RespiratoryIf any of the following reactions occur the drug should be discontinued.Acute pulmonary reactions usually occur within the first week of treatment and are reversible with cessation of therapy. Acute pulmonary reactions are commonly manifested by fever, chills, cough, chest pain, dyspnoea, pulmonary infiltration with consolidation or pleural effusion on chest x-ray, and eosinophilia. In subacute pulmonary reactions, fever and eosinophilia occur less often than in the acute form.Chronic pulmonary reactions occur rarely in patients who have received continuous therapy for six months or longer and are more common in elderly patients. Changes in ECG have occurred, associated with pulmonary reactions. Minor symptoms such as fever, chills, cough and dyspnoea may be significant. Collapse and cyanosis have been reported rarely. The severity of chronic pulmonary reactions and their degree of resolution appear to be related to the duration of therapy after the first clinical signs appear. It is important to recognise symptoms as early as possible. Pulmonary function may be impaired permanently, even after cessation of therapy.
HepaticHepatic reactions including cholestatic jaundice and chronic active hepatitis occur rarely.Fatalities have been reported. Cholestatic jaundice is generally associated with short-term therapy (usually up to two weeks). Chronic active hepatitis, occasionally leading to hepatic necrosis is generally associated with long-term therapy (usually after six months). The onset may be insidious. Treatment should be stopped at the first sign of hepatotoxicity.
NeurologicalPeripheral neuropathy (including optical neuritis) with symptoms of sensory as well as motor involvement, which may become severe or irreversible, has been reported infrequently. Less frequent reactions of unknown causal relationship are depression, euphoria, confusion, psychotic reactions, nystagmus, vertigo, dizziness, asthenia, headache and drowsiness. Treatment should be stopped at the first sign of neurological involvement.
GastrointestinalNausea and anorexia have been reported. Emesis, abdominal pain and diarrhoea are less common gastrointestinal reactions.
HaematologicalAgranulocytosis, leucopenia, granulocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and megaloblastic anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency anaemia, and eosinophilia have been reported. Aplastic anaemia has been reported rarely. Cessation of therapy has generally returned the blood picture to normal.
HypersensitivityAllergic skin reactions manifesting as angioneurotic oedema, maculopapular, erythematous or eczematous eruptions, urticaria, and pruritus have occurred.Lupus-like syndrome associated with pulmonary reaction to Nitrofurantoin has been reported.Exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome) have been reported rarely.Other hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis, sialadenitis, pancreatitis, drug fever, and arthralgia.
MiscellaneousTransient alopecia and benign intracranial hypertension. As with other antimicrobial agents, superinfections by fungi or resistant organisms such as Pseudomonas may occur. However, these are limited to the genito-urinary tract because suppression of normal bacterial flora does not occur elsewhere in the body Reporting of suspected adverse reactions:Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard