Stable coronary artery disease:If an episode of unstable angina pectoris (major or not) occurs during the first month of perindopril treatment, a careful appraisal of the benefit/risk should be performed before treatment continuation.
Hypotension:ACE inhibitors may cause a fall in blood pressure. Symptomatic hypotension is seen rarely in uncomplicated hypertensive patients and is more likely to occur in patients who have been volume depleted e.g. by diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhoea or vomiting, or who have severe renin-dependent hypertension (see sections 4.5 and 4.8). In patients with symptomatic heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, symptomatic hypotension has been observed. This is most likely to occur in those patients with more severe degrees of heart failure, as reflected by the use of high doses of loop diuretics, hyponatraemia or functional renal impairment. In patients at increased risk of symptomatic hypotension, initiation of therapy and dose adjustment should be closely monitored (see 4.2 and 4.8). Similar considerations apply to patients with ischaemic heart or cerebrovascular disease in whom an excessive fall in blood pressure could result in a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident.If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, should receive an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses, which can be given usually without difficulty once the blood pressure has increased after volume expansion.In some patients with congestive heart failure who have normal or low blood pressure, additional lowering of systemic blood pressure may occur with Perindopril erbumine. This effect is anticipated and is usually not a reason to discontinue treatment. If hypotension becomes symptomatic, a reduction of dose or discontinuation of Perindopril tert-butylamine may be necessary.
Aortic and mitral valve stenosis/hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:As with other ACE inhibitors, Perindopril tert-butylamine should be given with caution to patients with mitral valve stenosis and obstruction in the outflow of the left ventricle such as aortic stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Renal impairment:In cases of renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 60 ml/min) the initial perindopril dosage should be adjusted according to the patient's creatinine clearance (see 4.2) and then as a function of the patient's response to treatment. Routine monitoring of potassium and creatinine are part of normal medical practice for these patients (see 4.8).In patients with symptomatic heart failure, hypotension following the initiation of therapy with ACE inhibitors may lead to some further impairment in renal function. Acute renal failure, usually reversible, has been reported in this situation.In some patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a solitary kidney, who have been treated with ACE inhibitors, increases in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, have been seen. This is especially likely in patients with renal insufficiency. If renovascular hypertension is also present there is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency. In these patients, treatment should be started under close medical supervision with low doses and careful dose titration. Since treatment with diuretics may be a contributory factor to the above, they should be discontinued and renal function should be monitored during the first weeks of Perindopril tert-butylamine therapy.Some hypertensive patients with no apparent pre-existing renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when Perindopril tert-butylamine has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. This is more likely to occur in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Dosage reduction and/or discontinuation of the diuretic and/or Perindopril tert-butylamine may be required.
Haemodialysis patients:Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialysed with high flux membranes, and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. In these patients consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or different class of antihypertensive agent.
Kidney transplantation:There is no experience regarding the administration of Perindopril tert-butylamine in patients with a recent kidney transplantation.
Hypersensitivity/Angioedema:Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, mucous membranes, tongue, glottis and/or larynx has been reported rarely in patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including Perindopril tert-butylamine (see 4.8). This may occur at any time during therapy. In such cases, Perindopril tert-butylamine should promptly be discontinued and appropriate monitoring should be initiated and continued until complete resolution of symptoms has occurred. In those instances where swelling was confined to the face and lips the condition generally resolved without treatment, although antihistamines have been useful in relieving symptoms.Angioedema associated with laryngeal oedema may be fatal. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx, likely to cause airway obstruction, emergency therapy should be administered promptly. This may include the administration of adrenaline and/or the maintenance of a patent airway. The patient should be under close medical supervision until complete and sustained resolution of symptoms has occurred.
Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor (see 4.3).Intestinal angioedema has been reported rarely in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan, or ultrasound or at surgery and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.
Anaphylactoid reactions during low-density lipoproteins (LDL) apheresis:Rarely, patients receiving ACE inhibitors during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis with dextran sulphate have experienced life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. These reactions were avoided by temporarily withholding ACE inhibitor therapy prior to each apheresis.
Anaphylactic reactions during desensitisation:Patients receiving ACE inhibitors during desensitisation treatment (e.g. hymenoptera venom) have experienced anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions have been avoided when the ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.
Hepatic failure:Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up (see 4.8).
Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis/Thrombocytopenia/Anaemia:Neutropenia/agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia and anaemia have been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. In patients with normal renal function and no other complicating factors, neutropenia occurs rarely. Sporadic occurrences of haemolytic anaemia have been reported on patients with congenital G6-PD deficiency. Perindopril should be used with extreme caution in patients with collagen vascular disease, immunosuppressant therapy, treatment with allopurinol or procainamide, or a combination of these complicating factors, especially if there is pre-existing impaired renal function. Some of these patients developed serious infections, which in a few instances did not respond to intensive antibiotic therapy. If perindopril is used in such patients, periodic monitoring of white blood cell counts is advised and patients should be instructed to report any sign of infection.
Race:ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in black patients than in non-black patients.As with other ACE inhibitors, perindopril may be less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non-blacks, possibly because of a higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population.
Cough:Cough has been reported with the use of ACE inhibitors. Characteristically, the cough is nonproductive, persistent and resolves after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of cough.
Surgery/Anaesthesia:In patients undergoing major surgery or during anaesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, Perindopril tert-butylamine may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. The treatment should be discontinued one day prior to the surgery. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.
Hyperkalaemia:Elevations in serum potassium have been observed in some patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including perindopril. Patients at risk for the development of hyperkalaemia include those with renal insufficiency, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or those using concomitant potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes; or those patients taking other drugs associated with increases in serum potassium (e.g. heparin). If concomitant use of the abovementioned agents is deemed appropriate, regular monitoring of serum potassium is recommended.
Diabetic patients:In diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin, glycaemic control should be closely monitored during the first month of treatment with an ACE inhibitor (see 4.5).
Lithium:The combination of lithium and perindopril is generally not recommended (see 4.5).
Potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes:The combination of perindopril and potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements or potassiumcontaining salt substitutes is generally not recommended (see 4.5).
Pregnancy:ACE inhibitors should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued ACE inhibitor therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.(see sections 4.3 and 4.6).