- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
Excipient(s) with known effect:Each tablet contains 99 mg lactose (as monohydrate).For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
PosologyThe recommended dose of Onglyza is 5 mg once daily. When Onglyza is used in combination with insulin or a sulphonylurea, a lower dose of the insulin or sulphonylurea may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see section 4.4). The safety and efficacy of saxagliptin as triple oral therapy in combination with metformin and a thiazolidinedione has not been established.
Elderly patients (≥ 65 years)No dose adjustment is recommended based solely on age (see also sections 5.1 and 5.2).
Renal impairmentNo dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild renal impairment. The dose should be reduced to 2.5 mg once daily in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment.Onglyza is not recommended for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis (see section 4.4).Because the dose should be limited to 2.5 mg based upon renal function, assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiation of treatment, and, in keeping with routine care, renal assessment should be done periodically thereafter (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).
Hepatic impairmentNo dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (see section 5.2). Saxagliptin should be used with caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, and is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.4).
Paediatric populationThe safety and efficacy of Onglyza in children aged birth to < 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administrationThe tablets can be taken with or without a meal at any time of the day. Tablets must not be split or cut. If a dose is missed, it should be taken as soon as the patient remembers. A double dose should not be taken on the same day.
GeneralOnglyza should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Onglyza is not a substitute for insulin in insulin-requiring patients.
Acute PancreatitisUse of DPP4 inhibitors has been associated with a risk of developing acute pancreatitis. Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptoms of acute pancreatitis; persistent, severe abdominal pain. If pancreatitis is suspected, Onglyza should be discontinued; if acute pancreatitis is confirmed, Onglyza should not be restarted. Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of pancreatitis.In post-marketing experience of saxagliptin, there have been spontaneously reported adverse reactions of acute pancreatitis.
Renal impairmentA single dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment. Saxagliptin is not recommended for use in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis. Assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiation of Onglyza, and, in keeping with routine care, renal assessment should be done periodically thereafter (see sections 4.2 and 5.2).
Hepatic impairmentSaxagliptin should be used with caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, and is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.2).
Use with medicinal products known to cause hypoglycaemiaSulphonylureas and insulin are known to cause hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of sulphonylurea or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with Onglyza.
Hypersensitivity reactionsOnglyza must not be used in patients who have had any serious hypersensitivity reaction to a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor (see section 4.3).During postmarketing experience, including spontaneous reports and clinical trials, the following adverse reactions have been reported with the use of saxagliptin: serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock, and angioedema. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction to saxagliptin is suspected, Onglyza should be discontinued, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes (see section 4.8).
Skin disordersUlcerative and necrotic skin lesions have been reported in extremities of monkeys in non-clinical toxicology studies (see section 5.3). Skin lesions were not observed at an increased incidence in clinical trials. Postmarketing reports of rash have been described in the DPP4 inhibitor class. Rash is also noted as an adverse reaction for Onglyza (see section 4.8). Therefore, in keeping with routine care of the diabetic patient, monitoring for skin disorders, such as blistering, ulceration or rash, is recommended.
Cardiac failureExperience in NYHA class III-IV is still limited. Therefore, caution is warranted in these patients. In the SAVOR trial a small increase in the rate for hospitalisation for heart failure was observed in the saxagliptin treated patients compared to placebo (see section 5.1). Additional analysis did not indicate a differential effect among NYHA classes.
Immunocompromised patientsImmunocompromised patients, such as patients who have undergone organ transplantation or patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency syndrome, have not been studied in the Onglyza clinical program. Therefore, the efficacy and safety profile of saxagliptin in these patients has not been established.
Use with potent CYP 3A4 inducersUsing CYP3A4 inducers like carbamazepine, dexamethasone, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and rifampicin may reduce the glycaemic lowering effect of Onglyza (see section 4.5).
LactoseThe tablets contain lactose monohydrate. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
PregnancyThe use of saxagliptin has not been studied in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at high doses (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Onglyza should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.
Breast-feedingIt is unknown whether saxagliptin is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown excretion of saxagliptin and/or metabolite in milk. A risk to the suckling child cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy to the woman.
FertilityThe effect of saxagliptin on fertility in humans has not been studied. Effects on fertility were observed in male and female rats at high doses producing overt signs of toxicity (see section 5.3).
Summary of the safety profileThe most commonly reported adverse reactions in placebo-controlled trials reported in ≥ 5% of patients treated with Onglyza 5 mg and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo are upper respiratory tract infection (7.7%), urinary tract infection (6.8%) and headache (6.5%).There were 4,148 patients with type 2 diabetes, including 3,021 patients treated with Onglyza, randomised in six double-blind, controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of saxagliptin on glycaemic control. In randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trials (including developmental and postmarketing experience), over 17,000 patients with type 2 diabetes have been treated with Onglyza.In a pooled analysis of 1,681 patients with type 2 diabetes including 882 patients treated with Onglyza 5 mg, randomised in five double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of saxagliptin on glycaemic control, the overall incidence of adverse events in patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg was similar to placebo. Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse events was higher in patients who received saxagliptin 5 mg as compared to placebo (3.3% as compared to 1.8%).
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsAdverse reactions reported in ≥ 5% of patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo or that were reported in ≥ 2% of patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg and ≥1 % more frequently compared to placebo from the pooled analysis of five studies of glycaemic control, plus an additional active-controlled study of initial combination with metformin are shown in Table 1.The adverse reactions are listed by system organ class and absolute frequency. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to 1/1,000), or very rare (< 1/10,000), or not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
Table 1 Frequency of adverse reactions by system organ class from clinical trials and postmarketing experience
|System organ classAdverse reaction||Frequency of adverse reactions by treatment regimen|
|Saxagliptin monotherapy||Saxagliptin with metformin1||Saxagliptin with a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide)||Saxagliptin with a thia-zolidinedione||Saxagliptin as add-on to metformin plus a sulphonylurea|
|Infections and infestations|
|Upper respiratory infection||Common||Common||Common||Common|
|Urinary tract infection||Common||Common||Common||Common|
|Immune system disorders|
|Anaphylactic reactions including anaphylactic shock||Rare||Rare||Rare||Rare|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Nervous system disorders|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
SAVOR trial resultsThe SAVOR trial included 8240 patients treated with Onglyza 5 mg or 2.5 mg once daily and 8173 patients on placebo. The overall incidence of adverse events in patients treated with Onglyza in this trial was similar to placebo (72.5% versus 72.2%, respectively).The incidence of adjudicated pancreatitis events was 0.3% in both Onglyza-treated patients and placebo-treated patients in the intent-to-treat population.The incidence of hypersensitivity reactions was 1.1% in both Onglyza-treated patients and placebo-treated patients.The overall incidence of reported hypoglycaemia (recorded in daily patient diaries) was 17.1% in subjects treated with Onglyza and 14.8% among patients treated with placebo. The percent of subjects with reported on-treatment events of major hypoglycemia (defined as an event that required assistance of another person) was higher in the saxagliptin group than in the placebo group (2.1% and 1.6%, respectively) The increased risk of overall hypoglycemia and major hypoglycemia observed in the saxagliptin-treated group occurred primarily in subjects treated with SU at baseline and not in subjects on insulin or metformin monotherapy at baseline. The increased risk of overall and major hypoglycemia was primarily observed in subjects with A1C < 7% at baseline.Decreased lymphocyte counts were reported in 0.5% of Onglyza treated patients and 0.4% of placebo-treated patients.Hospitalisation for heart failure, occurred at a greater rate in the saxagliptin group (3.5%) compared with the placebo group (2.8%), with nominal statistical significance favouring placebo [HR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.07, 1.51); P = 0.007]. See also section 5.1.
Description of selected adverse reactions
HypoglycaemiaAdverse reactions of hypoglycaemia were based on all reports of hypoglycaemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required.When used as add-on combination therapy with metformin plus sulphonylurea, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 10.1 % for Onglyza 5 mg and 6.3% for placebo.When used as add-on to insulin (with or without metformin), the overall incidence of reported hypoglycaemia was 18.4% for Onglyza 5 mg and 19.9% for placebo.
InvestigationsAcross clinical studies, the incidence of laboratory adverse events was similar in patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg compared to patients treated with placebo. A small decrease in absolute lymphocyte count was observed. From a baseline mean absolute lymphocyte count of approximately 2,200 cells/μl, a mean decrease of approximately 100 cells/μl relative to placebo was observed in the placebo-controlled-pooled analysis. Mean absolute lymphocyte counts remained stable with daily dosing up to 102 weeks in duration. The decreases in lymphocyte count were not associated with clinically relevant adverse reactions. The clinical significance of this decrease in lymphocyte count relative to placebo is not known.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:
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Mechanism of action and pharmacodynamic effectsSaxagliptin is a highly potent (Ki: 1.3 nM), selective, reversible, competitive, DPP4 inhibitor. In patients with type 2 diabetes, administration of saxagliptin led to inhibition of DPP4 enzyme activity for a 24-hour period. After an oral glucose load, this DPP4 inhibition resulted in a 2 -to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of active incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), decreased glucagon concentrations and increased glucose-dependent beta-cell responsiveness, which resulted in higher insulin and C-peptide concentrations. The rise in insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and the decrease in glucagon from pancreatic alpha-cells were associated with lower fasting glucose concentrations and reduced glucose excursion following an oral glucose load or a meal. Saxagliptin improves glycaemic control by reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Clinical efficacy and safetyIn randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trials (including developmental and postmarketing experience), over 17,000 patients with type 2 diabetes have been treated with saxagliptin.
Glycaemic controlA total of 4,148 patients with type 2 diabetes, including 3,021 patients treated with, saxagliptin were randomised in 6 double-blind, controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of saxagliptin on glycaemic control. Treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg once daily produced clinically relevant and statistically significant improvements in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial glucose (PPG) compared to placebo in monotherapy, in combination with metformin (initial or add-on therapy), in combination with a sulphonylurea, and in combination with a thiazolidinedione (see Table 2). There was also no apparent change in body weight associated with saxagliptin. Reductions in HbA1c were seen across subgroups including gender, age, race, and baseline body mass index (BMI) and higher baseline HbA1c was associated with a greater adjusted mean change from baseline with saxagliptin.
Saxagliptin as monotherapyTwo double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 24-week duration were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. In both studies, once-daily treatment with saxagliptin provided significant improvements in HbA1c (see Table 2). The findings of these studies were confirmed with two subsequent 24-week regional (Asian) monotherapy studies comparing saxagliptin 5 mg with placebo.
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin therapyAn add-on to metformin placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with metformin in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 7-10%) on metformin alone. Saxagliptin (n=186) provided significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG compared to placebo (n=175). Improvements in HbA1c, PPG, and FPG following treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin were sustained up to Week 102. The HbA1c change for saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin (n=31) compared to placebo plus metformin (n=15) was -0.8% at Week 102.
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin compared with SU add-on to metforminA 52-week study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin (428 patients) compared with a sulphonylurea (glipizide, 5 mg titrated as needed to 20 mg, mean dose of 15 mg) in combination with metformin (430 patients) in 858 patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 6.5%-10%) on metformin alone. The mean metformin dose was approximately 1900 mg in each treatment group. After 52 weeks, the saxagliptin and glipizide groups had similar mean reductions from baseline in HbA1c in the per-protocol analysis (-0.7% vs. 0.8%, respectively, mean baseline HbA1c of 7.5% for both groups). The intent-to-treat analysis showed consistent results. The reduction in FPG was slightly less in the saxagliptin-group and there were more discontinuations (3.5% vs. 1.2%) due to lack of efficacy based on FPG criteria during the first 24 weeks of the study. Saxagliptin also resulted in a significantly lower proportion of patients with hypoglycaemia, 3% (19 events in 13 subjects) vs. 36.3% (750 events in 156 patients) for glipizide. Patients treated with saxagliptin exhibited a significant decrease from baseline in body weight compared to a weight gain in patients administered glipizide (-1.1 vs. +1.1 kg).
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin compared with sitagliptin add-on to metforminAn 18-week study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin (403 patients), compared with sitagliptin 100 mg in combination with metformin (398 patients) in 801 patients with inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone. After 18 weeks, saxagliptin was non-inferior to sitagliptin in mean reduction from baseline in HbA1c in both the per-protocol and the full analysis sets. The reductions from baseline in HbA1c respectively for saxagliptin and sitagliptin in the primary per-protocol analysis were -0.5% (mean and median) and -0.6% (mean and median). In the confirmatory full analysis set, mean reductions were -0.4% and -0.6% respectively for saxagliptin and sitagliptin, with median reductions of -0.5% for both groups.
Saxagliptin in combination with metformin as initial therapyA 24-week study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin as initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 8-12%). Initial therapy with the combination of saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin (n=306) provided significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG compared to with either saxagliptin (n=317) or metformin alone (n=313) as initial therapy. Reductions in HbA1c from baseline to Week 24 were observed in all evaluated subgroups defined by baseline HbA1c, with greater reductions observed in patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥10% (see Table 2). Improvements in HbA1c, PPG and FPG following initial therapy with saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin were sustained up to Week 76. The HbA1c change for saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin (n=177) compared to metformin plus placebo (n=147) was -0.5% at Week 76.
Saxagliptin add-on to glibenclamide therapyAn add-on placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with glibenclamide in patients with inadequate glycaemic control at enrolment (HbA1c 7.5-10%) on a sub-maximal dose of glibenclamide alone. Saxagliptin in combination with a fixed, intermediate dose of a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide 7.5 mg) was compared to titration to a higher dose of glibenclamide (approximately 92% of patients in the placebo plus glibenclamide group were up-titrated to a final total daily dose of 15 mg). Saxagliptin (n=250) provided significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG compared to titration to a higher dose of glibenclamide (n=264). Improvements in HbA1c and PPG following treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg were sustained up to Week 76. The HbA1c change for saxagliptin 5 mg (n=56) compared to uptitrated glibenclamide plus placebo (n=27) was -0.7% at Week 76.
Saxagliptin add-on combination therapy with insulin (with or without metformin)A total of 455 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with a stable dose of insulin (baseline mean: 54.2 Units) in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.5% and ≤ 11%) on insulin alone (n=141) or on insulin in combination with a stable dose of metformin (n=314). Saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to insulin with or without metformin provided significant improvements after 24 weeks in HbA1c and PPG compared with placebo add-on to insulin with or without metformin. Similar HbA1c reductions versus placebo were achieved for patients receiving saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to insulin regardless of metformin use (−0.4% for both subgroups). Improvements from baseline HbA1c were sustained in the saxagliptin add-on to insulin group compared to the placebo add-on to insulin group with or without metformin at Week 52. The HbA1c change for the saxagliptin group (n=244) compared to placebo (n=124) was -0.4% at Week 52.
Saxagliptin add-on to thiazolidinedione therapyA placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with a thiazolidinedione (TZD) in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 7-10.5%) on TZD alone. Saxagliptin (n=183) provided significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG compared to placebo (n=180). Improvements in HbA1c, PPG and FPG following treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg were sustained up to Week 76. The HbA1c change for saxagliptin 5 mg (n=82) compared to TZD plus placebo (n=53) was -0.9% at Week 76.
Saxagliptin add-on combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureaA total of 257 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin (5 mg once daily) in combination with metformin plus sulphonylurea (SU) in patients with inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7% and ≤ 10%). Saxagliptin (n=127) provided significant improvements in HbA1c and PPG compared with the placebo (n=128). The HbA1c change for saxagliptin compared to placebo was -0.7% at Week 24.
Patients with renal impairmentA 12 week, multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted to evaluate the treatment effect of saxagliptin 2.5 mg once daily compared with placebo in 170 patients (85 patients on saxagliptin and 85 on placebo) with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0-11%) and renal impairment (moderate [n=90]; severe [n=41]; or ESRD [n=39]). In this study, 98.2% of the patients received other antihyperglycaemic treatments (75.3% on insulin and 31.2% on oral antihyperglycaemics; some received both). Saxagliptin significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo; the HbA1c change for saxagliptin was -0.9% at Week 12 (HbA1c change of -0.4% for placebo). Improvements in HbA1c following treatment with saxagliptin 2.5 mg were sustained up to Week 52, however the number of patients who completed 52 weeks without modification of other antihyperglycaemic treatments was low (26 subjects in the saxagliptin group versus 34 subjects in the placebo group). The incidence of confirmed hypoglycaemic events was somewhat higher in the saxagliptin group (9.4%) versus placebo group (4.7%) although the number of subjects with any hypoglycaemic event did not differ between the treatment groups. There was no adverse effect on renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate or CrCL at Week 12 and Week 52.
Table 2 Key efficacy results of Onglyza 5 mg per day in placebo-controlled monotherapy trials and in add-on combination therapy trials
|Mean baseline HbA1c (%)||Mean change2 from baseline HbA1c (%) at Week 24||Placebo-corrected mean change in HbA1c (%) at Week 24 (95% CI)|
|• Study CV181011 (n=103)||8.0||-0.5||-0.6 (-0.9, -0.4)3|
|• Study CV181038 (n=69)||7.9||-0.7 (morning)||-0.4 (-0.7, -0.1) 4|
|(n=70)||7.9||-0.6 (evening)||-0.4 (-0.6, -0.1) 5|
|• Study CV181014: add-on to metformin (n=186)||8.1||-0.7||-0.8 (-1.0, -0.6)3|
|• Study CV181040: add-on to SU1 (n=250)||8.5||-0.6||-0.7 (-0.9, -0.6)3|
|• Study D1680L00006: add-on to metformin plus SU (n=257)||8.4||-0.7||-0.7 (-0.9, -0.5) 3|
|• Study CV181013: add-on to TZD (n=183)||8.4||-0.9||-0.6 (-0.8, -0.4)3|
|• Study CV181039: initial combination with metformin6 Overall population (n=306) Baseline HbA1c ≥10% stratum (n=107) • Study CV181057: add-on to insulin (+/-metformin) Overall population (n=300)|
-0.5 (-0.7, -0.4) 7-0.6 (-0.9, -0.3) 8
-0.4 (-0.6, -0.2)3
Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus- Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (SAVOR) StudySAVOR was a CV outcome trial in 16,492 patients with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% and < 12% (12959 with established CV disease; 3533 with multiple risk factors only) who were randomised to saxagliptin (n=8280) or placebo (n=8212) added to regional standards of care for HbA1c and CV risk factors. The study population included those ≥ 65 years (n=8561) and ≥ 75 years (n=2330), with normal or mild renal impairment (n=13,916) as well as moderate (n=2240) or severe (n=336) renal impairment. The primary safety (noninferiority) and efficacy (superiority) endpoint was a composite endpoint consisting of the time-to-first occurrence of any of the following major adverse CV events (MACE): CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal ischemic stroke.After a mean follow up of 2 years, the trial met its primary safety endpoint demonstrating saxagliptin does not increase the cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to placebo when added to current background therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was not met.
Table 3: Primary and Secondary Clinical Endpoints by Treatment Group in the SAVOR Study*
|Endpoint||Saxagliptin (N=8280)||Placebo (N=8212)|| |
HazardRatio (95% CI)
|Subjects with events n (%)||Event rate per 100 patient-yrs||Subjects with events n (%)||Event rate per 100 patient-yrs|
|Primary composite endpoint: MACE||613 (7.4)||3.76||609 (7.4)||3.77||1.00 (0.89, 1.12),§, #|
|Secondary composite endpoint: MACE plus||1059 (12.8)||6.72||1034 (12.6)||6.60||1.02 (0.94, 1.11)¶|
|All-cause mortality||420 (5.1)||2.50||378 (4.6)||2.26||1.11 (0.96, 1.27)¶|
Elderly populationIn the SAVOR study subgroups over 65 and over 75 years of age, efficacy and safety was consistent with the overall study population. GENERATION was a 52-week glycaemic control study in 720 elderly patients, the mean age was 72.6 years; 433 subjects (60.1%) were < 75 years of age, and 287 subjects (39.9%) were ≥ 75 years of age. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c < 7% without confirmed or severe hypoglycaemia. There appeared to be no difference in percentage responders: saxagliptin 37.9% (saxagliptin) and 38.2% (glimepiride) achieved the primary endpoint. A lower proportion of patients in the saxagliptin group (44.7%) compared to the glimepiride group (54.7%) achieved an HbA1c target of 7.0%. A lower proportion of patients in the saxagliptin group (1.1%) compared to the glimepiride group (15.3%), experienced a confirmed or severe hypoglycaemic event.
AbsorptionSaxagliptin was rapidly absorbed after oral administration in the fasted state, with maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of saxagliptin and its major metabolite attained within 2 and 4 hours (Tmax), respectively. The Cmax and AUC values of saxagliptin and its major metabolite increased proportionally with the increment in the saxagliptin dose, and this dose-proportionality was observed in doses up to 400 mg. Following a 5 mg single oral dose of saxagliptin to healthy subjects, the mean plasma AUC values for saxagliptin and its major metabolite were 78 ng·h/ml and 214 ng·h/ml, respectively. The corresponding plasma Cmax values were 24 ng/ml and 47 ng/ml, respectively. The intra-subject coefficients of variation for saxagliptin Cmax and AUC were less than 12%. The inhibition of plasma DPP4 activity by saxagliptin for at least 24 hours after oral administration of saxagliptin is due to high potency, high affinity, and extended binding to the active site.
Interaction with foodFood had relatively modest effects on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin in healthy subjects. Administration with food (a high-fat meal) resulted in no change in saxagliptin Cmax and a 27% increase in AUC compared with the fasted state. The time for saxagliptin to reach Cmax (Tmax) was increased by approximately 0.5 hours with food compared with the fasted state. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
DistributionThe in vitro protein binding of saxagliptin and its major metabolite in human serum is negligible. Thus, changes in blood protein levels in various disease states (e.g., renal or hepatic impairment) are not expected to alter the disposition of saxagliptin.
BiotransformationThe biotransformation of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5). The major metabolite of saxagliptin is also a selective, reversible, competitive DPP4 inhibitor, half as potent as saxagliptin.
EliminationThe mean plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) values for saxagliptin and its major metabolite are 2.5 hours and 3.1 hours respectively, and the mean t1/2 value for plasma DPP4 inhibition was 26.9 hours. Saxagliptin is eliminated by both renal and hepatic pathways. Following a single 50 mg dose of 14C-saxagliptin, 24%, 36%, and 75% of the dose was excreted in the urine as saxagliptin, its major metabolite, and total radioactivity respectively. The average renal clearance of saxagliptin (230 ml/min) was greater than the average estimated glomerular filtration rate (120 ml/min), suggesting some active renal excretion. For the major metabolite, renal clearance values were comparable to estimated glomerular filtration rate. A total of 22% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in faeces representing the fraction of the saxagliptin dose excreted in bile and/or unabsorbed medicinal product from the gastrointestinal tract.
LinearityThe Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin and its major metabolite increased proportionally to the saxagliptin dose. No appreciable accumulation of either saxagliptin or its major metabolite was observed with repeated once-daily dosing at any dose level. No dose- and time-dependence was observed in the clearance of saxagliptin and its major metabolite over 14 days of once-daily dosing with saxagliptin at doses ranging from 2.5 mg to 400 mg.
Renal impairmentA single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 10 mg oral dose of saxagliptin in subjects with varying degrees of chronic renal impairment compared to subjects with normal renal function. The study included patients with renal impairment classified on the basis of creatinine clearance (based on the Cockcroft-Gault formula) as mild (> 50 to ≤ 80 ml/min), moderate (≥ 30 to ≤ 50 ml/min), or severe (< 30 ml/min), as well as patients with ESRD on haemodialysis. The degree of renal impairment did not affect the Cmax of saxagliptin or its major metabolite. In subjects with mild renal impairment, the mean AUC values of saxagliptin and its major metabolite were 1.2- and 1.7 -fold higher, respectively, than mean AUC values in subjects with normal renal function. Because increases of this magnitude are not clinically relevant, dose adjustment in patients with mild renal impairment is not recommended. In subjects with moderate or severe renal impairment or in subjects with ESRD on haemodialysis, the AUC values of saxagliptin and its major metabolite were up to 2.1- and 4.5-fold higher, respectively, than AUC values in subjects with normal renal function. The dose of Onglyza should be reduced to 2.5 mg once daily in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).
Hepatic impairmentIn subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class A), moderate (Child-Pugh Class B), or severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment the exposures to saxagliptin were 1.1-, 1.4- and 1.8-fold higher, respectively, and the exposures to BMS-510849 were 22%, 7%, and 33% lower, respectively, than those observed in healthy subjects.Elderly patients(≥ 65 years)Elderly patients (65-80 years) had about 60% higher saxagliptin AUC than young patients (18-40 years). This is not considered clinically meaningful, therefore, no dose adjustment for Onglyza is recommended on the basis of age alone.
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