- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
This medicinal product is subject to additional monitoring. This will allow quick identification of new safety information. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions. See section 4.8 for how to report adverse reactions.
AdultsThe recommended dose is one inhalation of ANORO 55/22 micrograms once daily. ANORO should be administered once daily at the same time of the day each day to maintain bronchodilation. The maximum dose is one inhalation of ANORO 55/22 micrograms once daily.
Special populationsElderly patientsNo dosage adjustment is required in patients over 65 years.Renal impairmentNo dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment.Hepatic impairmentNo dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. The use of ANORO has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and should be used with caution.
Paediatric populationThere is no relevant use of ANORO in the paediatric population (under 18 years of age) for the indication of COPD.
Method of administrationANORO is for inhalation use only.Instructions for use:The following instructions for the 30 dose inhaler also apply to the 7 dose inhaler.The ELLIPTA inhaler contains pre-dispensed doses and is ready to use.The inhaler is packaged in a tray containing a desiccant sachet, to reduce moisture. The desiccant sachet should be thrown away and it should not be eaten or inhaled. The patient should be advised to not open the tray until they are ready to inhale a dose.The inhaler will be in the 'closed' position when it is first taken out of its sealed tray. The Discard by date should be written on the inhaler label in the space provided. The Discard by date is 6 weeks from the date of opening the tray. After this date the inhaler should no longer be used. The tray can be discarded after first opening.If the inhaler cover is opened and closed without inhaling the medicinal product, the dose will be lost. The lost dose will be securely held inside the inhaler, but it will no longer be available to be inhaled.It is not possible to accidentally take extra medicine or a double dose in one inhalation.a) Prepare a doseOpen the cover when ready to take a dose. The inhaler should not be shaken.Slide the cover down until a click is heard. The medicinal product is now ready to be inhaled.The dose counter counts down by 1 to confirm. If the dose counter does not count down as the click is heard, the inhaler will not deliver a dose and should be taken back to a pharmacist for advice.b) How to inhale the medicinal productThe inhaler should be held away from the mouth breathing out as far as is comfortable. But not breathing out into the inhaler.The mouthpiece should be placed between the lips and the lips should then be closed firmly around it. The air vents should not be blocked with fingers during use.• Inhale with one long, steady, deep breath in. This breath should be held in for as long as possible (at least 3-4 seconds).• Remove the inhaler from the mouth.• Breathe out slowly and gently.The medicine may not be tasted or felt, even when using the inhaler correctly.c) Close the inhalerThe mouthpiece of the inhaler may be cleaned using a dry tissue before closing the cover.Slide the cover upwards as far as it will go, to cover the mouthpiece.
AsthmaUmeclidinium/vilanterol should not be used in patients with asthma since it has not been studied in this patient population.
Paradoxical bronchospasmAs with other inhalation therapies, administration of umeclidinium/vilanterol may produce paradoxical bronchospasm that may be life-threatening. Treatment with umeclidinium/vilanterol should be discontinued immediately if paradoxical bronchospasm occurs and alternative therapy instituted if necessary.
Not for acute useUmeclidinium/vilanterol is not indicated for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm.
Deterioration of diseaseIncreasing use of short-acting bronchodilators to relieve symptoms indicates deterioration of control. In the event of deterioration of COPD during treatment with umeclidinium/vilanterol, a re-evaluation of the patient and of the COPD treatment regimen should be undertaken.
Cardiovascular effectsCardiovascular effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias e.g. atrial fibrillation and tachycardia, may be seen after the administration of muscarinic receptor antagonists and sympathomimetics, including umeclidinium/vilanterol. Patients with clinically significant uncontrolled cardiovascular disease were excluded from clinical studies. Therefore, umeclidinium/vilanterol should be used with caution in patients with severe cardiovascular disease.
Antimuscarinic activityConsistent with its antimuscarinic activity, umeclidinium/vilanterol should be used with caution in patients with urinary retention or with narrow-angle glaucoma.
HypokalaemiaBeta2-adrenergic agonists may produce significant hypokalaemia in some patients, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. No clinically relevant effects of hypokalaemia were observed in clinical studies with umeclidinium/vilanterol at the recommended therapeutic dose. Caution should be exercised when umeclidinium/vilanterol is used with other medicinal products that also have the potential to cause hypokalaemia (see section 4.5).
HyperglycaemiaBeta2-adrenergic agonists may produce transient hyperglycemia in some patients. No clinically relevant effects on plasma glucose were observed in clinical studies with umeclidinium/vilanterol at the recommended therapeutic dose. Upon initiation of treatment with umeclidinium/vilanterol plasma glucose should be monitored more closely in diabetic patients.
Coexisting conditionsUmeclidinium/vilanterol should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders or thyrotoxicosis, and in patients who are unusually responsive to beta2-adrenergic agonists.Excipients This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Beta-adrenergic blockersMedicinal products containing beta-adrenergic blockers may weaken or antagonise the effect of beta2-adrenergic agonists, such as vilanterol. Concurrent use of either non-selective or selective beta-adrenergic blockers should be avoided unless there are compelling reasons for their use.
Metabolic and transporter based interactionsVilanterol is a substrate of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Concomitant administration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, ritonavir, telithromycin) may inhibit the metabolism of, and increase the systemic exposure to, vilanterol. Co-administration with ketoconazole (400 mg) in healthy volunteers increased mean vilanterol AUC(0-t) and Cmax, 65% and 22% respectively. The increase in vilanterol exposure was not associated with an increase in beta-adrenergic agonist related systemic effects on heart rate, blood potassium or QT interval (corrected using the Fridericia method). Care is advised when co-administering umeclidinium/vilanterol with ketoconazole and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors as there is potential for an increased systemic exposure to vilanterol, which could lead to an increase in the potential for adverse reactions. Verapamil, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of vilanterol.Umeclidinium is a substrate of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The steady-state pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium was assessed in healthy volunteers lacking CYP2D6 (poor metabolisers). No effect on umeclidinium AUC or Cmax was observed at a 8-fold higher dose. An approximately 1.3-fold increase in umeclidinium AUC was observed at 16-fold higher dose with no effect on umeclidinium Cmax. Based on the magnitude of these changes, no clinically relevant drug interaction is expected when umeclidinium/vilanterol is co-administered with CYP2D6 inhibitors or when administered to patients genetically deficient in CYP2D6 activity (poor metabolisers).Both umeclidinium and vilanterol are substrates of the P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp). The effect of the moderate P-gp inhibitor verapamil (240 mg once daily) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and vilanterol was assessed in healthy volunteers. No effect of verapamil was observed on umeclidinium or vilanterol Cmax. An approximately 1.4-fold increase in umeclidinium AUC was observed with no effect on vilanterol AUC. Based on the magnitude of these changes, no clinically relevant drug interaction is expected when umeclidinium/vilanterol is co-administered with P-gp inhibitors.
Other antimuscarinics and sympathomimeticsCo-administration of umeclidinium/vilanterol with other long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists or medicinal products containing either of these agents has not been studied and is not recommended as it may potentiate known inhaled muscarinic antagonist or beta2-adrenergic agonist adverse reactions (see section 4.4 and section 4.9).
HypokalaemiaConcomitant hypokalaemic treatment with methylxanthine derivatives, steroids, or non-potassium-sparing diuretics may potentiate the possible hypokalaemic effect of beta2-adrenergic agonists, therefore use with caution (see section 4.4).
Other medicinal products for COPDAlthough no formal in vivo drug interaction studies have been performed, inhaled umeclidinium/vilanterol has been used concomitantly with other COPD medicinal products including short acting sympathomimetic bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids without clinical evidence of drug interactions.
PregnancyThere are no data from the use of umeclidinium/vilanterol in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at exposures which are not clinically relevant after administration of vilanterol (see section 5.3).Umeclidinium/vilanterol should be used during pregnancy only if the expected benefit to the mother justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Breast-feedingIt is unknown whether umeclidinium or vilanterol are excreted in human milk. However, other beta2-adrenergic agonists are detected in human milk. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue umeclidinium/vilanterol therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.
FertilityThere are no data on the effects of umeclidinium/vilanterol on human fertility. Animal studies indicate no effects of umeclidinium or vilanterol on fertility.
Summary of the safety profileThe most frequently reported adverse reaction with umeclidinium/vilanterol was nasopharyngitis (9%).
Tabulated summary of adverse reactionsThe safety profile of ANORO is based on safety experience with umeclidinium/vilanterol and the individual components from the clinical development program comprising of 6,855 patients with COPD and from spontaneous reporting. The clinical development programme included 2,354 patients who received umeclidinium/vilanterol once daily in the Phase III clinical studies of 24 weeks or more, of whom 1,296 patients received the recommended dose of 55/22 micrograms in 24-week studies, 832 patients received a higher dose of 113/22 micrograms in 24-week studies and 226 patients received 113/22 micrograms in a 12-month study.The frequencies assigned to the adverse reactions identified in the table below include crude incidence rates observed in the integration of five 24-week studies and in the 12-month safety study. The frequency of adverse reactions is defined using the following convention: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from available data).
|System Organ Class||Adverse reactions||Frequency|
|Infections and infestations||Urinary tract infection Sinusitis Nasopharyngitis Pharyngitis Upper respiratory tract infection||Common Common Common Common Common|
|Immune system disorders||Hypersensitivity reactions including: Rash Anaphylaxis, angioedema, and urticaria||Uncommon Rare|
|Nervous system disorders||Headache Tremor Dysgeusia||Common Uncommon Uncommon|
|Eye disorders||Glaucoma||Not known|
|Cardiac disorders||Atrial fibrillation Supraventricular tachycardia Rhythm idioventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular extrasystoles Palpitations||Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders||Cough Oropharyngeal pain||Common Common|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||Constipation Dry mouth||Common Common|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||Rash||Uncommon|
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:
IrelandHPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2; Tel: +353 1 6764971; Fax: +353 1 6762517. Website: www.hpra.ie; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
United KingdomThe Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
Mechanism of actionUmeclidinium/vilanterol is a combination inhaled long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist/long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (LAMA/LABA). Following oral inhalation both compounds act locally on airways to produce bronchodilation by separate mechanisms.
UmeclidiniumUmeclidinium is a long acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (also referred to as an anticholinergic). It is a quinuclidine derivative with activity across multiple muscarinic receptor subtypes. Umeclidinium exerts its bronchodilatory activity by competitively inhibiting the binding of acetylcholine with muscarinic receptors on airway smooth muscle. It demonstrates slow reversibility at the human M3 muscarinic receptor subtype in vitro and a long duration of action in vivo when administered directly to the lungs in pre-clinical models.
VilanterolVilanterol is a selective long-acting, beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist (beta2-adrenergic agonist). The pharmacologic effects of beta2-adrenergic agonists, including vilanterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenylate cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells, especially from mast cells.
Pharmacodynamic effectsIn Phase III, 6-month studies umeclidinium/vilanterol provided clinically meaningful improvements over placebo in lung function (as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]) over 24 hours following once daily administration, which were evident at 15 minutes following administration of the first dose (improvement over placebo by 112 ml (p <0.001*). Mean peak improvements in FEV1 within the first 6 hours following dosing relative to placebo was 224 ml (p<0.001*) at Week 24. There was no evidence for tachyphylaxis in the effect of ANORO over time.
Cardiac electrophysiologyThe effect of umeclidinium/vilanterol on the QT interval was evaluated in a placebo and active (moxifloxacin) controlled QT study involving once daily administration of umeclidinium/vilanterol 113/22 micrograms or 500/100 micrograms (pre-dispensed dose with umeclidinium at eight times the recommended dose and vilanterol at four times the recommended dose) for 10 days in 103 healthy volunteers. The maximum mean difference in prolongations of QT interval (corrected using the Fridericia method, QTcF) from placebo after baseline-correction was 4.3 (90% CI=2.2 to 6.4) milliseconds seen 10 minutes after administration with umeclidinium/vilanterol 113/22 micrograms and 8.2 (90% CI=6.2 to 10.2) milliseconds seen 30 minutes after administration with umeclidinium/vilanterol 500/100 micrograms. Therefore, no clinically relevant pro-arrhythmic potential related to QT-interval prolongations was observed with umeclidinium/vilanterol 113/22 micrograms.A dose-dependent increase in heart rate was also observed. The maximum mean difference in heart rate from placebo after baseline-correction was 8.4 (90% CI=7.0 to 9.8) beats/minute and 20.3 (90% CI=18.9 to 21.7) beats/minute seen 10 minutes after administration of umeclidinium/vilanterol 113/22 micrograms and 500/100 micrograms respectively. In addition, no clinically significant effects on cardiac rhythm were observed on 24-hour Holter monitoring in 53 patients with COPD who were treated with umeclidinium/vilanterol 55/22 micrograms once daily in one 6-month study, or in a further 55 patients who received umeclidinium/vilanterol 113/22 micrograms once daily in another 6-month study and 226 patients who received 113/22 micrograms once daily in the 12-month study.
Clinical efficacyThe clinical efficacy of umeclidinium/vilanterol administered once daily was evaluated in eight Phase III clinical studies in 6,835 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD; 5,618 patients from five 6-month studies (two placebo-controlled and three active [tiotropium]-comparator controlled), 655 patients from two 3-month exercise endurance/lung function studies and 562 patients from a 12-month supportive study.
Effects on lung functionANORO demonstrated improvements in lung function (as defined by change from baseline in trough FEV1) in several studies. In one 6-month Phase III study, ANORO demonstrated statistically significant improvements in trough FEV1 (primary endpoint) at Week 24 compared with placebo and each monotherapy component treatment arm. In addition, ANORO demonstrated clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements in trough FEV1 compared with tiotropium in two of the three 6-month active-comparator studies and numerically greater improvements from tiotropium in the third active-comparator study (see Table 1). There was no attenuation of the bronchodilator effect over time.
Symptomatic outcomesBreathlessness:ANORO demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction in breathlessness as evaluated by an increase in TDI focal score at Week 24 (key secondary end-point) compared with placebo (see Table 1). Improvements in TDI focal score compared with each monotherapy component and tiotropium were not statistically significant (see Table 1).The proportion of patients who responded with at least the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of 1 unit TDI focal score at Week 24 was greater for ANORO (58%) compared with placebo (41%) and each monotherapy component (53% for umeclidinium and 51% for vilanterol). Health-related quality of life:ANORO has also shown an improvement in health-related quality of life measured using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) as indicated by a reduction in SGRQ total score at Week 24 compared with placebo and each monotherapy component (see Table 1). ANORO showed a statistically significant reduction in SGRQ total score compared with tiotropium in one of the three active-comparator studies (see Table 1).The proportion of patients who responded with at least the MCID in SGRQ score (defined as a decrease of 4 units from baseline) at Week 24 was greater for ANORO (49%) compared with placebo (34%) and each monotherapy component (44% for umeclidinium and 48% for vilanterol). In one active-comparator study, a higher percentage of patients receiving ANORO responded with a clinically meaningful improvement in SGRQ score at Week 24 (53%) compared to tiotropium (46%). In the other two active-comparator studies, a similar proportion of patients achieved at least the MCID with ANORO and tiotropium; 49% and 54% for ANORO 55/22 micrograms and 52% and 55% for tiotropium.
Use of rescue medicationANORO reduced the use of rescue medication with salbutamol over Weeks 1-24 compared with placebo and umeclidinium (see Table 1) and demonstrated an increase from baseline in the proportion of days when no rescue medication was needed (on average 11.1%) compared with a decrease from baseline on placebo (on average 0.9%). In the three 6-month active-comparator-controlled studies, ANORO reduced the use of rescue medication with salbutamol compared with tiotropium, with statistically significant reductions observed in two of the studies (see Table 1). ANORO also demonstrated a greater increase from baseline in the proportion of days when no rescue medication was needed in all three studies (average within the range 17.6% to 21.5%) compared with tiotropium (average within the range 11.7% to 13.4%).
Table 1. Lung function, symptomatic and health related quality of life outcomes at Week 24
|Treatment comparisons with ANORO 55/22 mcg||Treatment difference1 (95% confidence intervals, p-value)|
|Trough FEV1 (ml)||TDI Focal Score||SGRQ Total Score||Use of rescue medication3|
|ANORO (N = 413) versus Placebo (N = 280)||167 (128, 207) <0.001||1.2 (0.7,1.7) <0.001||-5.51 (-7.88, -3.13) <0.001*||-0.8 (-1.3,-0.3) 0.001*|
|ANORO (N = 413) versus Umeclidinium 55 mcg (N = 418)||52 (17, 87) 0.004||0.3 (-0.2, 0.7) 0.244||-0.82 (-2.90, 1.27) 0.441||-0.6 (-1.0, -0.1) 0.014*|
|ANORO (N = 413) versus Vilanterol 22 mcg (N = 421)||95 (60, 130) <0.001||0.4 (-0.1, 0.8) 0.117||-0.32 (-2.41, 1.78) 0.767||0.1 (-0.3, 0.5) 0.675|
|ANORO (N = 454) versus tiotropium 18 mcg (N = 451) (Study ZEP117115)||112 (81, 144) <0.001||n/e||-2.10 (-3.61, -0.59) 0.006||-0.5 (-0.7, -0.2) <0.001|
|ANORO (N = 207) versus tiotropium 18 mcg (N = 203) (Study DB2113360)||90 (39, 141) <0.001||0.12(-0.4, 0.5) 0.817||0.75 (-2.12, 3.63) 0.607||-0.7 (-1.2, -0.1) 0.022|
|ANORO (N = 217) versus tiotropium 18 mcg (N = 215) (Study DB2113374)||60 (10, 109) 0.018*||-0.17 (-2.85, 2.52) 0.904||-0.6 (-1.2, 0.0) 0.069|
COPD exacerbationsANORO reduced the risk of a COPD exacerbation by 50% compared with placebo (based analysis of time to first exacerbation: Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.5, p=0.004*); by 20% compared with umeclidinium (HR 0.8, p=0.391); and by 30% compared with vilanterol (HR 0.7, p=0.121). From the three active-comparator studies, the risk of a COPD exacerbation compared with tiotropium was reduced by 50% in one study (HR 0.5, p=0.044) and was increased by 20% and 90% in two studies (HR 1.2, p=0.709 and HR 1.9, p=0.062 respectively). These studies were not specifically designed to evaluate the effect of treatments on COPD exacerbations and patients were withdrawn from the study if an exacerbation occurred.
Exercise endurance and lung volumesANORO 55/22 micrograms improved exercise endurance time compared with placebo, as evaluated with the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT), in one study but not the second and improved lung volume measures compared with placebo in both studies in adult COPD patients with hyperinflation (functional residual capacity [FRC] >120%). In the first study, ANORO 55/22 micrograms demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement (based on a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) between 45 to 85 seconds) over placebo in exercise endurance time (EET) obtained 3 hours after dosing at Week 12 (69.4 seconds [p=0.003]). Improvement in EET compared with placebo was seen at Day 2 and was sustained at Week 6 and Week 12. In the second study, the treatment difference in EET between ANORO 55/22 micrograms and placebo was 21.9 seconds (p=0.234) at Week 12.ANORO 55/22 micrograms also showed statistically significant improvements compared with placebo in change from baseline in lung volume measures at trough and at 3 hours post dose at Week 12 in the first study (inspiratory capacity: 237 ml and 316 ml respectively, residual volume: -466 ml and -643 ml respectively and functional residual capacity: -351 ml and -522 ml respectively; all p<0.001). In the second study, ANORO 55/22 micrograms showed improvements compared with placebo in change from baseline in lung volume measures at trough and at 3 hours post dose at Week 12 (inspiratory capacity: 198 ml and 238 ml respectively, residual volume: -295 ml and -351 ml respectively and functional residual capacity: -238 ml and -302 ml respectively); all p<0.001*).
Paediatric populationThe European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with ANORO in all subsets of the paediatric population in COPD (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).* A step-down statistical testing procedure was used in this study and this comparison was below a comparison that did not achieve statistical significance. Therefore, statistical significance on this comparison cannot be inferred.
UmeclidiniumFollowing inhaled administration of umeclidinium in healthy volunteers, Cmax occurred at 5 to 15 minutes. The absolute bioavailability of inhaled umeclidinium was on average 13% of the dose, with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled umeclidinium, steady state was achieved within 7 to 10 days with 1.5 to 1.8-fold accumulation.
VilanterolFollowing inhaled administration of vilanterol in healthy volunteers, Cmax occurred at 5 to 15 minutes. The absolute bioavailability of inhaled vilanterol was 27%, with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled vilanterol, steady state was achieved within 6 days with up to 2.4-fold accumulation.
UmeclidiniumFollowing intravenous administration to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution was 86 litres. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 89%.
VilanterolFollowing intravenous administration to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution at steady state was 165 litres. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 94%.
UmeclidiniumIn vitro studies showed that umeclidinium is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter. The primary metabolic routes for umeclidinium are oxidative (hydroxylation, O-dealkylation) followed by conjugation (glucuronidation, etc), resulting in a range of metabolites with either reduced pharmacological activity or for which the pharmacological activity has not been established. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.
VilanterolIn vitro studies showed that vilanterol is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and is a substrate for the P-gp transporter. The primary metabolic routes for vilanterol are O-dealkylation to a range of metabolites with significantly reduced beta1- and beta2-adrenergic agonist activity. Plasma metabolic profiles following oral administration of vilanterol in a human radiolabel study were consistent with high first-pass metabolism. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.
UmeclidiniumPlasma clearance following intravenous administration was 151 litres/hour. Following intravenous administration, approximately 58% of the administered radiolabelled dose (or 73% of the recovered radioactivity) was excreted in faeces by 192 hours post-dose. Urinary elimination accounted for 22% of the administered radiolabelled dose by 168 hours (27% of recovered radioactivity). The excretion of the drug-related material in the faeces following intravenous dosing indicated secretion into the bile. Following oral administration to healthy male volunteers, total radioactivity was excreted primarily in faeces (92% of the administered radiolabelled dose or 99% of the recovered radioactivity) by 168 hours post-dose. Less than 1% of the orally administered dose (1% of recovered radioactivity) was excreted in urine, suggesting negligible absorption following oral administration. Umeclidinium plasma elimination half-life following inhaled dosing for 10 days averaged 19 hours in healthy volunteers, with 3% to 4% excreted unchanged in urine at steady-state.
VilanterolPlasma clearance of vilanterol following intravenous administration was 108 litres/hour. Following oral administration of radiolabelled vilanterol, mass balance showed 70% of the radiolabel in urine and 30% in faeces. Primary elimination of vilanterol was by metabolism followed by excretion of metabolites in urine and faeces. Vilanterol plasma elimination half-life following inhaled dosing for 10 days averaged 11 hours.
Characteristics in specific groups of healthy volunteers or patients
ElderlyA population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and vilanterol were similar between COPD patients 65 years and older and those younger than 65 years of age.
Renal impairmentPatients with severe renal impairment showed no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to either umeclidinium or vilanterol (Cmax and AUC) following administration of umeclidinium/vilanterol with umeclidinium at twice the recommended dose and vilanterol at the recommended dose and no evidence of altered protein binding between patients with severe renal impairment and healthy volunteers.
Hepatic impairmentPatients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) showed no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to either umeclidinium or vilanterol (Cmax and AUC) following administration of umeclidinium/vilanterol with umeclidinium at twice the recommended dose and vilanterol at the recommended dose and no evidence of altered protein binding between patients with moderate hepatic impairment and healthy volunteers. Umeclidinium/vilanterol has not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Other special populationsA population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that no dose adjustment is required for umeclidinium or vilanterol based on the effect of age, race, gender, inhaled corticosteroid use, or weight. A study in CYP2D6 poor metabolisers showed no evidence of a clinically significant effect of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on systemic exposure to umeclidinium.
Genotoxicity and carcinogenicityUmeclidinium was not genotoxic in a standard battery of studies and was not carcinogenic in lifetime inhalation studies in mice or rats at exposures ≥ 26 or ≥ 22-fold, times the human clinical exposure of umeclidinium 55 micrograms, based on AUC, respectively.In genetic toxicity studies, vilanterol (as alpha-phenylcinnamate) and triphenylacetic acid were not genotoxic indicating that vilanterol (as trifenatate) does not represent a genotoxic hazard to humans. Consistent with findings for other beta2-adrenergic agonists, in lifetime inhalation studies, vilanterol trifenatate caused proliferative effects in the female rat and mouse reproductive tract and in the rat pituitary gland. There was no increase in tumour incidence in rats or mice at exposures 0.5- or 13-fold, times the human clinical exposure of vilanterol 22 micrograms based on AUC, respectively.
Reproductive toxicityUmeclidinium was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits. In a pre- and post-natal study, subcutaneous administration of umeclidinium to rats resulted in lower maternal body weight gain and food consumption and slightly decreased pre-weaning pup body weights in dams given 180 micrograms/kg/day dose (approximately 80-times the human clinical exposure of umeclidinium 55 micrograms, based on AUC).Vilanterol was not teratogenic in rats. In inhalation studies in rabbits, vilanterol caused effects similar to those seen with other beta2-adrenergic agonists (cleft palate, open eyelids, sternebral fusion and limb flexure/malrotation) at 6-times the human clinical exposure based on AUC. When given subcutaneously there were no effects at 36-times the human clinical exposure of vilanterol 22 micrograms, based on AUC.
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