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Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg, 10 mg/5 mg, 20 mg/10 mg and 40 mg/20 mg prolonged-release tablets

Last Updated on eMC 20-Oct-2015 View changes  | Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited Contact details

1. Name of the medicinal product

Targinact® 5 mg/2.5 mg, 10 mg/5 mg, 20 mg/10 mg and 40 mg/20 mg prolonged-release tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 5 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride equivalent to 4.5 mg oxycodone and 2.73 mg of naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate equivalent to 2.5 mg naloxone hydrochloride and 2.25 mg naloxone.

Targinact 10 mg/5 mg

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride equivalent to 9.0 mg oxycodone and 5.45 mg of naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate equivalent to 5 mg naloxone hydrochloride and 4.5 mg naloxone.

Targinact 20 mg/10 mg

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 20 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride equivalent to 18 mg oxycodone and 10.9 mg of naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate equivalent to 10 mg naloxone hydrochloride and 9 mg naloxone.

Targinact 40 mg/20 mg

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 40 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride equivalent to 36 mg oxycodone and 21.8 mg of naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate equivalent to 20 mg naloxone hydrochloride and 18 mg naloxone

Excipient with known effect:

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 68.17 mg lactose anhydrous.

Targinact 10 mg/5 mg

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 61.04 mg lactose anhydrous.

Targinact 20 mg/10 mg

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 51.78 mg lactose anhydrous.

Targinact 40 mg/20 mg

Each prolonged-release tablet contains 103.55 mg lactose anhydrous.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1

3. Pharmaceutical form

Prolonged-release tablet

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg

Blue, oblong tablets, with a nominal length of 9.5 mm and with a film coating, embossed “OXN” on one side and “5” on the other side.

Targinact 10 mg/5 mg

White, oblong tablets, with a nominal length of 9.5 mm and with a film coating, embossed “OXN” on one side and “10” on the other side.

Targinact 20 mg/10 mg

Pink oblong tablets, with a nominal length of 9.5 mm and with a film coating embossed “OXN” on one side and “20” on the other side.

Targinact 40 mg/20 mg

Yellow, oblong tablets, with a nominal length of 14 mm and with a film coating, embossed “OXN” on one side and “40” on the other side.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics.

Second line symptomatic treatment of patients with severe to very severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome after failure of dopaminergic therapy.

The opioid antagonist naloxone is added to counteract opioid-induced constipation by blocking the action of oxycodone at opioid receptors locally in the gut.

Targinact is indicated in adults.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Analgesia

The analgesic efficacy of Targinact is equivalent to oxycodone hydrochloride prolonged-release formulations.

The dosage should be adjusted to the intensity of pain and the sensitivity of the individual patient. Unless otherwise prescribed, Targinact should be administered as follows:

Adults

The usual starting dose for an opioid naive patient is 10 mg/5 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride at 12 hourly intervals.

Lower strengths are available to facilitate dose titration when initiating opioid therapy and for individual dose adjustment.

Patients already receiving opioids may be started on higher doses of Targinact depending on their previous opioid experience.

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg is intended for dose titration when initiating opioid therapy and individual dose adjustment.

The maximum daily dose of Targinact is 160 mg oxycodone hydrochloride and 80 mg naloxone hydrochloride. The maximum daily dose is reserved for patients who have previously been maintained on a stable daily dose of Targinact and who have become in need of an increased dose. Special attention should be given to patients with compromised renal function and patients with mild hepatic impairment if an increased dose is considered. For patients requiring higher doses of Targinact, administration of supplemental prolonged-release oxycodone hydrochloride at the same time intervals should be considered, taking into account the maximum daily dose of 400 mg prolonged-release oxycodone hydrochloride. In the case of supplemental oxycodone hydrochloride dosing, the beneficial effect of naloxone hydrochloride on bowel function may be impaired.

After complete discontinuation of therapy with Targinact with a subsequent switch to another opioid a worsening of the bowel function can be expected.

Some patients taking Targinact according to a regular time schedule require immediate-release analgesics as “rescue” medication for breakthrough pain. Targinact is a prolonged-release formulation and therefore not intended for the treatment of breakthrough pain. For the treatment of breakthrough pain, a single dose of “rescue medication” should approximate one sixth of the equivalent daily dose of oxycodone hydrochloride. The need for more than two “rescues” per day is usually an indication that the dose of Targinact requires upward adjustment. This adjustment should be made every 1-2 days in steps of 5 mg/2.5 mg twice daily, or where necessary 2.5mg/1.25mg or 10/5mg, oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride until a stable dose is reached. The aim is to establish a patient-specific twice daily dose that will maintain adequate analgesia and make use of as little rescue medication as possible for as long as pain therapy is necessary.

Targinact is taken at the determined dosage twice daily according to a fixed time schedule. While symmetric administration (the same dose mornings and evenings) subject to a fixed time schedule (every 12 hours) is appropriate for the majority of patients, some patients, depending on the individual pain situation, may benefit from asymmetric dosing tailored to their pain pattern. In general, the lowest effective analgesic dose should be selected.

In non-malignant pain therapy, daily doses of up to 40 mg/20 mg oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride are usually sufficient, but higher doses may be needed.

For doses not realisable/practicable with this strength other strengths of this medicinal product are available.

Restless legs syndrome

Targinact is indicated for patients suffering from RLS for at least 6 months. RLS symptoms should be present daily and during daytime (≥ 4 days/week). Targinact should be used after failure of previous dopaminergic treatment. Dopaminergic treatment failure is defined as inadequate initial response, a response that has become inadequate with time, occurrence of augmentation or unacceptable tolerability despite adequate doses. Previous treatment with at least one dopaminergic medicinal product should have lasted in general 4 weeks. A shorter period might be acceptable in case of unacceptable tolerability with dopaminergic therapy.

The dosage should be adjusted to the sensitivity of the individual patient.

Treatment of patients with restless legs syndrome with Targinact should be under the supervision of a clinician with experience in the management of restless legs syndrome.

Unless otherwise prescribed, Targinact should be administered as follows:

Adults

The usual starting dose is 5 mg/2.5 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride at 12 hourly intervals.

Titration on a weekly basis is recommended in case higher doses are required. The mean daily dose in the pivotal study was 20mg/10mg oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride. Some patients may benefit from higher daily doses up to a maximum of 60 mg/30 mg oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride.

Targinact is taken at the determined dosage twice daily according to a fixed time schedule. While symmetric administration (the same dose mornings and evenings) subject to a fixed time schedule (every 12 hours) is appropriate for the majority of patients, some patients, depending on the individual situation, may benefit from asymmetric dosing tailored to the individual patient. In general, the lowest effective dose should be selected.

For doses not realisable/practicable with this strength other strengths of this medicinal product are available.

Analgesia / Restless legs syndrome

Elderly patients

As for younger adults the dosage should be adjusted to the intensity of the pain or RLS symptoms and the sensitivity of the individual patient.

Patients with impaired hepatic function

A clinical trial has shown that plasma concentrations of both oxycodone and naloxone are elevated in patients with hepatic impairment. Naloxone concentrations were affected to a higher degree than oxycodone (see section 5.2). The clinical relevance of a relative high naloxone exposure in hepatic impaired patients is yet not known. Caution must be exercised when administering Targinact to patients with mild hepatic impairment (see section 4.4). In patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment Targinact is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

Patients with impaired renal function

A clinical trial has shown that plasma concentrations of both oxycodone and naloxone are elevated in patients with renal impairment (see section 5.2). Naloxone concentrations were affected to a higher degree than oxycodone. The clinical relevance of a relative high naloxone exposure in renal impaired patients is yet not known. Caution should be exercised when administering Targinact to patients with renal impairment (see section 4.4).

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Targinact in children aged below 18 years has not been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

Oral use.

Targinact is taken in the determined dosage twice daily in a fixed time schedule.

The prolonged-release tablets may be taken with or without food with sufficient liquid. Targinact must be swallowed whole, and not broken, chewed or crushed.

Duration of use

Targinact should not be administered for longer than absolutely necessary. If long-term treatment is necessary in view of the nature and severity of the illness, careful and regular monitoring is required to establish whether and to what extent further treatment is necessary.

Analgesia

When the patient no longer requires opioid therapy, it may be advisable to taper the dose gradually (see section 4.4).

Restless legs syndrome

At least every three months during therapy with Targinact patients should be clinically evaluated. Treatment should only be continued if Targinact is considered effective and the benefit is considered to outweigh adverse effects and potential harms in individual patients. Prior to continuation of RLS treatment beyond 1 year a discharge regimen by gradually tapering down of Targinact over a period of approximately one week should be considered to establish if continued treatment with Targinact is indicated.

When a patient no longer requires opioid therapy cessation of treatment by tapering down over a period of approximately one week is recommended in order to reduce the risk of a withdrawal reaction (see section 4.4).

4.3 Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1,

• Any situation where opioids are contraindicated,

• Severe respiratory depression with hypoxia and/or hypercapnia,

• Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,

• Cor pulmonale,

• Severe bronchial asthma,

• Non-opioid induced paralytic ileus,

• Moderate to severe hepatic impairment.

Additionally for restless legs syndrome:

• History of opioid abuse

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

The major risk of opioid excess is respiratory depression.

Caution must be exercised when administering Targinact to elderly or infirm patients, patients with opioid-induced paralytic ileus, patients presenting severely impaired pulmonary function, patients with sleep apnoea, myxoedema, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease (adrenal cortical insufficiency), toxic psychosis, cholelithiasis, prostate hypertrophy, alcoholism, delirium tremens, pancreatitis, hypotension, hypertension, pre-existing cardiovascular diseases, head injury (due to the risk of increased intracranial pressure), epileptic disorder or predisposition to convulsions, or patients taking MAO inhibitors.

Caution is advised in treating restless legs syndrome patients with additional sleep apnoea syndrome with Targinact due to the additive risk of respiratory depression. No data about the risk exist because in the clinical trial patients with sleep apnoea syndrome were excluded.

Caution must also be exercised when administering Targinact to patients with mild hepatic or renal impairment. A careful medical monitoring is particularly necessary for patients with severe renal impairment.

Diarrhoea may be considered as a possible effect of naloxone.

In patients under long-term opioid treatment with higher doses of opioids, the switch to Targinact can initially provoke withdrawal symptoms. Such patients may require specific attention.

Targinact is not suitable for the treatment of withdrawal symptoms.

During long-term administration, the patient may develop tolerance to the medicinal product and require higher doses to maintain the desired effect. Chronic administration of Targinact may lead to physical dependence. Withdrawal symptoms may occur upon the abrupt cessation of therapy. If therapy with Targinact is no longer required, it may be advisable to reduce the daily dose gradually in order to avoid the occurrence of withdrawal syndrome. (see section 4.2)

There is no clinical experience with Targinact in the long-term treatment of RLS beyond 1 year (see section 4.2).

There is potential for development of psychological dependence (addiction) to opioid analgesics, including Targinact. Targinact should be used with particular care in patients with a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Oxycodone alone has an abuse profile similar to other strong agonist opioids.

In order not to impair the prolonged-release characteristic of the prolonged-release tablets, the prolonged-release tablets must be taken whole and must not be broken, chewed or crushed. Breaking, chewing or crushing the prolonged-release tablets for ingestion leads to a faster release of the active substances and the absorption of a possibly fatal dose of oxycodone (see section 4.9).

Patients who have experienced somnolence and/or an episode of sudden sleep onset must refrain from driving or operating machines. Furthermore a reduction of the dose or termination of therapy may be considered. Because of possible additive effects, caution should be advised when patients are taking other sedating medicinal products in combination with Targinact (see sections 4.5 and 4.7).

Concomitant use of alcohol and Targinact may increase the undesirable effects of Targinact. Concomitant use should be avoided.

Studies have not been performed on the safety and efficacy of Targinact in children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Therefore, their use in children and adolescents under 18 years of age is not recommended.

There is no clinical experience in patients with cancer associated to peritoneal carcinomatosis or with sub-occlusive syndrome in advanced stages of digestive and pelvic cancers. Therefore, the use of Targinact in this population is not recommended.

Targinact is not recommended for pre-operative use or within the first 12-24 hours post-operatively. Depending on the type and extent of surgery, the anaesthetic procedure selected, other co-medication and the individual condition of the patient, the exact timing for initiating post-operative treatment with Targinact depends on a careful risk-benefit assessment for each individual patient.

Any abuse of Targinact by drug addicts is strongly discouraged. If abused parenterally, intranasally or orally by individuals dependent on opioid agonists, such as heroin, morphine, or methadone, Targinact is expected to produce marked withdrawal symptoms - because of the opioid receptor antagonist characteristics of naloxone - or to intensify withdrawal symptoms already present (see section 4.9).

Targinact consists of a dual-polymer matrix, intended for oral use only. Abusive parenteral injections of the prolonged-release tablet constituents (especially talc) can be expected to result in local tissue necrosis and pulmonary granulomas or may lead to other serious, potentially fatal undesirable effects.

The empty prolonged-release tablet matrix may be visible in the stool.

The use of Targinact may produce positive results in doping controls. The use of Targinact as a doping agent may become a health hazard.

This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take Targinact.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Substances having a CNS-depressant effect (e.g. other opioids, sedatives, hypnotics, antidepressants, phenothiazines, neuroleptics, antihistamines and antiemetics) may enhance the CNS-depressant effect (e.g. respiratory depression) of Targinact.

Alcohol may enhance the pharmacodynamic effects of Targinact; concomitant use should be avoided.

Clinically relevant changes in International Normalized Ratio (INR or Quick-value) in both directions have been observed in individuals if oxycodone and coumarin anticoagulants are co-applied.

Oxycodone is metabolised primarily via the CYP3A4 pathways and partly via the CYP2D6 pathway (see section 5.2). The activities of these metabolic pathways may be inhibited or induced by various co-administered drugs or dietary elements. Targinact doses may need to be adjusted accordingly.

CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g. clarithromycin, erythromycin, telithromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinaver), cimetidine and grapefruit juice may cause decreased clearance of oxycodone which could lead to an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations. A reduction in the dose of Targinact and subsequent re-tiration may be necessary.

CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin and St. John's Wort, may induce the metabolism of oxycodone and cause increased clearance of the drug, resulting in a decrease in oxycodone plasma concentrations. Caution is advised and further titration may be necessary to reach an adequate level of symptom control.

Theoretically, medicinal products that inhibit CYP2D6 activity, such as paroxetine, fluoxetine and quinidine, may cause decreased clearance of oxycodone which could lead to an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations. Concomitant administration with CYP2D6 inhibitors had an insignificant effect on the elimination of oxycodone and also had no influence on the pharmacodynamic effects of oxycodone.

In vitro metabolism studies indicate that no clinically relevant interactions are to be expected between oxycodone and naloxone.

The likelihood of clinically relevant interactions between paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid or naltrexone and the combination of oxycodone and naloxone in therapeutic concentrations is minimal.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and breastfeeding

Pregnancy

There are no data from the use of Targinact in pregnant women and during childbirth. Limited data on the use of oxycodone during pregnancy in humans reveal no evidence of an increased risk of congenital abnormalities. For naloxone, insufficient clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available. However, systemic exposure of the women to naloxone after use of Targinact is relatively low (see section 5.2). Both oxycodone and naloxone pass into the placenta. Animal studies have not been performed with oxycodone and naloxone in combination (see section 5.3). Animal studies with oxycodone or naloxone administered as single drugs have not revealed any teratogenic or embryotoxic effects.

Long-term administration of oxycodone during pregnancy may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the newborn. If administered during childbirth, oxycodone may evoke respiratory depression in the newborn. Targinact should only be used during pregnancy if the benefit outweighs the possible risks to the unborn child or neonate.

Breastfeeding

Oxycodone passes into the breast milk. A milk-plasma concentration ratio of 3:4:1 was measured and oxycodone effects in the suckling infant are therefore conceivable. It is not known whether naloxone also passes into the breast milk. However, after use of Targinact systemic naloxone levels are very low (see section 5.2). A risk to the suckling child cannot be excluded in particular following intake of multiple doses of Targinact by the breastfeeding mother. Breastfeeding should be discontinued during treatment with Targinact.

Fertility

There are no data with respect to fertility.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Targinact has moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. This is particularly likely at the beginning of treatment with Targinact, after dose increase or product rotation and if Targinact is combined with other CNS depressant agents. Patients stabilised on a specific dosage will not necessarily be restricted. Therefore, patients should consult with their physician as to whether driving or the use of machinery is permitted.

Patients being treated with Targinact and presenting with somnolence and/or sudden sleep episodes must be informed to refrain from driving or engaging in activities where impaired alertness may put themselves or others at risk of serious injury or death (e.g. operating machines) until such recurrent episodes and somnolence have resolved (see also sections 4.4 and 4.5).

This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient's ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:

• The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive.

• Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you.

• It is an offence to drive while you have this medicine in your body over a specified limit unless you have a defence (called the 'statutory defence').

• This defence applies when:

o The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical or dental problem; and

o You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine.

• Please note that it is still an offence to drive if you are unfit because of the medicine (i.e. your ability to drive is being affected)

Details regarding a new driving offence concerning driving after drugs have been taken in the UK may be found here: https://www.gov.uk/drug-driving-law.

4.8 Undesirable effects

The following frequencies are the basis for assessing undesirable effects:

Very common (≥ 1/10)

Common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10)

Uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100)

Rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000)

Very rare (<1/10,000)

Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)

Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Undesirable affects in the treatment of pain

System organ class

MedDRA

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Not known

Immune system disorders

 

Hypersensitivity

  

Metabolism and nutritional disorders

Decreased appetite up to loss of appetite

   

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia

Abnormal thinking

Anxiety

Confusion

Depression

Nervousness

Restlessness

 

Euphoric mood

Hallucination

Nightmares

Nervous system disorders

Dizziness

Headache

Somnolence

Convulsions1

Disturbance in attention

Speech disorder

Syncope

Tremor

 

Paraesthesia

Sedation

Eye disorders

 

Visual impairment

  

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vertigo

   

Cardiac disorders

 

Angina pectoris2

Palpitations

Tachycardia

 

Vascular disorders

Hot flush

Blood pressure decreased

Blood pressure increased

  

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

Dyspnoea

Rhinorrhoea

Cough

Yawning

Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal disorders

Abdominal pain

Constipation

Diarrhoea

Dry mouth

Dyspepsia

Vomiting

Nausea

Flatulence

Abdominal distention

Tooth disorder

Eructation

Hepatobiliary disorders

 

Hepatic enzymes increased

Biliary colic

  

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Pruritus

Skin reactions

Hyperhidrosis

   

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

 

Muscle spasms

Muscle twitching,

Myalgia

  

Renal and urinary disorders

 

Micturition urgency

 

Urinary retention

Reproductive system and breast disorders

   

Erectile dysfunction

General disorders and administration site conditions

Asthenic conditions

Fatigue

Chest pain, Chills, Drug withdrawal syndrome

Malaise

Pain

Oedema peripheral

 

 

Investigations

 

Weight decreased

Weight increased

 

Injury, poisoning and procedural complications

 

Injuries from accidents

  

1 particularly in persons with epileptic disorder or predisposition to convulsions

2 particularly in patients with history of coronary artery disease

For the active substance oxycodone hydrochloride, the following additional undesirable effects are known:

Due to its pharmacological properties, oxycodone hydrochloride may cause respiratory depression, miosis, bronchial spasm and spasms of nonstriated muscles as well as suppress the cough reflex.

System organ class

MedDRA

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Not known

Infections and infestations

  

Herpes simplex

 

Immune system disorders

   

Anaphylactic responses

Metabolism and nutritional disorders

 

Dehydration

Increased appetite

 

Psychiatric disorders

Altered mood and personality changes

Decreased activity

Psychomotor hyperactivity

Agitation

Perception disturbances (e.g. derealisation)

Reduced libido

Drug dependence

  

Nervous system disorders

 

Concentration impaired

Migraine

Dysgeusia,

Hypertonia,

Involuntary muscle contractions

Hypoaesthesia

Abnormal co-ordination

  

Ear and labyrinth disorders

 

Hearing impaired

  

Vascular disorders

 

Vasodilation

  

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

Dysphonia

  

Gastrointestinal disorders

Hiccups

Dysphagia Ileus

Mouth ulceration

Stomatitis

Melaena,

Gingival bleeding

 

Hepatobiliary disorders

   

Cholestasis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

Dry skin

Urticaria

 

Renal and urinary disorders

Dysuria

   

Reproductive system and breast disorders

   

Amenorrhoea

General disorders and administration site conditions

 

Oedema

Thirst

Drug tolerance

  

Undesirable effects in the treatment of restless legs syndrome

The list below reflects the adverse drug reactions seen with Targinact in a 12-week, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial comprising a total of 150 patients on Targinact and 154 patients on placebo with daily dosages between 10 mg/5 mg and 80 mg/40 mg oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride. Adverse drug reactions associated with Targinact in pain and not observed in RLS study population were added with the frequency of not known.

System organ class

MedDRA

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Not known

Immune system disorders

   

Hypersensitivity

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

 

Decreased appetite up to loss of appetite

  

Psychiatric disorders

 

Insomnia

Depression

Libido decreased

Sleep attacks

Abnormal thinking

Anxiety

Confusion

Nervousness

Restlessness

Euphoric mood

Hallucination

Nightmares

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Somnolence

Dizziness,

Disturbance in attention

Tremor

Paraesthesia

Dysgeusia

Convulsions1

Sedation

Speech disorder

Syncope

Eye disorders

 

Visual impairment

  

Ear and labyrinth disorders

 

Vertigo

  

Cardiac disorders

   

Angina pectoris2

Palpitations

Tachycardia

Vascular disorders

Hot flush

Blood pressure decreased

Blood pressure increased

   

Respiratory thoracic and mediastinal disorders

  

Dyspnoea

Cough

Rhinorrhoea

Respiratory depression

Yawning

Gastrointestinal disorders

Constipation

Nausea

Abdominal pain

Dry mouth

Vomiting

Flatulence

Abdominal

Distention

Diarrhoea

Dyspepsia

Eructation Tooth disorder

Hepatobiliary disorders

 

Hepatic enzymes increased3

 

Biliary colic

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Hyperhidorosis

Pruritus,

Skin reactions

  

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

   

Muscle spasms

Muscle twitching

Myalgia

Reneal and urinary disorders

   

Micturition urgency

Urinary retention

Reproductive systems and breast disorders

   

Erectile dysfunction

General disorders and administration site conditions

Fatigue

Chest pain

Chills

Thirst

Pain

Drug withdrawal syndrome

Oedema peripheral

Malaise

Investigation

   

Weight decreased

Weight increased

Injury, poisoning and procedural complications

   

Injuries from accidents

3 alanine aminotransferase increased, gamma-glutamyl transferease increased

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the MHRA Yellow Card Scheme (www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard).

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms of intoxication

Depending on the history of the patient, an overdose of Targinact may be manifested by symptoms that are either triggered by oxycodone (opioid receptor agonist) or by naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist). Symptoms of oxycodone overdose include miosis, respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor, skeletal muscle flaccidity, bradycardia as well as hypotension. Coma, non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and circulatory failure may occur in more severe cases and may lead to a fatal outcome.

Symptoms of a naloxone overdose alone are unlikely.

Therapy of intoxication

Withdrawal symptoms due to an overdose of naloxone should be treated symptomatically in a closely-supervised environment.

Clinical symptoms suggestive of an oxycodone overdose may be treated by the administration of opioid antagonists (e.g. naloxone hydrochloride 0.4-2 mg intravenously). Administration should be repeated at 2-3 minute intervals, as clinically necessary. It is also possible to apply an infusion of 2 mg naloxone hydrochloride in 500 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose (0.004 mg/ml naloxone). The infusion should be run at a rate aligned to the previously administered bolus doses and to the patient's response.

Consideration may be given to gastric lavage.

Supportive measures (artificial ventilation, oxygen, vasopressors and fluid infusions) should be employed as necessary, to manage the circulatory shock accompanying an overdose. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias may require cardiac massage or defibrillation. Artificial ventilation should be applied if necessary. Fluid and electrolyte metabolism should be maintained.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Analgesics, Opioids, Natural opium alkaloids

ATC code: N02AA55

Mechanism of action

Oxycodone and naloxone have an affinity for kappa, mu and delta opiate receptors in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral organs (e.g. intestine). Oxycodone acts as opioid-receptor agonist at these receptors and binds to the endogenous opioid receptors in the CNS. By contrast, naloxone is a pure antagonist acting on all types of opioid receptors.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Because of the pronounced first-pass metabolism, the bioavailability of naloxone upon oral administration is <3%, therefore a clinically relevant systemic effect is unlikely. Due to the local competitive antagonism of the opioid receptor mediated oxycodone effect by naloxone in the gut, naloxone reduces the bowel function disorders that are typical for opioid treatment.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Opioids can influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal or gonadal axes. Among the changes observed are an increase of prolactin in the serum and a reduced level of cortisol and testosterone in the plasma. Clinical symptoms may occur because of these hormone changes.

Preclinical studies show differing effects of natural opioids on components of the immune system. The clinical significance of these findings is not known. It is not known whether oxycodone, a semi-synthetic opioid, has similar effects on the immune system to natural opioids.

Analgesia

In a 12 weeks parallel group double-blinded study in 322 patients with opioid-induced constipation, patients who were treated with oxycodone hydrochloride-naloxone hydrochloride had on average one extra complete spontaneous (without laxatives) bowel movement in the last week of treatment, compared to patients who continued using similar doses of oxycodone hydrochloride prolonged release tablets (p<0.0001). The use of laxatives in the first four weeks was significantly lower in the oxycodone-naloxone group compared to the oxycodone monotherapy group (31% versus 55%, respectively, p<0.0001). Similar results were shown in a study with 265 non-cancer patients comparing daily doses of oxycodone hydrochloride-naloxone hydrochloride of 60 mg/30 mg to up to 80 mg/40 mg with oxycodone hydrochloride monotherapy in the same dose range.

Restless legs syndrome

In a 12-week double-blind efficacy study, 150 patients with severe to very severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome at randomisation were treated with oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride. Severe syndrome is defined as IRLS score between 21 and 30, and very severe as score between 31 and 40. Patients showed a clinically relevant and a statistically significant improvement in mean IRLS score compared to placebo during the entire treatment period with a decrease in the mean IRLS score of 5.9 points compared to placebo at week 12 (assuming an effect similar to placebo completers for patients who discontinued the study representing a very conservative approach). The onset of efficacy was demonstrated from as early as week 1 of treatment. Similar results were shown for the RLS symptom severity improvement (as measured by the RLS-6-Rating scale), in quality of life as measured by a QoL-RLS questionnaire, in sleep quality (measured by MOS sleep scale), and for the proportion of IRLS score remitters. No subject had a confirmed case of augmentation during the study.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Oxycodone hydrochloride

Absorption

Oxycodone has a high absolute bioavailability of up to 87% following oral administration.

Distribution

Following absorption, oxycodone is distributed throughout the entire body. Approximately 45% is bound to plasma protein. Oxycodone crosses the placenta and may be detected in breast milk.

Biotransformation

Oxycodone is metabolised in the gut and the liver to noroxycodone and oxymorphone and to various glucuronide conjugates. Noroxycodone, oxymorphone and noroxymorphone are produced via the cytochrome P450 system. Quinidine reduces the production of oxymorphone in man without substantially influencing the pharmacodynamics of oxycodone. The contribution of the metabolites to overall pharmacodynamic effect is insignificant.

Elimination

Oxycodone and its metabolites are excreted in both urine and faeces.

Naloxone hydrochloride

Absorption

Following oral administration, naloxone has a very low systemic availability of <3%.

Distribution

Naloxone passes into the placenta. It is not known, whether naloxone also passes into breast milk.

Biotransformation and elimination

After parenteral administration, the plasma half-life is approximately one hour. The duration of action depends upon the dose and route of administration, intramuscular injection producing a more prolonged effect than intravenous doses. It is metabolised in the liver and excreted in the urine. The principal metabolites are naloxone glucuronide, 6β-Naloxol and its glucuronide.

Oxycodone hydrochloride / naloxone hydrochloride combination (Targinact)

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships

The pharmacokinetic characteristics of oxycodone from Targinact is equivalent to those of prolonged-release oxycodone hydrochloride tablets administered together with prolonged-release naloxone hydrochloride tablets.

All dosage strengths of Targinact are interchangeable.

After the oral administration of Targinact in maximum dose to healthy subjects, the plasma concentrations of naloxone are so low that it is not feasible to carry out a pharmacokinetic analysis. To conduct a pharmacokinetic analysis naloxone-3-glucuronide as surrogate marker is used, since its plasma concentration is high enough to measure.

Overall, following ingestion of a high-fat breakfast, the bioavailability and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of oxycodone were increased by an average of 16% and 30% respectively compared to administration in the fasting state. This was evaluated as clinically not relevant, therefore Targinact prolonged-release tablets may be taken with or without food (see section 4.2).

In vitro drug metabolism studies have indicated that the occurrence of clinically relevant interactions involving Targinact is unlikely.

Elderly patients

Oxycodone

For AUC of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 118% (90% C.I.: 103, 135), for elderly compared with younger volunteers. For Cmax of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 114% (90% C.I.: 102, 127). For Cmin of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 128% (90% C.I.: 107, 152).

Naloxone

For AUC of naloxone, on average there was an increase to 182% (90% C.I.: 123, 270), for elderly compared with younger volunteers. For Cmax of naloxone, on average there was an increase to 173% (90% C.I.: 107, 280). For Cmin of naloxone, on average there was an increase to 317% (90% C.I.: 142, 708).

Naloxone-3-glucuronide

For AUC of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was an increase to 128% (90% C.I.: 113, 147), for elderly compared with younger volunteers. For Cmax of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was an increase to 127% (90% C.I.: 112, 144). For Cmin of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was an increase to 125% (90% C.I.: 105, 148).

Patients with impaired hepatic function

Oxycodone

For AUCINF of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 143% (90% C.I : 111, 184), 319% (90% C.I.: 248, 411) and 310% (90% C.I.: 241, 398) for mild, moderate and severe hepatically impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. For Cmax of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 120% (90% C.I.: 99, 144), 201% (90% C.I.: 166, 242) and 191% (90% C.I.: 158, 231) for mild, moderate and severe hepatically impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. For t1/2Z of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 108% (90% C.I.: 70, 146), 176% (90% C.I.: 138, 215) and 183% (90% C.I.: 145, 221) for mild, moderate and severe hepatically impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers.

Naloxone

For AUCt of naloxone, on average there was an increase to 411% (90% C.I.: 152, 1112), 11518% (90% C.I.: 4259, 31149) and 10666% (90% C.I.: 3944, 28847) for mild, moderate and severe hepatically impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. For Cmax of naloxone, on average there was an increase to 193% (90% C.I.: 115, 324), 5292% (90% C.I: 3148, 8896) and 5252% (90% C.I.: 3124, 8830) for mild, moderate and severe hepatically impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. Due to insufficient amount of data available t1/2Z and the corresponding AUCINF of naloxone were not calculated. The bioavailability comparisons for naloxone were therefore based on AUCt values.

Naloxone-3-glucuronide

For AUCINF of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was an increase to 157% (90% C.I.: 89, 279), 128% (90% C.I.: 72, 227) and 125% (90% C.I.: 71, 222) for mild, moderate and severe hepatically impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. For Cmax of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was an increase to 141% (90% C.I.: 100, 197), 118% (90% C.I.: 84, 166) and a decrease to 98% (90% C.I.: 70, 137) for mild, moderate and severe hepatically impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. For t1/2Z of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was an increase to 117% (90% C.I.: 72, 161), a decrease to 77% (90% C.I.: 32, 121) and a decrease to 94% (90% C.I.: 49, 139) for mild, moderate and severe hepatically impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers.

Patients with impaired renal function

Oxycodone

For AUCINF of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 153% (90% C.I.: 130, 182), 166% (90% C.I.: 140, 196) and 224% (90% C.I.: 190, 266) for mild, moderate and severe renally impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. For Cmax of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 110% (90% C.I.: 94, 129), 135% (90% C.I.: 115, 159) and 167% (90% C.I.: 142, 196) for mild, moderate and severe renally impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. For t1/2Z of oxycodone, on average there was an increase to 149%, 123% and 142% for mild, moderate and severe renally impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers.

Naloxone

For AUCt of naloxone, on average there was an increase to 2850% (90% C.I.: 369, 22042), 3910% (90% C.I.: 506, 30243) and 7612% (90% C.I.: 984, 58871) for mild, moderate and severe renally impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. For Cmax of naloxone, on average there was an increase to 1076% (90% C.l.: 154, 7502), 858% (90% C.I.: 123, 5981) and 1675% (90% C.I.: 240, 11676) for mild, moderate and severe renally impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. Due to insufficient amount of data available t1/2Z and the corresponding AUCINF of naloxone were not calculated. The bioavailability comparisons for naloxone were therefore based on AUCt values. The ratios may have been influenced by the inability to fully characterize the naloxone plasma profiles for the healthy subjects.

Naloxone-3-glucuronide

For AUCINF of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was an increase to 220% (90% C.I.: 148, 327), 370% (90% C.I.: 249, 550) and 525% (90% C.I.: 354, 781) for mild, moderate and severe renally impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy subjects. For Cmax of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was an increase to 148% (90% C.I.: 110, 197), 202% (90% C.I.: 151, 271) and 239% (90% C.I.: 179, 320) for mild, moderate and severe renally impaired subjects, respectively, compared with healthy subjects. For t1/2Z of naloxone-3-glucuronide, on average there was no significant change between the renally impaired subjects and the healthy subjects.

Abuse

To avoid damage to the prolonged-release properties of the tablets, Targinact must not be broken, crushed or chewed, as this leads to a rapid release of the active substances. In addition, naloxone has a slower elimination rate when administered intranasally. Both properties mean that abuse of Targinact will not have the effect intended. In oxycodone-dependent rats, the intravenous administration of oxycodone hydrochloride / naloxone hydrochloride at a ratio of 2:1 resulted in withdrawal symptoms.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

There are no data from studies on reproductive toxicity of the combination of oxycodone and naloxone.

Studies with the single components showed that oyxcodone had no effect on fertility and early embryonic development in male and female rats in doses of up to 8 mg/kg body weight and induced no malformations in rats in doses of up to 8 mg/kg and in rabbits in doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight. However, in rabbits, when individual foetuses were used in statistical evaluation, a dose related increase in developmental variations was observed (increased incidences of 27 presacral vertebrae, extra pairs of ribs). When these parameters were statistically evaluated using litters, only the incidence of 27 presacral vertebrae was increased and only in the 125 mg/kg group, a dose level that produced severe pharmacotoxic effects in the pregnant animals. In a study on pre- and postnatal development in rats F1 body weights were lower at 6 mg/kg/d when compared to body weights of the control group at doses which reduced maternal weight and food intake (NOAEL 2 mg/kg body weight). There were neither effects on physical, reflexological, and sensory developmental parameters nor on behavioural and reproductive indices. The standard oral reproduction toxicity studies with naloxone show that at high oral doses naloxone was not teratogenic and/or embryo/foetotoxic, and does not affect perinatal/postnatal development. At very high doses (800 mg/kg/day) naloxone produced increased pup deaths in the immediate post-partum period at dosages that produced significant toxicity in maternal rats (e.g. body weight loss, convulsions). However, in surviving pups, no effects on development or behaviour were observed.

Long-term carcinogenicity studies with oxycodone/naloxone in combination or oxycodone as a single entity have not been performed. For naloxone, a 24-months oral carcinogenicity study was performed in rats with naloxone doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. The results indicate that naloxone is not carcinogenic under these conditions.

Oxycodone and naloxone as single entities show a clastogenic potential in in vitro assays. No similar effects were observed, however, under in vivo conditions, even at toxic doses. The results indicate that the mutagenic risk of Targinact to humans at therapeutic concentrations may be ruled out with adequate certainty.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Tablet core:

Ethylcellulose,

Stearyl alcohol,

Lactose monohydrate,

Talc,

Magnesium stearate

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg: Hydroxypropylcellulose

Targinact 10 mg/5 mg, 20 mg/10 mg, 40 mg/20 mg: Povidone K30

Tablet coat:

Poly(vinylalcohol),

Titanium dioxide (E171),

Macrogol 3350,

Talc

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg: Brilliant Blue FCF aluminium lake (E133)

Targinact 20 mg/10 mg: Iron oxide red (E172)

Targinact 40 mg/20 mg: Iron oxide yellow (E172)

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

Polyvinylchloride (PVC)/aluminium foil blisters: 3 years

HDPE bottles: 2 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg

Store in the original package in order to protect from light.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Polyvinylchloride/aluminium foil blisters containing 28 or 56 prolonged release tablets.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited

Cambridge Science Park

Milton Road

Cambridge

CB4 0GW

UK

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 16950/0157, 0158, 0161, 0162

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation:

Targinact 10 mg/5 mg, 20 mg/10 mg: 29 December 2008

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg, 40 mg/20 mg: 23 July 2009

Date of last Renewal

Targinact 10 mg/5 mg, 20 mg/10 mg: 31 May 2011

Targinact 5 mg/2.5 mg, 40 mg/20 mg: 10 December 2013

10. Date of revision of the text

11/09/2015

11. Legal category

CD (Sch 2), POM

® TARGIN, NAPP and the NAPP logo are registered trade marks.

© 2009 - 2015 Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited

Company contact details

Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited

Company image
Address

Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, CB4 0GW

Fax

+44 (0)1223 424 441

Telephone

+44 (0)1223 424 444

Medical Information Fax

+44 (0)1223 424 912

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Active ingredients

naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate, oxycodone hydrochloride

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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