through the bile in the faeces.

Biotransformation

The biotransformation of diclofenac involves partly glucuronidation of the intact molecule but mainly single and multiple hydroxylation followed by glucuronidation.

Characteristics in patients

The age of the patient has no influence on the absorption, metabolism, or excretion of diclofenac.

In patients suffering from renal impairment, no accumulation of the unchanged active substance can be inferred from the single-dose kinetics when applying the usual dosage schedule. At a creatinine clearance of <10 ml/min the theoretical steady-state plasma levels of metabolites are about four times higher than in normal subjects. However, the metabolites are ultimately cleared through the bile.

In the presence of impaired hepatic function (chronic hepatitis, non-decompensated cirrhosis) the kinetics and metabolism are the same as for patients without liver disease.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Relevant information on the preclinical safety of Diclofenac Potassium Tablets is included in previous sections of this Summary of Product Characteristics.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Silica colloidal anhydrous

Sodium starch glycollate

Povidone

Starch maize

Calcium hydrogen phosphate anhydrous

Magnesium stearate

Tablet Coating:

Polyvinyl alcohol partially hydrolysed

Titanium dioxide E171

Talc

Lecithin Soya E322

Iron Oxide red E172

Iron Oxide yellow E172

Xanthan gum E415

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable

6.3 Shelf life

36 months

6.4 Special precautions for storage

No special storage precautions

6.5 Nature and contents of container

7,12,21,28,30,50,56,60,84,100 in Al/Al, OPA/Al/PVC blister

100 or 500 tablets in PP Tablet Container with LDPE Cap

*Not all pack sizes may be marketed*

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Not applicable.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Focus Pharmaceuticals Ltd

Capital House,

85 King William Street,

London EC4N 7BL

United Kingdom.

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 20046/0078

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

05/02/2010

10. Date of revision of the text

07/09/2016

Company contact details

Concordia International- formerly Focus Pharmaceuticals Ltd

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Address

Capital House, 1st Floor, 85 King William Street, London, EC4N 7BL, UK

Fax

+44 (0)208 588 9217

Medical Information e-mail
Medical Information Fax

+44 (0)208 588 9200

Stock Availability
Telephone

+44 (0)208 588 9100

Medical Information Direct Line

+44 (0)208 588 9207

Customer Care direct line

+44 (0)208 588 9202

Stock Availability

+44 (0)208 588 9202

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Active ingredients

diclofenac potassium

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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